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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

Table of Contents

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2012) , Pages 1-268

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Open AccessArticle
10 Minute Lto Ultrafast Charge Public Transit Ev Bus Fleet Operational Data - Analysis of 240,000 km, 6 Bus Fleet Shows Viable Solution
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 261-268; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010261 - 30 Mar 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 219
Abstract
Long battery charge times and low battery charge-discharge cycle life are the two major limitations holding back the commercialization of electric vehicles. In order to resolve these problems, a robust battery system was developed by Microvast Inc. The batteries can be charged in [...] Read more.
Long battery charge times and low battery charge-discharge cycle life are the two major limitations holding back the commercialization of electric vehicles. In order to resolve these problems, a robust battery system was developed by Microvast Inc. The batteries can be charged in less than 10 minutes and rapidly charged and discharged up to 20,000 times, while still maintaining more than 80% of the original capacity. 6 City Buses utilizing the Microvast battery systems have been tested in commercial operation in Chong Qing, China for more than one year. The batteries are still in good condition. The improved Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode material gives the Microvast battery system its excellent properties. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fuel Economy of Series Hybrid Electric Bus by Matching the Gear Ratio of Different Capacity Traction Motors
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 254-260; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010254 - 30 Mar 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 279
Abstract
This paper investigated the different gear ratio matching effect on the series hybrid electric bus especially for the 90 kW & 150kW traction motors on the fuel economy. The 90 kW & 150 kW traction motors make the system use more efficient operating [...] Read more.
This paper investigated the different gear ratio matching effect on the series hybrid electric bus especially for the 90 kW & 150kW traction motors on the fuel economy. The 90 kW & 150 kW traction motors make the system use more efficient operating points; thus, the system is more efficient than when the 240 kW single unit is used. Furthermore, matching the different gear ratios allows the nonlinear characteristics in the traction motor efficiency to be used more efficiently; thus the standard for how to select the gear ratios was proposed. The fuel economy selection was optimized by the hybrid optimization methodology using RSM and the univariate search method, both of which are well known for their straightforward concepts and adequate performances; thus, the new suggested matching theory noticeably improved the system efficiency. The work presented here has profound implications for future studies for the design of the hybrid electric vehicle, as well as the plug-in hybrid and the electric vehicles and was carried out on the AMEsim-Simulink Co-simulation platform. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Heavy-Duty PHEV Yard Tractor: Controlled Testing and Field Results
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 246-253; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010246 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 279
Abstract
Diesel powered tractors are used to shuttle cargo trailers from point to point within the confines of a port facility, terminal or warehouse yard. Such operations are similar to those in ground support applications at airports and in industrial warehouses with lift trucks, [...] Read more.
Diesel powered tractors are used to shuttle cargo trailers from point to point within the confines of a port facility, terminal or warehouse yard. Such operations are similar to those in ground support applications at airports and in industrial warehouses with lift trucks, in that the vehicles are used as tools to move goods in a semi-regular pattern. Southern California Edison Company (SCE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have partnered to help electrify vehicle operations in both of those venues with great success and see good prospects for the same at port operations. However, current port operations might require large investments in infrastructure and operational changes to implement electric drive all at once. To help demonstrate the benefits of electric drive without requiring large-scale changes, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) yard tractor design was proposed by EPRI and member utilities as a means to reduce operational emissions and diesel fuel use. Four member utility companies with large port customers in their service area (SCE, Southern Company, CenterPoint Energy, and New York Power Authority) agreed to work with EPRI to study the benefits and impacts of a PHEV yard tractor. In 2007 the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) contracted US Hybrid Corporation (USH) to design and construct a unique PHEV yard tractor. SCE agreed to test and evaluate the PHEV yard tractor for EPRI. To properly evaluate the benefits realized by the yard tractor in comparison to unmodified conventional yard tractors as well as other alternative fueled tractors, SCE had to test the tractor in controlled conditions with realistic loads in addition to field testing. SCE developed test procedures for controlled testing and for field evaluation. The field testing was conducted in four ports across the United States, each with different operating conditions and climate: Long Beach, California; Houston, Texas; Savannah, Georgia; and New York City. SCE designed a test procedure that simulates an accelerated duty cycle of cargo operations. The accelerated duty cycle has multiple starts and stops and little idle time. SCE measured the idling fuel consumption separately so it can be inserted to match the duty cycle of any particular port. The test cycle was performed with the vehicle both unloaded and loaded to profile the effects of load on system efficiencies. SCE also tested the battery and charger performance of the PHEV, and as a comparison, tested an unmodified yard tractor. In the accelerated testing, SCE found the PHEV fuel savings