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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

Table of Contents

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2015) , Pages 489-746

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Open AccessArticle
How activism matters for creating the electromobility 2.0 industry?
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 742-746; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040742 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 250
Abstract
We are currently witnessing the re-introduction of EVs into the market, the increase in R&D expenditures by battery manufacturers, the emergence of new mobility players who do not belong to the traditional auto industry, as well as the activism of lobbyists defending the [...] Read more.
We are currently witnessing the re-introduction of EVs into the market, the increase in R&D expenditures by battery manufacturers, the emergence of new mobility players who do not belong to the traditional auto industry, as well as the activism of lobbyists defending the development of a clean, collaborative or smart mobility. All of this begs again the question: are EVs the signs of a new emerging industry? This research is founded on a review of existing literature on business strategy, so as to identify those elements which are necessary to enlarge firm boundaries in an emerging industry, namely those linked to reputation and activism to empower. Our paper then analyses two business cases: Tesla Motors and Better Place. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Global Opportunities for Small/Medium Enterprises in emobility (GO4SEM)
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 733-741; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040733 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Europe has successfully extended its competencies in key enabling technologies for electric mobility in recent years, especially in the field of information and communication technologies, components and systems (ICT). Small and medium size companies (SMEs) have played a crucial role as sources of [...] Read more.
Europe has successfully extended its competencies in key enabling technologies for electric mobility in recent years, especially in the field of information and communication technologies, components and systems (ICT). Small and medium size companies (SMEs) have played a crucial role as sources of creativity at all stages of the supply chain. Given the new supply chains for e-mobility being established worldwide, many potential target markets are located outside of Europe, e.g. in highly innovative regions such as the United States, Japan and South Korea or in emerging markets like China and India. In light of this situation, “Global Opportunities for Small and Medium Size Companies in Electric Mobility” (GO4SEM), coordinated by the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and the European Association of Automotive Suppliers (CLEPA), is aimed at giving policy advice to sustain and enhance the successful access of European SME’s in supply chains in the abovementioned global markets. For this purpose the GO4SEM consortium (consisting of SMEs and regional clusters, Tier-1 automotive suppliers, and research institutions from all around Europe) intends to spread awareness of international market developments and technological trends in the electric mobility context, triggering an engagement of European SMEs in global FEV value chains by indicating potential and to show opportunities for bringing in expert knowledge. Furthermore, recommendations on standardization, education, and research matters are formulated. In a broader sense, the project will support to strengthen the global competitiveness of the European industry being active in the domain of electric mobility by linking the relevant stakeholders, preparing them for and increasing the awareness of the opportunities and challenges of worldwide developments. This contribution will present the output of the first term of the project. Firstly, in terms of mapping the global e-mobility supply chains and identifying possible entry points considering the above-mentioned target markets. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Early adopters of electric vehicles in Germany unveiled
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 722-732; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040722 - 28 Dec 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 512
Abstract
The socioeconomic characteristics of early adopters of electric vehicles (EVs) differ from those of buyers of conventional vehicles, as do their attitudes towards new technologies, their mobility, and their awareness of ecological issues. They are found to have a higher average income, a [...] Read more.
The socioeconomic characteristics of early adopters of electric vehicles (EVs) differ from those of buyers of conventional vehicles, as do their attitudes towards new technologies, their mobility, and their awareness of ecological issues. They are found to have a higher average income, a higher level of education and more cars at their disposal per household. However, most of the existing studies are based on small samples, or used stated preference surveys which attempted to describe potential purchasers of EVs. Furthermore, when it comes to the kind of EV, most of the studies analyse the adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) only, with just a few looking at the adoption of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). An analysis of representative data collected from more than 3,000 owners of BEVs and PHEVs in Germany partially confirms the findings mentioned, but finds that aspects such as socioeconomic characteristics and their attitudes vary greatly among EV users.
First the paper gives an overview of the socioeconomics of EV drivers in Germany, and key facts about their driving and charging behaviour. Subsequently, the main factors motivating people to buy an EV are identified and analysed for owners of BEVs and PHEVs. This is complemented by an analysis of general attitudes of EV owners towards factors such as the image of EVs, environmental awareness and mode choice. To conclude, the willingness to pay for technologies such as fast-charging, inductive charging and battery size selection is analysed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Policy strategies for an emergent technology: lessons from the analysis of EV-policy in 8 North- European countries
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 710-721; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040710 - 28 Dec 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 306
Abstract
This paper presents data from a comparative study of EV-policies in 8 different North-European countries, that maps out all of the policies of these countries (and a range of regions and cities) that target passenger vehicles (PHEV and BEV), chargers (home, private, public; [...] Read more.
