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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

Table of Contents

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 8, Issue 1 (March 2016) , Pages 1-314

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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Fuel Cell and Storage System Improvement on Fuel Consumption and Cost
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 305-314; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010305 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 265
Abstract
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) is developing more energyefficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will enable America to use less petroleum. The VTP includes studies of the potential benefit of advanced technologies and also attempts to [...] Read more.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) is developing more energyefficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will enable America to use less petroleum. The VTP includes studies of the potential benefit of advanced technologies and also attempts to clarify and refine the requirements for vehicle components. Owing to the large number of component and powertrain technologies considered, the benefits of the VTP research and development portfolio were simulated using Autonomie, Argonne National Laboratory’s vehicle simulation tool. This paper evaluates advanced fuel cell and hydrogen storage systems for a midsize car in different model years, in conjunction with advancements in the rest of the powertrain, as part of DOE baseline and scenario analysis (BaSce). In addition, this paper quantifies the fuel displacement and costs of advanced hydrogen storage and fuel cell systems, without considering advancements in the rest of the powertrain. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Data Management for Geographically and Temporally Rich Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle “Big Data”
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 293-304; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010293 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 410
Abstract
The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and its project partners have developed some of the highest resolution and most complete Light- and Medium-Duty Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Truck operational data for Odyne and Via trucks. This data was collected through a CDMA / [...] Read more.
The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and its project partners have developed some of the highest resolution and most complete Light- and Medium-Duty Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Truck operational data for Odyne and Via trucks. This data was collected through a CDMA / GMS transmitter plugged into the CAN communication bus of the fleet. This paper discusses the process of transforming these raw datasets into a scientific database of driving and charging events using data quality management, filtering, processing and decision support tool development. The result is a dataset with demonstrable utility for vehicle design, policy analysis, and operator feedback. Full article
Open AccessArticle
EP Tender: Enabling to Drive 98% Electric, at the Same TCO and Convenience as 100% ICE
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 281-292; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010281 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 232
Abstract
Are electric vehicles capable of long distance trips? Yes, but with major sacrifice: either recharge several times en route, with a trip which takes about twice the time of an ICE vehicle, or make a significant capital investment in a large battery and [...] Read more.
Are electric vehicles capable of long distance trips? Yes, but with major sacrifice: either recharge several times en route, with a trip which takes about twice the time of an ICE vehicle, or make a significant capital investment in a large battery and vehicle. Not surprisingly both options are a major hindrance to wide EV dissemination. Developing range extending services for Electric vehicles via energy modules is an attractive option. It resolves the above conundrum by providing peak range at a marginal cost which is commensurate to the marginal usage: peak range is required only 2% of the time! [1] [2] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Study on Power Management Strategy of HEV using Dynamic Programming
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 274-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010274 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 299
Abstract
For hybrid electric vehicle, it is necessary to control power distribution among multiple power sources to improve fuel economy performance of vehicle. In this paper, power management strategy of hybrid electric vehicle using Dynamic programming is studied. Deterministic dynamic programming could present outstanding [...] Read more.
For hybrid electric vehicle, it is necessary to control power distribution among multiple power sources to improve fuel economy performance of vehicle. In this paper, power management strategy of hybrid electric vehicle using Dynamic programming is studied. Deterministic dynamic programming could present outstanding fuel economy, while its application as real time control of vehicle is limited. Thus, different kinds of power management strategy using dynamic programming are studied. Stochastic dynamic programming, artificial neural networks and rule-based power management strategy using results from dynamic programming are studied. Simulations using parallel type hybrid electric vehicle model are conducted. Simulation results including fuel economy performance on diverse driving cycles are compared and analysed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Study on Energy System Configuration of Wireless In-Wheel Motor with Supercapacitor
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 263-273; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010263 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 402
Abstract
In-Wheel Motor (IWM) have been proposed to increase an efficiency and controllability of electric vehicle (EV). However, a risk of disconnection of power lines have been considered as a fundamental problem of IWM. Therefore, we proposed Wireless In-Wheel Motor (W-IWM) to solve this [...] Read more.