were as high as 60% (on a per-cycle basis) when compared to a stock diesel Kalmar tractor, and up to 35% fuel savings versus operating the PHEV tractor as a hybrid (i.e, not charging it), In charge sustaining operation, the fuel savings are as high as 40% compared to the stock vehicle. On a daily-operation basis, the projected fuel savings on a duty cycle similar to the SCE test cycle could be as low as 35% but as high as 60% with significant amounts of idling and low speed operation. The field test results show good fuel economy but are complicated by reliability issues that reduced the operational time of the prototype PHEV vehicle. Also, it was difficult to get fleet fuel use data. It was the intention in the project to compare the test vehicle’s results with the fleet average fuel use per unit time. These results will be discussed in the body of the paper. Port operators, in general, appreciated the engineoff mode’s reduced noise and exhaust. The US Hybrid prototype PHEV yard tractor has the potential to significantly reduce fuel consumption, as demonstrated in the SCE tests. Performance issues with the prototype prevented full duty in the field tests. Further testing, with a more reliable vehicle incorporating the key system improvements learned from this project, is worth pursuing to determine if the potential fuel savings can be fully realized in larger scale. Furthermore, the techniques and testing methods described can be used for other alternatively-fueled yard tractors. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Experimental Assessment of an Energy Management Strategy on a Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 238-245; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010238 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Fuel cell hybrid power trains comprise an energy storage to supply peaks in the power demand and to facilitate regenerative braking. In terms of control systems, the presence of storage provides additional freedom to minimize the vehicle’s fuel consumption. In a previous paper [...] Read more.
Fuel cell hybrid power trains comprise an energy storage to supply peaks in the power demand and to facilitate regenerative braking. In terms of control systems, the presence of storage provides additional freedom to minimize the vehicle’s fuel consumption. In a previous paper [1] an analytical solution to the energy management problem for fuel cell hybrid propulsion systems was derived and compared with existing strategies like the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) [1–4]. An experimental study has been carried out on a Fiat Doblo, which was converted from a regular gasoline powered vehicle into a fuel cell hybrid vehicle. The fuel cell drive train comprises a 10kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack connected by means of a DC/DC converter to a Li-ion battery. The aforementioned analytical energy management strategy was used during the experiments. The experiments were carried out on a roller test bench and on the road. The experiments were conducted not only to validate the energy management strategy and the underlying models but also to establish its practical value. The paper shortly reviews the energy management problem and solution. Next the vehicle and its fuel cell hybrid drive train are presented as well as the experimental setup. The paper finishes by stating the experimental results and the conclusions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Final Results from U.S. FCEV Learning Demonstration
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 227-237; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010227 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 225
Abstract
The “Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project,” also known as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration, is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project started in 2004 and concluded in late 2011. The purpose of this project was [...] Read more.
The “Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project,” also known as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration, is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project started in 2004 and concluded in late 2011. The purpose of this project was to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examined the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen fueling infrastructure. The DOE’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) received and analyzed all of the raw technical data collected by the industry partners through their participation in the project over its seven-year duration. This paper reviews highlights from the project and draws conclusions about the demonstrated status of the fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen fueling infrastructure technology. Through September 2011, 183 fuel cell electric vehicles were deployed, 25 project fueling stations were placed in use, and no fundamental safety issues were identified. We have analyzed data from more than 500,000 individual vehicle trips covering 3.5 million miles traveled and more than 150,000 kg hydrogen produced or dispensed. Public analytical results from this project are in the form of composite data products (CDPs), which aggregate individual performance to protect the intellectual property and the identity of each company while still publishing overall status and progress. Ninety-nine of these CDPs have been generated for public use and posted on NREL’s technology validation website. The results indicate that fuel cell vehicle technology continues to make rapid progress toward commercial readiness and that the fueling infrastructure technology is ready to provide a consumer-friendly fast fill and long range experience consistent with expectations of gasoline vehicle customers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Plug-in Fuel Cell Vehicle Technology and Value Analysis
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 217-226; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010217 - 30 Mar 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 274
Abstract
Plug-in Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PFCVs) offer reduced operating and manufacturing cost when compared to conventional hydrogen fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCVs), and improved range and refueling time when compared to grid charged Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). As such, PFCVs [...] Read more.