This paper presents data from a comparative study of EV-policies in 8 different North-European countries, that maps out all of the policies of these countries (and a range of regions and cities) that target passenger vehicles (PHEV and BEV), chargers (home, private, public; level 1-3), and policies that target the emobility eco-system or supporting network, in time-period 2012-2014. The main findings are that 1) there is wide variance of policies put out by the different countries, 2) these policies are hardly part of a coherent policy-strategy, and 3) mainly address the introduction of e-mobility as an issue of "piling up" enough incentives to overcome early market problems (e.g. high costs, reticent customers, slow adaptation of regulation). Most countries we studied were able to meet short-term policy-ambitions, and some have even surpassed those ambitions; Netherlands and Norway for instance are ahead of their targets, both in numbers of vehicles and chargers. However, if we compare the currently applied policies to the medium- and longer term ambitions, these policies are hardly viable. Therefore, argue for alternative policy strategies that do not "pile up" incentives, but look at "mixes" of policies that instigate a self-reinforcing loop in the adoption to EV's. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Local measures to encourage the widespread uptake of low emission vehicles: learning from the UK and global good practice
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 703-709; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040703 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 233
Abstract
A range of local assets and powers can be harnessed to encourage the take up of low emission vehicles. These typically fall outside the direct control of national governments, being managed by local authorities and linked local and regional actors from both the [...] Read more.
A range of local assets and powers can be harnessed to encourage the take up of low emission vehicles. These typically fall outside the direct control of national governments, being managed by local authorities and linked local and regional actors from both the public and private sector. This paper discusses the major findings from a recent project to understand the measures available to local authorities in the United Kingdom to encourage the use of low emission vehicles. The project developed a framework guidance document to support the planning and implementation of local measures and coordinate actions to avoid a patchwork of approaches being adopted by local authorities across the UK. The framework has been developed through interviews, surveys and a comprehensive review of measures being implemented in the UK, North America and across Europe. This considers measures that have been successful, had limited impact and which hold significant promise. It also recognises the need to consider unique local conditions and the priorities of individual local authorities in implementing such measures. The study also investigated major barriers and provided insights as to how these may be removed or overcome. Measures considered in the study include: access to priority lanes, planning and development frameworks, infrastructure provision, parking, taxis, car sharing and procurement. A number of different measures have been identified in each of these areas with corresponding recommendations for implementation and examples of good practice. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study on Electric Vehicle Policies between Korea and EU Countries
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 692-702; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040692 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 246
Abstract
To significantly reduce greenhouse gas, the Korean government announced an ambitious EV deployment plan in 2010. According to that plan, one millions EVs would be provided by 2020. However, the target of EV deployment was not achieved despite strong political support. As a [...] Read more.
To significantly reduce greenhouse gas, the Korean government announced an ambitious EV deployment plan in 2010. According to that plan, one millions EVs would be provided by 2020. However, the target of EV deployment was not achieved despite strong political support. As a result, the government modified the initial plan by reducing the target number of EVs from 1 million to 200,000. Many EV experts thought the issue arose from poor policy framework and implementation process. The purpose of this paper is to find relevant policy direction in Korea by comparing the policy formulation and implementation process between EU countries and Korea. Concerning policy formulation, we examined the legislation and planning process to know what to prepare for successful EV policy framework. And for the policy implementing process, we analyzed various incentive measures on how to stimulate the deployment of EV. With comparative research results EV policy implications are drawn. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Investigating factors affecting electric vehicles adoption: an aggregated panel data analysis over U.S. states
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 681-691; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040681 - 28 Dec 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 308
Abstract
Increasing the usage of electric vehicles has been proposed as a policy to decrease aggregate fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in an effort to mitigate the causes of climate change. In order to increase the attraction of electric vehicles for consumers, [...] Read more.