In-Wheel Motor (IWM) have been proposed to increase an efficiency and controllability of electric vehicle (EV). However, a risk of disconnection of power lines have been considered as a fundamental problem of IWM. Therefore, we proposed Wireless In-Wheel Motor (W-IWM) to solve this problem radically by using Wireless Power Transfer (WPT). In this paper, an advanced system of W-IWM which has multiple power sources, supercapacitor and dynamic charging circuit on its wheel side is proposed for a more effective operation. Additionally, a power-flow control of the advanced system is proposed and is verified by simulations and experiments. Furthermore, efficiency of the proposed system is investigated. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electric Vehicles: Impacts of Mileage Accumulation and Fast Charging
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 249-262; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010249 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 299
Abstract
The impact of mileage accumulation and fast charging on driving range and battery energy of a light-duty battery electric vehicle (BEV), commercially available in North America, is being investigated. Two identical model BEVs are undergoing mileage accumulation on-road in Ottawa, Canada as well [...] Read more.
The impact of mileage accumulation and fast charging on driving range and battery energy of a light-duty battery electric vehicle (BEV), commercially available in North America, is being investigated. Two identical model BEVs are undergoing mileage accumulation on-road in Ottawa, Canada as well as testing on a chassis dynamometer in accordance with the SAE J1634 recommended test procedures. BEV1 is charged exclusively on DC fast-charging (DCFC) and BEV2 is charged exclusively on SAE AC Level 2 (ACL2). At the time of writing, the BEVs have been tested initially at 1,600 km, and then again after mileage accumulation to 15,000 km. Baseline results indicate that the two BEVs had a similar initial performance, and after 15,000 km the vehicles continue to have a similar driving range and useable battery energy despite the different charging methods. Both vehicles did, however, show decreased useable battery energy and recharge energy after 15,000 km of mileage accumulation and the resulting decrease in driving range varied between 0.4 and 13% depending on test conditions; these changes were not always statistically significant. Further testing is planned at approximately 15,000 km intervals up to 105,000 km. The next round of testing, at 34,000 km, will follow mileage accumulation at cold temperature, during an Ottawa, Canada winter. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Bidirectional Charge- and Traction-System
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 237-248; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010237 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 358
Abstract
The field of fast charging is diverse. Many solutions use dedicated additional costly components for each charging type. To push the E-Mobility market, a new system for charging is proposed comprising of E-Machine, Inverter and Boost DC/DC converter with a minimum of additional [...] Read more.
The field of fast charging is diverse. Many solutions use dedicated additional costly components for each charging type. To push the E-Mobility market, a new system for charging is proposed comprising of E-Machine, Inverter and Boost DC/DC converter with a minimum of additional components. The new Bidirectional Charge- and Traction-System (BCTS) is capable for traction and all kinds of conductive charging with reduced system costs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Demand for Renting Electric Vehicles in Canada: A Stated Preference Choice Approach
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 225-236; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010225 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 238
Abstract
The introduction of electric vehicles (EV) is considered by many as an effective solution to alleviate petroleum dependency; however, the number of EVs in the current market remains scarce despite of its potential benefits. Many studies have been conducted to identify and assess [...] Read more.
The introduction of electric vehicles (EV) is considered by many as an effective solution to alleviate petroleum dependency; however, the number of EVs in the current market remains scarce despite of its potential benefits. Many studies have been conducted to identify and assess various factors that significantly affect EV ownership. In contrary, little has been done regarding the potential EV adoption for commercial fleets. This paper addresses this limitation by focusing on rental vehicles. It is found that rental cost, vehicle attributes (e.g. maximum range and recharging time), and attitudinal statements have significant effect on EV rental choice. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Online Prediction of Battery Electric Vehicle Energy Consumption
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 213-224; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010213 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 364
Abstract
The energy consumption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) depends on a number of factors, such as vehicle characteristics, driving behavior, route information, traffic states and weather conditions. The variance of these factors and the correlation among each other make the energy consumption prediction [...] Read more.
The energy consumption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) depends on a number of factors, such as vehicle characteristics, driving behavior, route information, traffic states and weather conditions. The variance of these factors and the correlation among each other make the energy consumption prediction of BEVs difficult. This paper presents an online algorithm to adjust the energy consumption prediction during driving. It includes a vehicle parameter estimation algorithm and a driving behavior correction algorithm. The vehicle parameter estimation algorithm can assess the vehicle mass and rolling resistance during driving. The driving behavior correction algorithm can adjust the energy consumption prediction based on the current driving behavior, and considers the influence of wind and road slope. The online energy consumption prediction algorithm is verified by 21 driving tests, including highway, city, rural and hilly area tests. The comparison shows that the mean absolute percentage error between the actual energy consumption value and online prediction result is within 5% for every test. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Energy Consumption of an Electrified Light Duty Vehicle by considering the Link Voltage’s Variation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 201-212; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010201 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 211
Abstract
The present paper outlines an analysis of the energy consumption of a light commercial vehicle that is powered purely electrically by an induction machine. The question was to what extent energy consumption is impacted by two defined aspects: On the one hand these [...] Read more.