Plug-in Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PFCVs) offer reduced operating and manufacturing cost when compared to conventional hydrogen fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCVs), and improved range and refueling time when compared to grid charged Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). As such, PFCVs provide opportunity to combine the advantages and mitigate the limitations of both FCVs and EVs. Although the PFCV concept has been presented conceptually in the past, no quantitative analyses of its prospective technical, environmental and economic characteristics have been performed until recently. Motivated by the basic promise of a new high-efficiency, zero-emission vehicle, the authors have conducted an initial assessment of PFCVs in comparison with FCVs, BEVs and internal combustion engine-battery hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). This study was coordinated by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and supported by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Southern California Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The study approach included the identification of representative PFCV, FCV, BEV and PHEV vehicle configurations, the modeling of these configurations, and the determination of their energy use, well-to-wheel carbon dioxide emissions, and cost characteristics. Results show that, with economies of scale, PFCVs can offer a competitive alternative to conventional PHEVs with the added benefits of being 100% petroleum independent and having zero tailpipe emissions. Within the context of PFCVs, a wide range of design freedom is possible; this study suggests that low power fuel cells and high energy batteries provide optimal benefits for environmental and cost metrics. The optimal vehicle can be described as a hydrogen fuel cell, hybrid electric, range-extending vehicle (FCEREV). Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Plug-in Hybrid Diesel-Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 210-216; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010210 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 368
Abstract
The paper presents the GRAND HAMSTER ELECTRICWAY 4WD hybrid concept car, developed within the Automotive Engineering Research Centre of the University of Pitesti during 2011, in order to create a green version of Dacia 4WD. The car was built on the mechanical platform [...] Read more.
The paper presents the GRAND HAMSTER ELECTRICWAY 4WD hybrid concept car, developed within the Automotive Engineering Research Centre of the University of Pitesti during 2011, in order to create a green version of Dacia 4WD. The car was built on the mechanical platform of the DACIA DUSTER crossover car, 4x2 versions, by implementing an electric propulsion system in the rear axle. The EcoMatic Hybrid System (Energy conversion with autoMatic Hybrid System) is a diesel-electric version, parallel with two shafts, and plug-in type, organized in a motorized solution E-4WD (Electricway-4WD). The name of the vehicle designates the hybridization obtained with the diesel engine 1.5 litre dCi FAP, 79 kW (107 bhp), placed in the front of the vehicle and the asynchronous electric motor offering a maximum power output of 31kW/42 bhp located at the rear of the vehicle. The traction battery, Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) technology, 205V, 12 kWh is rechargeable by the on board single faze charger. The recharging 12V auxiliary battery is realised by a DC/DC converter 205V/12V and is completed by an assembly of the photovoltaic panel placed on the car’s roof . Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Plug-In Vehicles (Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles) Using Standard Dynamometer Protocols
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 196-209; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010196 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 264
Abstract
New plug-in vehicles offer advantages in fuel saving and lower exhaust emissions by adding new advanced-technology powertrain components. With this new complexity come new challenges in characterizing these vehicles using standardized testing methods. Over the last several years, many testing experts have developed [...] Read more.
New plug-in vehicles offer advantages in fuel saving and lower exhaust emissions by adding new advanced-technology powertrain components. With this new complexity come new challenges in characterizing these vehicles using standardized testing methods. Over the last several years, many testing experts have developed new methods for testing battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs). New instrumentation hardware and techniques are outlined in this paper. Metrics and calculation methods were developed to suit the plug-in aspect and operational nature of the vehicles. New BEV test methods were developed and validated using a 2012 Nissan Leaf BEV. Analysis of the results showed that efficiency and range determined from the old methods could be reliably reproduced with the new procedures and methods. Likewise new PHEV test procedures were validated using a 2012 Chevy Volt PHEV and an aftermarket PHEV-converted Prius. The results of the test program show that the end-of-test criterion presented as the “alternate” method in SAE J1711 is the robust choice to determine the transition from depleting to sustaining. The Utility Factor method of calculating final results worked well for both PHEVs. Sample post-processing calculations are shown for the urban-cycle testing. Various PHEV range definitions and fuel and electricity usage rates are given with and without utility factor weighting. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Plug-in Hybrid Systems newly developed by Hynudai Motor Company
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 191-195; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010191 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 235
Abstract
As a solution for reducing fuel energy consumption and emissions of cars, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) systems have been proposed and the development of technology has advanced by leap and bounce. Among the hybrid systems, a plug-in HEV (PHEV) which is a vehicle [...] Read more.