Increasing the usage of electric vehicles has been proposed as a policy to decrease aggregate fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in an effort to mitigate the causes of climate change. In order to increase the attraction of electric vehicles for consumers, governments have employed a number of incentives. In this study, the relationship between shares of electric vehicle and the presence of government incentives as well as other influential socio-economic factors were examined. The methodology of this study is based on a cross-sectional/time-series (panel) analysis. The developed model is an aggregated binomial logit share model that estimates the modal split between EV and conventional vehicles for different U.S. states from 2003 to 2011. The model was estimated using different panel data methods and the results were compared. The results demonstrated that electricity prices were negatively associated with EV use while, urban roads and government incentives were positively correlated with states’ electric vehicle market share. Sensitivity analysis suggested that of these factors, electricity price affects electric vehicle adoption rate the most. According to the sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle adoption rate, state of Vermont has the most sensitivity with respect to electricity price and New Jersey is the most sensitive state with respect to urban roads and incentives. Moreover, the time trend model analysis found that the electric vehicle adoption has been increasing over time, which is consistent with diffusion of new technology theory. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Innovative practice of EV-carsharing in China for urban E-mobility
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 670-680; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040670 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 290
Abstract
EV-Carsharing (called as ‘EV-Timesharing’ in China) has been rapidly developing with the 2nd round National EV promotion and application project in 88 Chinese EV pilot cities authorized by Central Governments from 2013. While EV-Carsharing has been launching in more than 10 cities by [...] Read more.
EV-Carsharing (called as ‘EV-Timesharing’ in China) has been rapidly developing with the 2nd round National EV promotion and application project in 88 Chinese EV pilot cities authorized by Central Governments from 2013. While EV-Carsharing has been launching in more than 10 cities by end of 2014, Central Governments will select 4 as demonstration cities from 2015 and give special support to help them integrate EV-Carsharing into urban E-mobility more successfully. Recognizing importance and benefit for energy conservation, emission and traffic congestion reduction from EV-Carsharing, encouraged by Central Governments and pilot cities, more and more cities are preparing for EV-Carsharing to develop local EV industry and expand usage for urban E-mobility.
This report is based on deep understanding of Chinese EV Pilot City as the biggest background for EV-Carsharing’s boom in China in past 2 years. Through conducting comparative studies, field investigation, survey, expert interview, data collection and analysis, this report comprehensively summarizes latest status of EV-Carsharing in China and some typical practice in different cities and highlights successful experience as well as barriers on key dimensions for EV-Carsharing, including application of telematics on EVs, Governments’ policy and administration, business and operating models, safety and security system and consumers’ education. Suggestions and guidelines will also be provided with recommendations on operating successful EV-Carsharing for urban E-mobility and better low carbon society for both China and other areas. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Economic assessment of strategies to deploy publicly accessible charging infrastructure
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 659-669; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040659 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 256
Abstract
From the end user perspective, the main barriers for widespread electric vehicle (EV) adoption are high purchase cost and range anxiety, both regarding battery capacity and availability of accessible EV charging infrastructure. Governments and public bodies in general are taking steps towards overcoming [...] Read more.
From the end user perspective, the main barriers for widespread electric vehicle (EV) adoption are high purchase cost and range anxiety, both regarding battery capacity and availability of accessible EV charging infrastructure. Governments and public bodies in general are taking steps towards overcoming these barriers by, among others, setting up regulatory requirements regarding standardisation, customer information and recommending objectives of publicly accessible charging infrastructure. However, the economic performance of publicly accessible charging infrastructure is unknown and any deployment plan should be backed up by a rigorous cost-benefit analysis, to check the efficiency of the plan in economic terms.
This paper presents the results of the economic assessment performed within the FP7 EU-funded Green eMotion project, where relevant conclusions for helping industry strategic approach and decision makers have been taken. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Norwegian electric car user experiences 2014
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 650-658; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040650 - 28 Dec 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 391
Abstract
The Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association has for the three last years conducted an EV user survey among their members and other EV users and owners in Norway. The survey shows that nearly 100 % of the Norwegian EV owners are satisfied with their [...] Read more.
The Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association has for the three last years conducted an EV user survey among their members and other EV users and owners in Norway. The survey shows that nearly 100 % of the Norwegian EV owners are satisfied with their electric car. And for every satisfied EV owner, there will be three more. The main conclusion from the Norwegian experience to start a sustainable market for EVs, is that the purchase price for an EV must be competitive with a similar car model. In Norway, this is achieved with a combination of high taxes on cars with high emissions and zero tax for zero emissions cars. Because of the policy, Norway has the highest number of electric cars per capita in the world. By January 2015, Norway reached 40,000 electric cars in a country of 5 million inhabitants. In Norway, about 12 % of all new cars sold in 2014 were electric. Over 1.5 % of 2.5 million cars in Norway are now electric. Norway is a frontrunner in the EV market. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Guiding infrastructure deployment: the involvement of international standardization
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 643-649; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040643 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 207
Abstract
This paper presents the current evolution in the field of charging infrastructure, highlighting the role of international standardization to achieve safety, compatibility and performance. It reports from the frontline of the standardization scene, benefiting of direct feedback from the work of relevant technical [...] Read more.