The present paper outlines an analysis of the energy consumption of a light commercial vehicle that is powered purely electrically by an induction machine. The question was to what extent energy consumption is impacted by two defined aspects: On the one hand these are different control concepts for the traction machine and on the other hand varying link voltage. At first the influence of the controls on the energy consumption of the drive unit will be analyzed, followed by an efficiency analysis that takes into account the different controls at varying link voltage. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Reducing the Peak-to-average Power Ratio for Electric Vehicles using Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HESS)
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 196-200; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010196 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 312
Abstract
In this paper, a simple but innovative algorithm is developed to effectively reduce peak-to-average power ratio for electric vehicles powered by battery pack (BP) alone under real-life load fluctuation. A convertersupercapacitor pack (SP) coupled Hybrid Energy Storage topology upon which such algorithm is [...] Read more.
In this paper, a simple but innovative algorithm is developed to effectively reduce peak-to-average power ratio for electric vehicles powered by battery pack (BP) alone under real-life load fluctuation. A convertersupercapacitor pack (SP) coupled Hybrid Energy Storage topology upon which such algorithm is deployed is proposed to divert excess power that would otherwise damage BP into SP via power converter (PC) in a regulated fashion. Along with the algorithm itself, a simplified HESS model is also developed in Matlab to validate such algorithm and simulation results prove its effectiveness across various real-life drive cycles with significantly extended battery lifecycle. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Design of a Modular Swift-shift Multi-speed Transmission with Double Dual Clutches for Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 184-195; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010184 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 308
Abstract
In this paper a novel concept of modular swift-shift multi-speed transmission with double dual clutches is proposed, with its architecture, simulation and control strategies discussed in detail. Due to its modularity, the desired number of gear ratios can be readily realized by adding [...] Read more.
In this paper a novel concept of modular swift-shift multi-speed transmission with double dual clutches is proposed, with its architecture, simulation and control strategies discussed in detail. Due to its modularity, the desired number of gear ratios can be readily realized by adding the appropriate number of modules. Further, in this design, both the underdrive and the overdrive modes are combined within one single gear train, which reduces the overall volume and weight significantly. Due to its modularity and compactness, this transmission is suitable for electric vehicles, especially commercial fleets of medium- and heavy-duty electric trucks. A proof-of-concept testbed was developed; its preliminary simulation analysis is reported here. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electric and Hybrid Electric Non-Road Mobile Machinery – Present Situation and Future Trends
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 172-183; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010172 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 401
Abstract
Electrification of non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) is a growing trend. This paper highlights the potential of electric and hybrid powertrains in different NRMM sectors and elaborates the factors that may hinder the development. The NRMM sectors, the vehicle types, their operation and duty [...] Read more.
Electrification of non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) is a growing trend. This paper highlights the potential of electric and hybrid powertrains in different NRMM sectors and elaborates the factors that may hinder the development. The NRMM sectors, the vehicle types, their operation and duty cycles and market shares are described. Comparison between the typical duty cycles and operation of on-road and off-road vehicles is performed in order to gain insight into the specific features of off-road vehicles. The development of NRMM is subject to various drivers that range from customer needs to fuel and energy prices and rules and legislation. The main results of our study are 1) a review of the present status and analysis of the future trends and potential of electrification and hybridization of NRMM and, 2) propositions for overcoming the challenges that are related to the electrification and hybridization of NRMM. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Winning Approach: Selection Criteria for Competitive Battery Powered Racing Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 160-171; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010160 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 244
Abstract
This paper presents a systematic approach for optimal selection of race discipline and race format to develop a battery powered racing vehicle that is competitive with internal combustion vehicles. The main limitation for battery powered vehicles is the mass of the battery that [...] Read more.