As a solution for reducing fuel energy consumption and emissions of cars, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) systems have been proposed and the development of technology has advanced by leap and bounce. Among the hybrid systems, a plug-in HEV (PHEV) which is a vehicle which combines the features of HEV and electric vehicle (EV) has significant potential to decrease fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, new PHEV systems developed by Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) will be described with the attributes of the PHEV systems. The EV driving performance and configurations of HMC’s PHEV systems will be described. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Ford Escape PHEV On-Road Results from US DOE’s Technology Acceleration and Deployment Activity
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 182-190; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010182 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 324
Abstract
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducts fleet data collection and analysis activities for advanced technology vehicles, including Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV), as part of the US DOE’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). In 2009, data collection began for the Technology Acceleration and [...] Read more.
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducts fleet data collection and analysis activities for advanced technology vehicles, including Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV), as part of the US DOE’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). In 2009, data collection began for the Technology Acceleration and Deployment Activity (TADA) for which INL is conducting the data analysis and reporting. The Technology Acceleration and Deployment Activity includes twenty-one Ford Escape PHEVs operated by various fleets throughout the world. Data is collected from all twenty-one vehicles during driving and charging in order to understand the operation of the vehicle as well as the vehicle operator behavior. This paper discusses the overall results from a three year period of data collection from the twenty-one E85 capable Ford Escape PHEVs, which amounts to over 500,000 miles of operation. Multiple factors that impact the fuel economy and electrical energy consumption are presented including charging behavior, ambient temperature, driving style, accessory usage, and route type. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Investigation on the Effect of Driver Style and Driving Events on Energy Demand of a PHEV
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 173-181; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010173 - 30 Mar 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 326
Abstract
Environmental concerns, security of fuel supply and CO2 regulations are driving innovation in the automotive industry towards electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The fuel economy and emission performance of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) strongly depends on the energy management system (EMS). Prior knowledge [...] Read more.
Environmental concerns, security of fuel supply and CO2 regulations are driving innovation in the automotive industry towards electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The fuel economy and emission performance of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) strongly depends on the energy management system (EMS). Prior knowledge of driving information could be used to enhance the performance of a HEV. However, how the necessary information can be obtained to use in EMS optimisation still remains a challenge. In this paper the effect of driver style and driving events like city and highway driving on plug in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) energy demand is studied. Using real world driving data from three drivers of very different driver style, a simulation has been exercised for a given route having city and highway driving. Driver style and driving events both affect vehicle energy demand. In both driving events considered, vehicle energy demand is different due to driver styles. The major part of city driving is reactive driving influenced by external factors and driver leading to variation in vehicle speed and hence energy demand. In free highway driving, the driver choice of cruise speed is the only factor affecting vehicle energy demand. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fuel Consumption Potential of Different Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Architectures in the European and American Contexts
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 159-172; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010159 - 30 Mar 2012
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 245
Abstract
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have demonstrated the potential to provide significant fuel displacement across a wide range of driving cycles. Companies and research organizations are involved in numerous research activities related to PHEVs. One of the current unknown is the impact of [...] Read more.
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have demonstrated the potential to provide significant fuel displacement across a wide range of driving cycles. Companies and research organizations are involved in numerous research activities related to PHEVs. One of the current unknown is the impact of driving conditions and standard test procedure on the true benefits of PHEVs from a worldwide perspective. To address this issue, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) have partnered under the IEA Annex XV task to evaluate the market specificities between Europe and U.S. Four different PHEV powertrain configurations with four All Electric Range will be analyzed under different standards (i.e., NEDC, UDDS, HWFET) and real world drive cycles (i.e. ARTEMIS…). The impact of different driving behavior for Europe and the US market will be analyzed through component sizing, fuel consumption benefits as well as Green House Gases (GHGs) considering the electricity production mix. The study will provide insight on how PHEVs can be designed to support worldwide market introduction of a limited number of vehicle options to maximize market penetration. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Optimal Control Strategy for PHEVs Using Prediction of Future Driving Schedule
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 149-158; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010149 - 30 Mar 2012
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 243
Abstract
Optimization-based control methods for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles require knowledge about an entire driving cycle and an elevation profile to obtain optimal performance over a fixed driving route. This paper details our investigation into the method of using traffic information to predict the [...] Read more.