This paper presents the current evolution in the field of charging infrastructure, highlighting the role of international standardization to achieve safety, compatibility and performance. It reports from the frontline of the standardization scene, benefiting of direct feedback from the work of relevant technical committees, as to focus on current evolutions on the global level, to highlight the latest developments and to identify the gaps where further work is needed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Lightweight infrastructure for electric vehicle charging
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 631-642; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040631 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Electric vehicles need a charging infrastructure. In this paper, it will be argued that Sweden already has a charging infrastructure that potentially could provide all cars with electricity if they were electrified. The charging infrastructure consists of existing motor heaters sockets and outlets [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles need a charging infrastructure. In this paper, it will be argued that Sweden already has a charging infrastructure that potentially could provide all cars with electricity if they were electrified. The charging infrastructure consists of existing motor heaters sockets and outlets near e.g. villas and holiday homes which directly or for low cost can be rebuild to provide electric vehicles with energy. Building a lightweight infrastructure for electric vehicle charging consisting of simple sockets is roughly hundred times cheaper than building fast chargers or a charging infrastructure with Type 2 plug with charging modes Mode 2 or Mode 3. Therefore, it is wise to build a lightweight charging infrastructure for electric vehicle charging and use the connectivity of the vehicle to e.g. enable smart charging and other desirable services/applications. Parts of the conclusions and results in this paper have been established in a Swedish project denoted ELVIIS consisting of partners from research (Viktoria Swedish ICT), car industry (Volvo Car Cooperation), telecom sector (Ericsson) and utility industry (Göteborg Energi). Full article
Open AccessArticle
Deriving vehicle-to-grid business models from consumer preferences
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 621-630; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040621 - 28 Dec 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 267
Abstract
Combining electric cars with utility services seems to be a natural fit and holds the promise to tackle various mobility as well as electricity challenges at the same time. So far no viable business model for vehicle-to-grid technology has emerged, raising the question [...] Read more.
Combining electric cars with utility services seems to be a natural fit and holds the promise to tackle various mobility as well as electricity challenges at the same time. So far no viable business model for vehicle-to-grid technology has emerged, raising the question which characteristics a vehicle-to-grid business model should have. Drawing on an exploratory study amongst 189 Dutch consumers this study seeks to understand consumer preferences in vehicle-to-grid business models using conjoint analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis. The results suggest that consumers prefer private ownership of an EV and a bidirectional charger instead of community ownership of bidirectional charger, they prefer utility companies instead of car companies as the aggregator and they require home and public charging. The most salient attributes in a V2G business model seem to be functional rather than financial or social. The customer segment with the highest willingness to adopt V2G prefers functional attributes. Based on the findings, the study proposes a business model that incorporates the derived preferences. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of smart charging on the EV battery ageing - Discussion from a 3 years real life experience
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 613-620; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040613 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Smart charging is related to a possible adjustment of the charging sequences with some energetic constraints. It can be defined in different ways, namely depending on the specific objectives. However, they all result in similar consequences for the charging sequences, with regard to [...] Read more.
Smart charging is related to a possible adjustment of the charging sequences with some energetic constraints. It can be defined in different ways, namely depending on the specific objectives. However, they all result in similar consequences for the charging sequences, with regard to conventional charging: potential delay, interruption(s) and power modulation of the charging cycles. It is commonly admitted that smart charging will be necessary to face the growing deployment of EVs, namely for the local grid operators. Moreover, from the user point of view, smart charging can be seen as an additional motivation for the choice of an EV instead of a conventional car, if e.g. lower electricity tariffs are proposed for charging flexibility. In this paper, a quantitative evaluation is performed of EV battery ageing, in function of the charging conditions, with a special focus on the smart charging specificities. The study is based on real data from a three years continuous monitoring of five Peugeot iOn cars, a first of a kind campaign that was performed in Belgium in the Brussels area during the period 2011-2014. Different use profiles and charging patterns were observed. Among other elements, battery capacity and battery efficiency and their evolution in time were calculated, taking into account various factors, such as the seasonal impacts. It will first be highlighted that, whatever their charging patterns, all the considered cars are showing a significant flexibility potential, making them good candidates for smart charging. The impact of smart charging on battery ageing will then be discussed, with a focus on the charging frequency, the average state of charge and the impact of faster versus slower charge on battery capacity. This long time monitoring period allows to clearly identify the time evolution trends, leading to unique conclusions from the real life. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Large Scale EVs’ Charging Scheduling Ensuring Secure and Efficient Operation of Traffic and Distribution
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 605-612; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040605 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 231
Abstract
Current research about the application of large scale electric vehicles (EVs) is carried out in two fields: (1) From the aspect of the traffic system, charging navigation technologies were proposed, to improve traffic efficiency and charging convenience of the EV driver. (2) From [...] Read more.
