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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

The Development of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles: Emergence and Development of the Patent Network

Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(3), 611-622;
Published: 30 September 2016
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In this paper, we investigate the global R&D network that emerged from EV and HEV technology development by firms and universities from 1998 to 2010. We visualize and analyze the development of the relevant (joint) patent network and uncover some of the key R&D dynamics within the automotive industry, such as the evolution of the R&D network over time, open innovation dynamics and university-industry collaborations. We use traditional network analytics and find that the R&D network initially became less interconnected. In recent years, we see the network tightening again and being controlled by the large OEMs, this suggests that the move towards open innovation is relative and that technologies and markets are maturing. At the same time, the network became more international and universities start being part of the network. The findings of this paper allow for assessing the relative position of each company in EV and HEV R&D network, as a result we can uncover the powerful organizations in the networks: those networks that control the knowledge generated by and flowing through the industry. The database developed within the framework of this research allows for developing an optimal network strategy both for incumbents or new entrants such as start-ups or universities.
Keywords: R&D; innovation; Japan; EV; HEV R&D; innovation; Japan; EV; HEV
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Crispeels, T.; Robert, D.; Verbeke, W.; Coosemans, T.; Van Mierlo, J. The Development of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles: Emergence and Development of the Patent Network. World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8, 611-622.

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