Optimization-based control methods for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles require knowledge about an entire driving cycle and an elevation profile to obtain optimal performance over a fixed driving route. This paper details our investigation into the method of using traffic information to predict the future driving cycle, as well as an examination of the optimal control strategy based on Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle, in order to minimize fuel consumption on a given trip distance and to develop a real-time implementable control strategy. To predict future driving patterns, the Dynamic Programming theory is proposed for the calculation of vehicle speed with respect to driving distance, under the assumption that data about traffic conditions are obtained from external traffic information, such as Intelligent Transportation Systems. Prediction of future driving speed is achieved by minimizing the proposed cost function on each segment. The results of the generated speed profile can properly estimate the driving pattern of the driver. Also, a co-state generation algorithm is applied to determine the parameters with respect to the required power deduced from the predicted driving cycle. The proposed co-state generation model can find the estimated initial co-state that is similar to the optimal co-state. Simulation results indicate that this approach guarantees the best efficiency under reasonable conditions and the minimization of fuel consumption on the trip distance between the origin and destination. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Lightweight Body in White Design Using Topology-, Shapeand Size Optimisation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 137-148; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010137 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 284
Abstract
As focus on the world climate rises, so does the demand for ever more environmentally friendly technologies. The response from the automotive industry includes vehicles whose primary propulsion systems are not based upon fossil fuels. On this basis a Low Carbon Vehicle Technology [...] Read more.
As focus on the world climate rises, so does the demand for ever more environmentally friendly technologies. The response from the automotive industry includes vehicles whose primary propulsion systems are not based upon fossil fuels. On this basis a Low Carbon Vehicle Technology Project (LCVTP), partly funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), has been completed. The project included designing a lightweight Body In White (BIW), specifically tailored to suit the drive train and general packaging requirements associated with a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). The future opportunities for optimising the new lightweight vehicle architecture have been investigated using a technique entitled topology optimisation, which extracts the idealised load paths for a given set of load cases, followed by a shape- and size optimisation in order to provide local areas of the vehicle with more definition. An appropriate shape- and size optimisation process for frontal crashworthiness scenarios has been developed by comparing and combining different point selection methods and applying various metamodelling techniques. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Gear Shift and Engine Start Losses on Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 125-136; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010125 - 30 Mar 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 286
Abstract
In this paper, energetic loss models in the events of shifting gear and starting engine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle equipped with an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) will be introduced. The optimal control algorithm for the start-stop, power split and gear shift [...] Read more.
In this paper, energetic loss models in the events of shifting gear and starting engine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle equipped with an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) will be introduced. The optimal control algorithm for the start-stop, power split and gear shift problem based on Dynamic Programming-Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle control approach is used to evaluate the effect of gear shift and engine start losses on the optimal solution. Furthermore, with preview route information available, a model predictive control algorithm is utilized to investigate the achievable fuel savings with respect to the prediction horizon. Under influence of the gear shift loss, simulation results of the prototype hybrid passenger car disclose a superior fuel efficiency property of the powershift AMT over its normal AMT counterpart. Sensitivity analysis of the traction force interruption time in a gear shift process can give a new perception on fuel economy benefit of powershift transmissions (e.g. automatic, dual clutch, powershift AMT, etc.) over a normal AMT. The study also reveals a minimum prediction length of 4s required for the design of such a realtime implementable controller to get the possible maximum fuel economy level under the impact of the engine start loss. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of Fuel Economy Improvement by Using Driving Condition Prediction System for Hybrid Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 118-124; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010118 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 321
Abstract
If the future driving condition such as road information and traffic condition can be predicted, the use of electrical power source will be controlled appropriately in order to improve the fuel economy of Hybrid vehicle. In this paper the algorithm for the driving [...] Read more.
If the future driving condition such as road information and traffic condition can be predicted, the use of electrical power source will be controlled appropriately in order to improve the fuel economy of Hybrid vehicle. In this paper the algorithm for the driving condition prediction model and the rule-based controller for HEV are developed and verified through simulation and road test. With road information and traffic from 3D navigation, the types of road (uphill, flat or downhill) and the traffic condition (congestion or free driving) can be predicted by the Driving Condition Prediction System (DCPS). The rule-based controller for HEV can determine the control strategy (discharge-oriented, charge-oriented, or normal) depending on the future driving condition. With this technology the system can secure more battery capacity for regenerating when downhill is anticipated and engine can be operated within high efficiency area by discharging battery energy when uphill is anticipated. When congestion is predicted the battery is charged in advance in order to increase electric driving (EV) range and prevent inefficient series-path driving. Compared to the previous study, the methodology to determine future road condition and control strategy of HEV suggested in this paper is simple and fast enough to apply to real-time controller. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electrification of Off-Road Vehicles: Examining the Feasibility for the Italian Market
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 101-117; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010101 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 221
Abstract
The study, made by ENEA in cooperation with the University of Pisa as part of the activities supported by the Italian Ministry of Economic Development in the framework of the Program Agreement for the Research on the Electric System, is related to the [...] Read more.