Current research about the application of large scale electric vehicles (EVs) is carried out in two fields: (1) From the aspect of the traffic system, charging navigation technologies were proposed, to improve traffic efficiency and charging convenience of the EV driver. (2) From the aspect of the distribution system, the “smart” charging strategies were developed to optimize charging profile, where power loss of distribution system, voltage limits and load variance were taken into account. However, few studies focused on simultaneous improvement of EV owner’s convenience, traffic system performance, charging station performance and distribution system performance after the application of large scale EVs. In this paper, a multi-objective function considering the performance indices of traffic system and distribution system including road travel speed, traffic flow, charging waiting time, power loss of distribution system and voltage of distribution node is developed to schedule large scale EVs’ charging behaviour and obtain optimal performance of the whole system. Constraints including load capacity of charging stations, charging requirements and endurance mileage of EVs are overall considered, and a method for determining weights of the multi-objective function is discussed. A simulation system is built for verifying the effectiveness of proposed strategy. Simulation results shows that, compared with the usual charging scheduling strategy, average heavy congestion ratio of the district around the charging station in the evening rush hours is reduced from 0.52 to 0.48, the percentage of EVs waiting for charging is reduced from 7.5% to 0.5%, the maximal power loss rate of distribution system is decreased by 3.5%, and the maximal voltage deviation of distribution system is decreased by 3.4% due to the proposed strategy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Unraveling User Type Characteristics: Towards a Taxonomy for Charging Infrastructure
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 589-604; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040589 - 28 Dec 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 376
Abstract
Many European cities with air quality concerns struggle how to further roll out charging infrastructure in the coming years in a cost effective manner. Typical concerns include charging point under-capacity (scarcity of charging points due to high demand) as well as over-capacity (placement [...] Read more.
Many European cities with air quality concerns struggle how to further roll out charging infrastructure in the coming years in a cost effective manner. Typical concerns include charging point under-capacity (scarcity of charging points due to high demand) as well as over-capacity (placement of charging points in less prevalent locations). Being able to predict future utilization of charging stations would provide a great deal to policy makers in order to achieve more optimized infrastructure planning and roll out. This paper argues that in order to make solid predictions on the future use of charging stations one needs to acknowledge significant differences in charging behavior amongst user types, be it residents, commuters, city visitors or users of electric car sharing schemes. This paper sets out to unravel the particular charging patterns of different user types in terms of timing, charging amount and location preferences. By combining the specific user patterns with probabilities on which locations these users are likely to charge, the user-based charging patterns provide a powerful starting point to make predictions how charging points are likely to be used, as well as provide policy makers tools to make strategic decisions how to optimize the roll out of new charging infrastructure. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Energy Management of Electric Vehicles on Transient Voltage Stability of Microgrid
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 577-588; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040577 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 285
Abstract
There is cause and effect relationship between increase in load due to increasing penetration of electric vehicles (EV) load that causes unbalanced conditions and affect the power quality such as voltage degradation and even damage the equipment if the system is not properly [...] Read more.
There is cause and effect relationship between increase in load due to increasing penetration of electric vehicles (EV) load that causes unbalanced conditions and affect the power quality such as voltage degradation and even damage the equipment if the system is not properly managed. This paper presents detailed review of energy supply and management in conjunction with load synchronization through EVs for maintaining transient voltage stability by providing reactive power support for the stability of power grid in vehicle-to-grid mode of operations. The energy management system is considered at different levels such as, stand-alone PV, stand-alone wind, stand-alone battery storage, stand-alone EV parking lot, residential feeder and commercial building feeders. First we proposed energy management algorithm, to limit the peak power drawn by EVs from distributed energy resources of microgrid, such that additional electrical resource will be transferred to resource constrained devices. The EVs negotiate based on their demand, priority and available electrical resource such that during higher electricity price the higher priority vehicles still require resource and perform uninterrupted operation. The transfer of electrical resource from one load device to another will help in reducing peak demand and improving the efficiency of the system. Secondly we proposed transient voltage stability margin index (TVSMI) to test the capability of EVs in contributing storage and supply services to the grid. The energy management control simulations are realized in DIgSILENT Power factory. Full article
Open AccessArticle
On the energy efficiency of quick DC vehicle battery charging
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 570-576; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040570 - 28 Dec 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 319
Abstract
Paper deals with an extensive experimental activity carried out in Italy by ENEA Research Lab on Low impact vehicles and by the Energy engineering group of the University of L'Aquila about the energy efficiency of quick vehicle battery charging using a DC CHAdeMO [...] Read more.