This paper presents a systematic approach for optimal selection of race discipline and race format to develop a battery powered racing vehicle that is competitive with internal combustion vehicles. The main limitation for battery powered vehicles is the mass of the battery that grows directly with race duration, and the break-even point is currently around 10 minutes. However, battery powered vehicles have other advantages such as indifference to altitude, superior traction control, and moldability of the drivetrain for aerodynamic advantage or for optimal weight distribution, making them highly competitive in certain disciplines such as land speed racing and hill climb. Full article
Open AccessArticle
EVS29 Symposium Montréal, Québec, Canada, June 19-22, 2016
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 151-159; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010151 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 274
Abstract
This paper examines the possibility of establishing an electric car-sharing program in New York, of the type that the French firm Bolloré articulated in France (Autolib) and in Indianapolis (Blue-Indy). It examines the current role of electric vehicles (EVs) in the global automobile [...] Read more.
This paper examines the possibility of establishing an electric car-sharing program in New York, of the type that the French firm Bolloré articulated in France (Autolib) and in Indianapolis (Blue-Indy). It examines the current role of electric vehicles (EVs) in the global automobile industry. It explores how New York State and City policies could work in favor or against the establishment of a car-sharing program. It presents the opinions of energy and sustainability experts on electricity supply. Finally, this paper considers how an electric car-sharing system could fit into the ongoing reconfiguration of New York City’s Metropolitan Transit Authority. Full article
Open AccessArticle
City Buses with Alternative Power Trains under Realistic Driving Conditions
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 139-150; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010139 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 303
Abstract
City buses with hybrid and battery electric power trains as well as conventional reference vehicles have been examined using a standardized methodology, mainly focusing on exhaust and noise emissions, overall energy efficiency and operational availability. A combination of realistic test drives on bus [...] Read more.
City buses with hybrid and battery electric power trains as well as conventional reference vehicles have been examined using a standardized methodology, mainly focusing on exhaust and noise emissions, overall energy efficiency and operational availability. A combination of realistic test drives on bus lanes, test track runs, long term data acquisition and simulation has been utilized to conduct a complete assessment of the technology. First results indicate an improvement over conventional city buses in every technical area. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid Electric Fuel Cell Minibus: Drive Test
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 131-138; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010131 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 305
Abstract
Meeting the worldwide energy demand for the present and future transportation systems with the least impact on the environment is a big challenge. In the i-NEXT (Innovation for greeN Energy and eXchange in Transportation) project a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle (FCHEV) minibus [...] Read more.
Meeting the worldwide energy demand for the present and future transportation systems with the least impact on the environment is a big challenge. In the i-NEXT (Innovation for greeN Energy and eXchange in Transportation) project a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle (FCHEV) minibus for people transportation has been implemented. This paper reports some preliminary test drive. The vehicle architecture has been developed considering that, both recharge time and autonomy of a purely electric vehicle are operational limits, and the fuel cell technology is able to enhance these parameters. An electric engine with lithium ion batteries and a 20 kW Fuel Cell System characterize the vehicle. The test drive has been carried out in Capo d’Orlando municipality (Sicily) allowing the acquisition of key data. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Vehicle Management and Travel Data Analysis of E-Bus Adopted in JR Kesennuma Line
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 122-130; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010122 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 245
Abstract
When putting electric buses into practice in mass transit systems, the vehicle state management becomes a vital factor in the realization of a stable commercial operation. Aiming at achieving a sound bus operation, we installed a vehicle monitoring system on our own conversion [...] Read more.
When putting electric buses into practice in mass transit systems, the vehicle state management becomes a vital factor in the realization of a stable commercial operation. Aiming at achieving a sound bus operation, we installed a vehicle monitoring system on our own conversion E-Bus and realized remote vehicle control and driving data logging. In this manuscript, we are presenting a track record of the E-Bus and the vehicle monitoring system introduced in the JR (Japan Railway) Kesennuma Line which was severely hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 and later temporarily restored as the BRT (Bus Rapid Transit). Full article
Open AccessArticle
Influence of In-Wheel Motors Weight on a Swing-Arm Dynamic, Evaluation of Ride Comfort and Handling
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 112-121; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010112 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 253
Abstract
This paper presents a model aiming at describing the influence of an additional mass on an urban vehicle. The impact of an in-wheel motor on the road holding performances and vehicle comfortableness, for which criteria have been defined, has been studied on a [...] Read more.