The study, made by ENEA in cooperation with the University of Pisa as part of the activities supported by the Italian Ministry of Economic Development in the framework of the Program Agreement for the Research on the Electric System, is related to the situation of Italian market and demonstrates the feasibility of the electrification for off-road vehicles and the possibility to realize it by the means of standard modules. The preliminary dimensioning of the standard modules is also reported, defining the main electric characteristics (voltage and capacity) and the type of chemistry: LiFePO4 is proved to be a very effective solution for this kind of application. The activity goes on towards the final design and the realization of demonstrator units. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Web Management of Electric Vehicle Fleets
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 91-100; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010091 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 202
Abstract
An architecture for enabling the internet connection of a fleet of electric vehicles is presented in the paper. The connection is based on the on-board integration of an Arduino platform with the CAN-bus communication network of the vehicle powertrain. The system allows a [...] Read more.
An architecture for enabling the internet connection of a fleet of electric vehicles is presented in the paper. The connection is based on the on-board integration of an Arduino platform with the CAN-bus communication network of the vehicle powertrain. The system allows a plurality of networking interface: GPRS, LAN, Wi-fi for the present and Wi-Max, LTE for the future. The proposed system manages the main powertrain parameters and warning/fault condition. Local and remote data storage is possible, such as direct web interface of the vehicle powertrain. Data post processing from the remote server allows the implementation of an automatic diagnostic procedure for the detection of incipient faults in the powertrain. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study of a Passive Hybrid Energy Storage System Using Lithium Ion Battery and Ultracapacitor
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 83-90; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010083 - 30 Mar 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 217
Abstract
In this paper, scaled-down mathematical models, simulations, and experimental studies have been conducted to show the power sharing between battery and ultra-capacitor in a passive Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) using lithium ion battery and ultracapacitor. Detailed comparisons between a battery-only ESS and [...] Read more.
In this paper, scaled-down mathematical models, simulations, and experimental studies have been conducted to show the power sharing between battery and ultra-capacitor in a passive Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) using lithium ion battery and ultracapacitor. Detailed comparisons between a battery-only ESS and a passive HESS in terms of power capability, discharging time, and efficiency have been studied to investigate the advantages of passive HESS. Finally, we compare a passive HESS with an active HESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) applications, and the advantages of the passive HESS over active HESS are explained. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Designing the Human Machine Interface to Address Range Anxiety
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 72-82; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010072 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 206
Abstract
It is essential that the interfaces of low carbon vehicles particularly fully Electric Vehicle (EV) support new users while they adjust to a different type of driving experience. Use of EV is not yet widespread and little is known about the user requirements [...] Read more.
It is essential that the interfaces of low carbon vehicles particularly fully Electric Vehicle (EV) support new users while they adjust to a different type of driving experience. Use of EV is not yet widespread and little is known about the user requirements for Human Machine Interfaces. One of the common concerns is driver anxiety about his/her vehicle’s ability to cover the distance required. However the problem is one of perception and driver experience in the context of new technologies, EV’s limited range and an immature charging infrastructure. Nevertheless eliminating range anxiety for the EV owner is one of a major design challenges for future Low Carbon Vehicle manufacturers. The current study found that drivers who had some experience of driving an EV have less anxiety than those who had never driven an EV. Experienced drivers develop strategies to ensure that they only undertake those journeys that they are confident about having enough range to complete and aware of the factors that could potentially impact on the range. It is clear from users’ feedback that estimated range of the vehicle is one of the most critical pieces of information for a driver. Combining this with battery state of charge information can provide the driver with a better understanding of the current range of their EV. However accuracy is a key factor to gain trust in range information. EV drivers need dynamic information on factors that influence available range. There is also a requirement for information that will enable drivers to drive economically. While designing the EV driver information system, designers must overcome the information complexity issue. Concerns were raised that complex information in current EVs could potentially lead to driver distraction and may increase anxiety further. In conclusion providing reliable, relevant and prioritise information can help to minimise range anxiety. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Governing and Innovation: the Transition to E-Mobility – A Dutch Perspective
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 58-71; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010058 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 240
Abstract
This is an essay approach to develop a discussion about the role government can play in stimulating electric vehicle (EV) diffusion, adoption and deployment in support of larger societal goals such as sustainability and urban livability. This reviews governance strategy in support of [...] Read more.
