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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Plug-in Fuel Cell Vehicle Technology and Value Analysis

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
Redwood Shores, California, USA
Grosse Pointe Shores, Michigan, USA
Technische Universität Esslingen, Esslingen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 217-226;
Published: 30 March 2012
PDF [542 KB, uploaded 17 May 2018]


Plug-in Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PFCVs) offer reduced operating and manufacturing cost when compared to conventional hydrogen fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCVs), and improved range and refueling time when compared to grid charged Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). As such, PFCVs provide opportunity to combine the advantages and mitigate the limitations of both FCVs and EVs. Although the PFCV concept has been presented conceptually in the past, no quantitative analyses of its prospective technical, environmental and economic characteristics have been performed until recently. Motivated by the basic promise of a new high-efficiency, zero-emission vehicle, the authors have conducted an initial assessment of PFCVs in comparison with FCVs, BEVs and internal combustion engine-battery hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). This study was coordinated by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and supported by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Southern California Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The study approach included the identification of representative PFCV, FCV, BEV and PHEV vehicle configurations, the modeling of these configurations, and the determination of their energy use, well-to-wheel carbon dioxide emissions, and cost characteristics. Results show that, with economies of scale, PFCVs can offer a competitive alternative to conventional PHEVs with the added benefits of being 100% petroleum independent and having zero tailpipe emissions. Within the context of PFCVs, a wide range of design freedom is possible; this study suggests that low power fuel cells and high energy batteries provide optimal benefits for environmental and cost metrics. The optimal vehicle can be described as a hydrogen fuel cell, hybrid electric, range-extending vehicle (FCEREV).
Keywords: EREV; fuel cell; hydrogen; PHEV; simulation EREV; fuel cell; hydrogen; PHEV; simulation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Fox, M.D.; Geller, B.M.; Bradley, T.H.; Kalhammer, F.R.; Kopf, B.M.; Panik, F. Plug-in Fuel Cell Vehicle Technology and Value Analysis. World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5, 217-226.

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