Paper deals with an extensive experimental activity carried out in Italy by ENEA Research Lab on Low impact vehicles and by the Energy engineering group of the University of L'Aquila about the energy efficiency of quick vehicle battery charging using a DC CHAdeMO compliant recharging 50 kW infrastructure. Both the charger and the vehicle (a Nissan Leaf) battery were fully monitored to gather detailed information about their behaviour at different power loads. The performances of the battery pack equipping the vehicle have also been monitored and evaluated through an extensive campaign, both on typical urban and extra-urban uses, and on vehicle rolling test bench. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicle to Simplify Ground Facilities - Power Control Based on Vehicle-side Information -
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 558-569; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040558 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) have environmental advantages and the capacity for advanced motion control. However, EVs need to be charged frequently due to their limited mileage per charge. A dynamic wireless power transfer (WPT) system for EVs can extend their cruising distance and reduce [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) have environmental advantages and the capacity for advanced motion control. However, EVs need to be charged frequently due to their limited mileage per charge. A dynamic wireless power transfer (WPT) system for EVs can extend their cruising distance and reduce the size of their energy storage system. However, when being applied to rugged roadways over long distances, it is important to simplify ground facilities as much as possible. While it is practical for a static system to control both side using communication, a dynamic system for EVs should be controlled only on the vehicle-side. To implement a suitable control system, this paper focuses on vehicle-side control for achieving a required power and proposes a control method based on road-side voltage estimation using only vehicle-side information. Conventional methods have proposed voltage control using a DC-DC converter on the vehicle-side while road-side voltage is regulated to obtain a reference value. However, this causes ground facilities to become complicated due to a need for a feedback system. The proposed method estimates road-side voltage, therefore eliminating the need for its regulation. As a result, ground facilities can be simplified. The estimation equation is based on the equivalent circuit of a WPT system and expressed as a function of vehicle-side voltage and current. The reference value and the equilibrium point of the DC-DC converter can be obtained by the estimated road-side voltage. Therefore, the power control system with a voltage controller can be designed. The estimation equation and the power control are verified by experiments. These results suggest that the proposed method can achieve the required power without controlling the road-side or communicating between a vehicle and ground facilities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The provision of public recharging infrastructure for Electric Vehicles in the UK – is there a business case?
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 546-557; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040546 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 309
Abstract
The UK has been one of the most advanced countries in Europe for the demonstration of electric vehicles (EV) and the introduction of the supporting recharging infrastructure. Much of the UK’s EV recharging estate was created and is operated under public subsidy, in [...] Read more.
The UK has been one of the most advanced countries in Europe for the demonstration of electric vehicles (EV) and the introduction of the supporting recharging infrastructure. Much of the UK’s EV recharging estate was created and is operated under public subsidy, in order to seed the marketplace for further EV and recharging equipment adoption. This paper addresses the fact that subsidies for the operation of this infrastructure are coming to an end, which is likely to affect EV drivers’ recharging behaviour. As the public funding ceases the infrastructure owners must find other ways to cover the on-going costs of operation and recover capital investments made, in order to provide a continuing and viable service to EV drivers. However, actual uptake of EVs and therefore demand for recharging has been lower than the arguably over optimistic predictions made in 2010 when the subsidies began. The difficulty of covering operating costs with inaccurate EV forecast figures is compounded by factors including asset life and ownership costs, recharging locations, vehicle and charging specifications, vehicle usage patterns and regional demographics. The introduction of fees for recharging at a level which EV drivers are willing to pay is unlikely to enable infrastructure owners to recoup their full costs using conventional business models. A Social and Environmental accounting model could be developed to help inform decision making for the public recharging business case. This paper gives an overview of the findings from the UK supplemented by experience from Republic of Ireland, and comments on the impact of inaccurate EV sales predictions and early changes in recharging behaviour resulting from reduction in subsidies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Proposed Dynamic Contactless Power Transfer System
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 540-545; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040540 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 227
Abstract
Since EV has the subject that a vehicles price with the long charging time with short mileage is high, it has not resulted in full-scale spread. The dynamic contactless power transfer system which performs an electric power supply on the vehicles under drive [...] Read more.
