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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Electric and Hybrid Electric Non-Road Mobile Machinery – Present Situation and Future Trends

1
Aalto University, School of Engineering, PL 14300, 00076, AALTO, Finland
2
Hybria Oy, Menninkäisentie 5A, 02110, Espoo, Finland
3
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8(1), 172-183; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj8010172
Published: 25 March 2016
PDF [1181 KB, uploaded 14 May 2018]

Abstract

Electrification of non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) is a growing trend. This paper highlights the potential of electric and hybrid powertrains in different NRMM sectors and elaborates the factors that may hinder the development. The NRMM sectors, the vehicle types, their operation and duty cycles and market shares are described. Comparison between the typical duty cycles and operation of on-road and off-road vehicles is performed in order to gain insight into the specific features of off-road vehicles. The development of NRMM is subject to various drivers that range from customer needs to fuel and energy prices and rules and legislation. The main results of our study are 1) a review of the present status and analysis of the future trends and potential of electrification and hybridization of NRMM and, 2) propositions for overcoming the challenges that are related to the electrification and hybridization of NRMM.
Keywords: hybrid powertrain; electric powertrain; non-road mobile machinery; hybridization; emissions hybrid powertrain; electric powertrain; non-road mobile machinery; hybridization; emissions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lajunen, A.; Suomela, J.; Pippuri, J.; Tammi, K.; Lehmuspelto, T.; Sainio, P. Electric and Hybrid Electric Non-Road Mobile Machinery – Present Situation and Future Trends. World Electr. Veh. J. 2016, 8, 172-183.

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