This paper presents a model aiming at describing the influence of an additional mass on an urban vehicle. The impact of an in-wheel motor on the road holding performances and vehicle comfortableness, for which criteria have been defined, has been studied on a swingarm and compared to a standard configuration (vertical suspension). Simulations have been carried out using Matlab Simulink and a comparison has been made using several obstacles as well as different types of roads. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Two-wheel Driven Power Train for Improved Safety and Efficiency in Electric Motorbikes
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 102-111; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010102 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 376
Abstract
In this contribution, additional degrees of freedom resulting from an additional motor in the front wheel (all-wheel driven motorbike) are used within newly developed methods for enhancing safety and energy efficiency. All algorithms have been developed with respect to realtime capability on a [...] Read more.
In this contribution, additional degrees of freedom resulting from an additional motor in the front wheel (all-wheel driven motorbike) are used within newly developed methods for enhancing safety and energy efficiency. All algorithms have been developed with respect to realtime capability on a ECU. The basis of the investigations is a test vehicle based on a commercially available electric moped, whose power train was modified for the research purposes with the support of industry partners. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Lyn Okse: An Electric Utility Vehicle with Off-Highway Capability
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 90-101; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010090 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Designed by students and faculty at Western Washington University’s Vehicle Research Institute, the Lyn Okse (“Lightning Ox”) electric vehicle targets the needs of the campus Facilities Management organization’s grounds crews, maintenance and skilled-trades workers. The vehicle combines Neighborhood Electric Vehicle capability with a [...] Read more.
Designed by students and faculty at Western Washington University’s Vehicle Research Institute, the Lyn Okse (“Lightning Ox”) electric vehicle targets the needs of the campus Facilities Management organization’s grounds crews, maintenance and skilled-trades workers. The vehicle combines Neighborhood Electric Vehicle capability with a large cockpit to encourage the replacement of US Department of Transportation Class 1 trucks (Gross Vehicle Weight Rating less than 2679 kg) while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Vehicle user interface design was developed in collaboration with Facilities staff using student conducted focal follows and ethnography. User experience aimed to identify current use, current vehicle limitations and imagined future use in three contexts; loading, driving and worksite operation. The two passenger vehicle features a cab-forward design to limit wheelbase length to less than 2489 mm while maintaining a minimum 1829 mm cargo bed length and an 8 m curb-to-curb turning circle. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Driving an Industry: Medium and Heavy Duty Fuel Cell Electric Truck Component Sizing
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 78-89; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010078 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 412
Abstract
Medium and heavy duty (MD and HD respectively) vehicles are responsible for 26 percent of the total U.S. transportation petroleum consumption [1]. Hydrogen fuel cells have demonstrated value as part of a portfolio of strategies for reducing petroleum use and emissions from MD [...] Read more.
Medium and heavy duty (MD and HD respectively) vehicles are responsible for 26 percent of the total U.S. transportation petroleum consumption [1]. Hydrogen fuel cells have demonstrated value as part of a portfolio of strategies for reducing petroleum use and emissions from MD and HD vehicles [2] [3], but their performance and range capabilities, and associated component sizing remain less clear when compared to other powertrains. This paper examines the suitability of converting a representative sample of MD and HD diesel trucks into Fuel Cell Electric Trucks (FCETs), while ensuring the same truck performance, in terms of range, payload, acceleration, speed, gradeability and fuel economy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
From Paper to Product: Engineering a 27,000 kg Fully Electric Mobile Railcar Mover in 6 Months
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 69-77; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010069 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 260
Abstract
In this paper, the authors present the challenges & opportunities behind the engineering of a fully-electric mobile railcar mover. We present how building the right toolbox of simulation software, proper analysis and understanding of the duty cycle and usage of unconventional vehicles allows [...] Read more.
In this paper, the authors present the challenges & opportunities behind the engineering of a fully-electric mobile railcar mover. We present how building the right toolbox of simulation software, proper analysis and understanding of the duty cycle and usage of unconventional vehicles allows us to tap into their electrification potential. The authors showcase a step-by-step approach, from paper to product, simulation to assembly, of the challenges, opportunities, economic and environmental advantages of electrification. Finding the proper candidate for electrification is key – and we’ll show how we did it all in just 6 months. The end result is a fully electric railcar mover which outperforms its diesel counterpart in many aspects. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Results of Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 57-68; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010057 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 309
Abstract
The Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funding as well as the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD). The purpose of [...] Read more.
The Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funding as well as the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD). The purpose of the program was to develop a path to mitigate plug-in hybrid vehicle technology to medium-duty vehicles by demonstrating and evaluating in diverse applications. The program allows the fleets to develop interest in the technology. The 62 participants have deployed these vehicles into the field with their operators to achieve real—life experience with the vehicles in 23 different states. A total of 296 vehicles were delivered to the field prior to July 2015. This paper provides the results from the analysis of the data generated by these vehicles. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electric Truck & Bus Grid Integration, Opportunities, Challenges & Recommendations
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 45-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010045 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 298
Abstract
CALSTART researched and analyzed the opportunities and challenges faced by the medium and heavyduty electric truck market. E-Trucks & Buses present unique challenges and opportunities compared to light-duty EVs. In particular, current utility rate structures can discourage fleets from adopting E-Trucks & Buses. [...] Read more.
CALSTART researched and analyzed the opportunities and challenges faced by the medium and heavyduty electric truck market. E-Trucks & Buses present unique challenges and opportunities compared to light-duty EVs. In particular, current utility rate structures can discourage fleets from adopting E-Trucks & Buses. Charging has to support vehicle operation and cannot easily be shifted. In addition, demand charges can be prohibitively costly for early deployments. Lastly, charging infrastructure is a limiting factor for further vehicle adoption. Innovative utility rates and public utility commission policy changes are necessary to enable the further expansion of the E-Truck & Bus market. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Current Challenges and Outlook of Electric Snowmobile Technology - Lessons from Clean Snowmobile Challenge
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 40-44; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010040 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Although an electric snowmobile can be constructed, there are several technical challenges to make it viable for end-users. The energy requirements are extremely variable and depend on the weather conditions. Both temperature and snow conditions add to the complexity. The battery life will [...] Read more.
Although an electric snowmobile can be constructed, there are several technical challenges to make it viable for end-users. The energy requirements are extremely variable and depend on the weather conditions. Both temperature and snow conditions add to the complexity. The battery life will be shortened in extreme conditions. For example, the snow conditions cause changes to the rolling resistance as shown Figure 1. Current electric snowmobiles have not been able to use less than 200 Wh/mi. The snowmobile can be designed to take on energy denser batteries that will be developed eventually, however currently there is limited volume contained within the snowmobile to store the batteries. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Two-motor, Two-axle Traction System for Full Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 25-39; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010025 - 25 Mar 2016
Viewed by 320
Abstract
The paper deals with the description of a low voltage, two-battery pack, two-motor, two-axle powertrain configuration for a full performance compact electric car. It gives an analytical method for selecting the two different drives for front and rear axle, a performance and economical [...] Read more.
The paper deals with the description of a low voltage, two-battery pack, two-motor, two-axle powertrain configuration for a full performance compact electric car. It gives an analytical method for selecting the two different drives for front and rear axle, a performance and economical evaluation criteria for choosing the low voltage active components and gives details about the power stage layout of the traction inverter. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of real-world Driving Cycles for Battery Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 14-24; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010014 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 438
Abstract
Driving cycles are used in various aspects of vehicle development and for the homologation of new vehicles. The character and duration of a cycle have a huge impact on the energy consumption for longitudinal dynamics and comfort functions. Current driving cycles are widely [...] Read more.
Driving cycles are used in various aspects of vehicle development and for the homologation of new vehicles. The character and duration of a cycle have a huge impact on the energy consumption for longitudinal dynamics and comfort functions. Current driving cycles are widely criticised for their insufficient representation of real-world driving, especially for battery electric vehicles (BEV). Therefore we developed three driving cycles for BEV that are based on empiric data from a large-scale field operational test with electric vehicles (project CROME) for future application in research and policy making. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Feasibility of a Pan-Canadian Network of DC Fast Charging Stations for EVs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 1-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010001 - 25 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 378
Abstract
In the Summer and Fall 2015, the authors studied the business case for investing in a Direct Current Fast Charging (DCFC) infrastructure in Canada for the benefit of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. This paper summarizes our research findings in [...] Read more.
In the Summer and Fall 2015, the authors studied the business case for investing in a Direct Current Fast Charging (DCFC) infrastructure in Canada for the benefit of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. This paper summarizes our research findings in four areas: Cost of DCFCs, expected utilization of DCFCs, benefits and co-benefits of DCFC stations, evaluation of the business case for DCFCs across Canada. Full article
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