Since EV has the subject that a vehicles price with the long charging time with short mileage is high, it has not resulted in full-scale spread. The dynamic contactless power transfer system which performs an electric power supply on the vehicles under drive is expected as a means to solve the subject of EV. There are some problems resulting from the loop coil being used for the dynamic contactless power transfer system. The first problem is that it is incompatible with the stationary contactless power transfer system. In the stationary contactless power transfer system, since the ground coil of a different type from a loop coil is adopted, the vehicles must install two coils, under parking and driving. The space reservation for installing a coil by passenger car is difficult, and is not practical. The second problem is that the leakage flux and the radiation noise become large. The third problem is that a construction period and a repair period become long. In this paper, the dynamic contactless power transfer system which has the following features is proposed and a simulation and an experimental result show the validity. The feature of the system to propose is as follows. The ground coil of a proposal system is the same as that of the stationary contactless power transfer system, and electric supply becomes possible also while parking also driving. The proposal system consists of same ground side coil as the stationary contactless power transfer system, and a vehicles side coil, and leakage flux and a radiation noise are small. Since a proposal system vacates an interval and installs a ground coil, construction period shortening and price reduction of a system of it are attained. Full article
Open AccessArticle
DC-Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Operation Strategies for Enhanced Utility Grid Voltage Stability
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 530-539; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040530 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 333
Abstract
High-power DC electric vehicle supply equipments (EVSE) have a significant impact on voltage stability in low-voltage networks. To ensure the guaranteed voltage characteristics, utility grid operator permit the installation of DC-EVSE only in proximity of local substations. A simplified grid access strategy for [...] Read more.
High-power DC electric vehicle supply equipments (EVSE) have a significant impact on voltage stability in low-voltage networks. To ensure the guaranteed voltage characteristics, utility grid operator permit the installation of DC-EVSE only in proximity of local substations. A simplified grid access strategy for DCEVSE is achievable by reactive power support of the EVSE rectifier system. Since decentralized regenerative energy (DRE) already provide voltage band control using reactive power support in lowvoltage networks, the interaction of DRE and EVSE reactive power compensation scheme is investigated. To enhance power converters operation, a fast reacting voltage-droop control concept for DRE and EVSE is proposed for rapid voltage change mitigation. The applicability of a voltage-droop control is verified using probabilistic simulations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
IMPACT OF PENETRATION OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES ON INDIAN POWER GRID
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 518-529; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040518 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 289
Abstract
The research on impacts of electric vehicles on Indian power grid is motivated to enhance development of electric vehicle in India against the burning issues of rising fuel demand and the nation’s dependency on other countries for fuel which largely affects the GDP [...] Read more.
The research on impacts of electric vehicles on Indian power grid is motivated to enhance development of electric vehicle in India against the burning issues of rising fuel demand and the nation’s dependency on other countries for fuel which largely affects the GDP of nation. India has declared E-mobility mission plan to deploy 4,00,000 passenger electric vehicles by 2020. If this target is achieved India can avoid importing 120 million barrels of oil and avoid 4 million tonnes of CO2 emissions by 2020. In future, as demand of electric vehicles increases, charging issues while connecting electric vehicle to grid also increases. This paper presents various aspects in terms of challenges and issues when electric vehicle is charged from grid and also the benefits, potential services and applications of electric vehicle in V2G mode. Effect of electric vehicle penetration on distribution grid is carried out in matlab simulink environment to observe effects on different electrical parameters like dc bus voltage, current, active power, reactive power, harmonics and power factor. Concept of vector control technique for voltage source converter is developed for stabilizing grid against penetration of electric vehicle. Control technique implemented here gives fast dynamic response, reduces harmonics and improves power factor with constant dc bus voltage. Concept shown here will be very useful for fast dc charging of electric vehicle batteries. Battery modelling described with the concept of extracting parameters from manufacturers discharge characteristics gives fast and effective solution and will be useful for not only Li-Ion batteries but also for Ni-Mh and Lead-acid batteries. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Early Hydrogen Station Economics Analysis
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 511-517; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040511 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Deployment of the hydrogen supply infrastructure is one of most critical issues that must be addressed for a successful market transition to fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). Not only must hydrogen refuelling infrastructure be constructed, it must also be commercially viable and sell [...] Read more.