This is an essay approach to develop a discussion about the role government can play in stimulating electric vehicle (EV) diffusion, adoption and deployment in support of larger societal goals such as sustainability and urban livability. This reviews governance strategy in support of electric vehicle innovation in a way that integrate many societal actors, including the market to move forward a project with many spillover benefits. It does this by reference to examples and projects in the Netherlands, the EU and the U.S. that articulate these strategies. This is a Dutch perspective because it is written in that context but it has examples and viewpoints that should have a wider appeal. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Virtual Electric Vehicle Design using Real-world Coupled Realtime Simulation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 51-57; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010051 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 223
Abstract
Electric Vehicles gain more and more importance in public media as well as in scientific research. At the Department of Energy Conversion Technology a collegiate student project has been established to construct an electric vehicle based on a buggy chassis. Simulation models of [...] Read more.
Electric Vehicles gain more and more importance in public media as well as in scientific research. At the Department of Energy Conversion Technology a collegiate student project has been established to construct an electric vehicle based on a buggy chassis. Simulation models of the vehicle have been realized to study the system. A test bench for the propulsion system has been built. To use the test bench for hardware-in-the-loop tests of the communication system the ECUs are coupled with the existing test bench. The obtained results will be fed back to the upcoming new vehicle planned for the near future. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessing Range and Performance of Electric Vehicles in Nordic Driving Conditions – Project ”RekkEVidde”
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 45-50; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010045 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Until battery technology makes a leap, shortage of range is by far the greatest flaw in electric vehicle technology that is otherwise very effective and promising. However, energy use is also highly dependent on duty cycles, driving conditions and traffic situation. Furthermore, cabin [...] Read more.
Until battery technology makes a leap, shortage of range is by far the greatest flaw in electric vehicle technology that is otherwise very effective and promising. However, energy use is also highly dependent on duty cycles, driving conditions and traffic situation. Furthermore, cabin heating in an EV will not be supported by energy losses as in an ICE-car. Therefore, actual range can differ substantially in real-life situations, and can be much shorter than the official figures given by the manufacturers. Project RekkEVidde is aiming at drafting a testing scheme to address EV driving in Nordic conditions, and produce realistic range estimates for the consumers to help them understand and make better use of this raising technology. Initial laboratory testing was imposed on a Citroën C-Zero EV using multiple different driving cycles and testing also at -20 °C, not just the normal ambient. First review of the results in this paper shows that the energy consumption was raised on average some 30 % at low ambient, resulting to a 15 to 30 % shorter range. This was due to only increasing the air drag component according to increase in air density, but further on-road testing will also give us more information on increase of rolling resistance because of snow and ice packed on road surface. Furthermore, use of cabin heating was not included in these numbers. Should it be turned on, the range will be further shortened as much as 50 % in slow-speed urban driving. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Performance Study of Battery-Powered Electric Vehicles in Macau
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 36-44; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010036 - 30 Mar 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 237
Abstract
With the growing concerns on price fluctuation, depletion of petroleum resources and global warming, environmental and health issues, there is fast growing interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in Macau. Being a city with small geographical size (29.5km2) limiting the travel range of vehicles, [...] Read more.
With the growing concerns on price fluctuation, depletion of petroleum resources and global warming, environmental and health issues, there is fast growing interest in electric vehicles (EVs) in Macau. Being a city with small geographical size (29.5km2) limiting the travel range of vehicles, Macau has great potential for EV implementation. There is also a pressing need for researchers and power utilities to develop various infrastructures for EVs and strategies for adapting EVs. In November 2010, the Macau Government announced to promote “green vehicles” by offering tax incentives in acquisition of “energy efficient vehicles”. During past two years, several public test rides and demonstrations of electric bikes, scooters, mini/mid-size sedans and buses were conducted by manufacturers from Europe, Japan, Taiwan and China. Three battery-powered EVs (BEVs) were imported to Macau, one by the power company and the other by a car renting company in April 2010 and had been running in real-world for nearly two years; the third was bought by Macau Government in September 2011. A project was launched to investigate the performance of EV, specifically for sub-tropical environment of Macau. Due to the high temperature and humidity, performance of EVs operated in Macau was yet to be understood. Previous experimental studies conducted in the US, Europe or Japan might not reflect the actual local real-road driving conditions. A BEV was used for experiments and evaluation, while an internal combustion engine (ICE) powered counterpart was used as baseline. This project aimed at the road testing of EVs and evaluation of fuel costs and CO2 reductions when EVs are adopted in Macau area. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Definition And Optimization Of The Drive Train Topology For Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 24-35; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010024 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 260
Abstract
Due to the limited range of battery electric vehicles, a low energy consumption is more desirable, than it is in conventional vehicles. To accomplish this objective the paper focuses on an increased efficiency of the drive train, its topologies and its components, as [...] Read more.