Deployment of the hydrogen supply infrastructure is one of most critical issues that must be addressed for a successful market transition to fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). Not only must hydrogen refuelling infrastructure be constructed, it must also be commercially viable and sell hydrogen to customers at retail prices that will encourage the continued expansion of the vehicle market. The objective of this study is to develop a station deployment optimization model and analyze station network economics and risk of investment. The model optimizes key deployment decisions to meet fuel demand by trading off infrastructure cost and fuel accessibility cost. Decision variables are when, where to build and the size of stations. Fuel accessibility cost is relative to gasoline, measured by additional detour time in order to access hydrogen refuelling stations. A case study is conducted for the City of Santa Monica in California. Deployment schemes generated from the optimization model are relatively robust to assumed level of fuel inconvenience cost, suggesting that the importance of station scale economy outweighs fuel convenience, subject to the caveats of model limitations. The model does not capture the dynamic interaction between vehicle demand and refuelling convenience. If vehicle demand was modelled endogenously, the importance of refuelling convenience would be valued higher by the model. Another factor might be that the area of study is small, which limits potential detour time savings that could be achieved from adding more stations. Cash flow analysis results suggest that the station network at the study area (the city of Santa Monica) may endure negative cash flows for about a decade. Driving patterns of early FCEV adopters matter to the economics of city station network. If FCEV users on average have long annual driving distance and trips are concentrated within the region, the profitability of local station networks would be improved. Full article
Open AccessArticle
DC Quick Charging Operation Assistant Development and Experiment in Taiwan
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 500-510; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040500 - 28 Dec 2015
Viewed by 217
Abstract
Electric Vehicle is widely used in passenger service gradually. It is a critical successful factor to have a sufficient electric energy supply. In order to solve the constraint of economical issue, the fast charging method can decrease the charging time such that the [...] Read more.
Electric Vehicle is widely used in passenger service gradually. It is a critical successful factor to have a sufficient electric energy supply. In order to solve the constraint of economical issue, the fast charging method can decrease the charging time such that the service time can be extended without dramatically increasing the battery numbers. This research develops a fast charging system which follows international regulation. The fast charging system includes a charging station simulation system, a battery loading simulation system, and a charging controller mounted on a fast charging vehicle. This system has completed connection tests with charging stations of ABB from Europe and Delta in Taiwan and also finished system verification with Japan HASETEC, which is a major company involving in CHAdeMO association affair. The developing charging controller undergoes several charging/discharging experiments for marine high capacity lithium ion battery module. The cells of the battery module still maintain reasonable balance status after charging process, which proves the developed charging controller of this research can safely and efficiently fast charge a lithium battery module via high voltage direct current. It is the goal for this research that promote adopting electric boat in touring water field for carbon emission reduction and water resource protection can be realized all at once. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Coupling local renewable energy production with electric vehicle charging: a survey of the French case
World Electr. Veh. J. 2015, 7(4), 489-499; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj7040489 - 28 Dec 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 275
Abstract
The share of renewable energy sources (RES)’ production in energy mixes, especially the ones of PV panels and wind farms, has been continuously increasing during the last few years. Similarly, a strong development of battery electric vehicles (EV) is expected within the next [...] Read more.
The share of renewable energy sources (RES)’ production in energy mixes, especially the ones of PV panels and wind farms, has been continuously increasing during the last few years. Similarly, a strong development of battery electric vehicles (EV) is expected within the next years. However, these two new innovations could trigger security issues on electrical grids, in particular local congestions and voltage deviations from the required standards. One way to mitigate these problems could be to combine the charging periods of the EVs with the local RES production. This paper aims at analysing the possibility to implement this kind of smart charging strategy in France by 2020, taking into account the wide diversity of local energy mixes in France and their seasonal dependencies. First, the authors identify four different energy mixes representative of most of the local French mixes, each one related to a region in France. Then, we model the charging load curves of the EVs at the substation level for the same regions. We deduce the “green charging ratio” (GCR) without any charging management strategy. The same ratio is then computed assuming that an Energy Management System (EMS), which goal is to maximize this ratio, controls the EV charging patterns. The results are provided for each region and seasons. They show a wide diversity of green charging ratio achievable: in very windy regions, the GCR without any EMS is already rather high; on the contrary, in sunny regions, the GCR is much improved with the implementation of the EMS. In such regions, the GCR can also be enhanced with the penetration of charging stations at working places. Full article
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