Due to the limited range of battery electric vehicles, a low energy consumption is more desirable, than it is in conventional vehicles. To accomplish this objective the paper focuses on an increased efficiency of the drive train, its topologies and its components, as this is one of the most promising approaches. With a set of basic characteristics of the desired vehicle (such as maximum speed, acceleration, climbing ability, class and range) an optimal fitted drive train according to the energy consumption should be found. This includes number, type and power of electric machines, transmission ratios, dynamic running radius, axle load distribution and battery capacity. The general approach uses a method consisting of a developed optimization routine and a specific simulation model. The developed optimization algorithm reduces the value ranges or even the design parameters to minimize the number of iterations. This intelligent algorithm is compared to conventional optimizers like pattern search or genetic algorithms. For the vehicle model valid results are important. To ensure validity for all possible topologies, vehicle and power classes an appropriate method is presented. Each relevant component model and its respective scaling concept are validated. After validation of a vehicle model with these component models, the scalability is transferable to the entire vehicle model. Some exemplary results of the model are shown, such as the influence of axle load distribution, choice of high-energy or highpower cells and potential of longitudinal torque-vectoring for multi-motor topologies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Realization and Control of the Lupo EL Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 14-23; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010014 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 287
Abstract
During fall 2009, the Eindhoven University of Technology started the development of the Lupo EL (Electric Lightweight) research vehicle. The vehicle is fully operational now, allowed to drive on the public road and used in several research projects. This paper will focus more [...] Read more.
During fall 2009, the Eindhoven University of Technology started the development of the Lupo EL (Electric Lightweight) research vehicle. The vehicle is fully operational now, allowed to drive on the public road and used in several research projects. This paper will focus more in-depth on the vehicle development and the research performed. The following subjects will be addressed: vehicle realization, specification and performance, data acquisition systems and control systems. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Measuring Range Anxiety: the Substitution-Emergency-Detour (SED) Method
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 8-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010008 - 30 Mar 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 299
Abstract
Range anxiety has been widely recognized as a critical barrier for battery electric vehicles (BEV), but its measurement method is lacking. Such a knowledge gap makes it difficult to analyse the competiveness of and the demand for BEVs. This study develops the Substitution-Emergency-Detour [...] Read more.
Range anxiety has been widely recognized as a critical barrier for battery electric vehicles (BEV), but its measurement method is lacking. Such a knowledge gap makes it difficult to analyse the competiveness of and the demand for BEVs. This study develops the Substitution-Emergency-Detour (SED) method to measure the range anxiety cost, and conducts sensitivity analysis of range anxiety cost with respect to nine factors. It is found that the most effective ways to reduce range anxiety are reducing driving intensity, increasing the vehicle range, extending the vehicle range with better charging infrastructure. Better household vehicle flexibility and less range uncertainty can also significantly reduce range anxiety. The SED method and the numerical results are expected to contribute to better understanding of the range anxiety barrier and the BEV demand. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of an EV Drive Torque Control System for Improving Vehicle Handling Performance Through Steering Improvements
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 1-7; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010001 - 30 Mar 2012
Viewed by 265
Abstract
At Nissan we have developed many different environmental technologies to date and launched sales of an electric vehicle (EV) in December 2010 that achieves zero carbon dioxide and zero exhaust emissions. Besides its outstanding environmental performance, this zero-emission EV also embodies new potentialities [...] Read more.
At Nissan we have developed many different environmental technologies to date and launched sales of an electric vehicle (EV) in December 2010 that achieves zero carbon dioxide and zero exhaust emissions. Besides its outstanding environmental performance, this zero-emission EV also embodies new potentialities not found in conventional gasoline-engine vehicles. The responsiveness and controllability of the electrified powertrain (EV drive motor) combine to provide an unprecedented driving experience that transforms conventional thinking about automobiles.This paper presents an EV drive torque control system that takes advantage of this EV-unique performance to provide handling capabilities for driving ease that anyone can enjoy. Full article
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