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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.

Table of Contents

World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2010) , Pages 671-947

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Open AccessArticle
Electric Charging Station in Hong Kong
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 943-947; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040943 - 31 Dec 2010
Viewed by 216
Abstract
In this paper, an Electric Vehicle (EV) charging system, which is jointly designed by the research center and local power-distribution company, would be presented. The system consists of a number of Charging Points (CPs), a control unit, a user-interface and an electronic payment [...] Read more.
In this paper, an Electric Vehicle (EV) charging system, which is jointly designed by the research center and local power-distribution company, would be presented. The system consists of a number of Charging Points (CPs), a control unit, a user-interface and an electronic payment mechanism. The CPs are gridconnected and allow power electronics connections for Battery Charging. Power supplies are controlled and monitored simultaneously by the control unit. Meanwhile, the charging system provides a userinterface that allows customers to select the desired charging time and read the charging status. The CPs are connected to the charging system via Ethernet thus the number of CPs could easily be extended once the power distribution line is established and CPs is connected to the grid. Electrical parameters, such as line voltage, current, power factor, etc. could be also acquired via Ethernet. The prototype was later developed into a commercial product with an electronic payment mechanism implemented and has been opened to public use for months. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of a Smart DC Micro-Grid for Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging and Discharging
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 939-942; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040939 - 31 Dec 2010
Viewed by 246
Abstract
This paper presents a smart DC micro-grid system for plug-in electric vehicle charging and discharging. This DC microgrid integrates the plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEVs) & plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) together with the AC supply module, storage energy module, and intelligent control [...] Read more.
This paper presents a smart DC micro-grid system for plug-in electric vehicle charging and discharging. This DC microgrid integrates the plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEVs) & plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) together with the AC supply module, storage energy module, and intelligent control module. By connecting with the AC power source and the storage energy module, this grid can offer three types of DC bidirectional interfaces for the plug-in EV charging and discharging. Hence, according to the commands from the intelligent control module, the power in the grid can smartly distribute to the desired plug-in EVs. The system configuration and the testing model are discussed and analyzed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Considering Hydrogen Fuel Cells Powertrain as Power Generation Plant
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 933-938; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040933 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 217
Abstract
Every day more than 90% of vehicles are parked, even during peak traffic hours. In this situation, the vehicle power generation system hydrogen fuel cell based (H2FC Powertrain), if properly equipped, could become a new power generation source, supplying electricity to homes and [...] Read more.
Every day more than 90% of vehicles are parked, even during peak traffic hours. In this situation, the vehicle power generation system hydrogen fuel cell based (H2FC Powertrain), if properly equipped, could become a new power generation source, supplying electricity to homes and to the grid like a new type of distributed generation: Vehicleto- Grid (V2G). The V2G concept is well known but, in the paper, the H2FC Powertrain is considered as power generation plant and, based only on public data, it is compared with the traditional power generation technologies. The results are surprising. Using only tested H2FC Powertrain data (DOE 2009, referred to projected high volume production) we found that the cost generating baseload electricity would be in a range of USD 179,2 - 196,7 for MWh. Comparing this cost range with the levelised costs of electricity (LCOE) published in the most recent studies, H2FC Powertrain generation would be at lower cost than wind offshore, solar thermal and solar photovoltaic. However, using the 2015 DOE data target the of H2FC Powertrain, electricity production cost range moves to USD 106,6 - 156,6 for MWh, and, in most of the context, it appears competitive with all the power generation technologies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
CITYELEC: A global solution approach for the electrification of urban mobility in Spain
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 927-932; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040927 - 31 Dec 2010
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Urban mobility electrification is a high complex optimization problem, which needs to be approached from an integrated point of view in terms of electric infrastructure and electric vehicle fleet connection. In a first stage is necessary to define the high level specifications, and [...] Read more.
Urban mobility electrification is a high complex optimization problem, which needs to be approached from an integrated point of view in terms of electric infrastructure and electric vehicle fleet connection. In a first stage is necessary to define the high level specifications, and the optimal size for both infrastructure and electric vehicle fleet, according to the sustainable mobility expected targets of the city analyzed, e.g. mobility covered/filled areas, emission reduction, consumption reduction, cost reduction, energy & mobility efficiencies. In order to obtain the optimum integrated solution, a global approach of the problem is essential, moving from the high level definition of electric vehicle fleet and infrastructure, to the more detailed definition of systems and subsystems derived. CITYELEC is a strategy R&D Spanish project, analyzing, covering and solving the particular urban mobility electrification problem in some cities of Spain, starting from the high level definition of the urban mobility issues, and concluding in the detailed definition of the vehicle and infrastructure specifications. In CITYELEC project, special methodologies, global modelling and simulation tools, and advanced systems and subsystems are being under research and development, aiming for the optimum electro mobility integrated solution, including the infrastructure and the electric vehicle fleet. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Matching Accessories: Standardization Developments in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 921-926; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040921 - 31 Dec 2010
Viewed by 206
Abstract
The availability of charging infrastructure is one of the key issues to allow a wholesale deployment of electrically propelled vehicles (battery-electrics and plug-in hybrids). International standardization is essential in order to obtain safe and compatible solutions. This paper presents current developments in the [...] Read more.
The availability of charging infrastructure is one of the key issues to allow a wholesale deployment of electrically propelled vehicles (battery-electrics and plug-in hybrids). International standardization is essential in order to obtain safe and compatible solutions. This paper presents current developments in the field. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Different Vehicle Technologies in Singapore
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 912-920; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040912 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 319
Abstract
Singapore is a diamond-shaped island with several surrounding smaller islets. It has a flat coastline with a land area of 710 km2 in 2009. With a highly urbanized city and limited land space, Singapore has been faced with problems of road congestion [...] Read more.
Singapore is a diamond-shaped island with several surrounding smaller islets. It has a flat coastline with a land area of 710 km2 in 2009. With a highly urbanized city and limited land space, Singapore has been faced with problems of road congestion and rapid growth in car population. Electric vehicles (EVs) provide low emission urban transportation. Even taking into account the emissions from power plants needed to fuel EVs, the use of EVs still reduce carbon dioxide emissions significantly. From the energy aspect, EVs are efficient. EVs are promising alternative fuel vehicles that can reduce energy consumptions and carbon dioxide emissions in Singapore. A life cycle cost model was built to calculate life cycle costs of EVs and internal combustion engine cars in Singapore. It was found that EV is the most expensive car under current Green Vehicle Rebate scheme. The EV will be economically viable in Singapore if there is a breakthrough at batteries to cut EV prices. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the influence of JC08-based cycle stress on batteries in plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 906-911; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040906 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 262
Abstract
Although plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are expected to reduce both consumption of petroleum and emission of CO2 in comparison with ordinary hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), these advantages strongly depend on the reliability of batteries in PHEVs. For instance, their capacity reduction [...] Read more.
Although plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are expected to reduce both consumption of petroleum and emission of CO2 in comparison with ordinary hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), these advantages strongly depend on the reliability of batteries in PHEVs. For instance, their capacity reduction by degradation shortens the range of the travelling distance with electrical energy. However, there are no concrete test methods to evaluate the degradation of the batteries. In order to construct a test method for the evaluation of battery degradation, load conditions that reflect the situation of an actual vehicle in use has been investigated. In this study, the degrees of influence of two load terms, both a specific charge/discharge load (corresponding to the cycle life) and a thermal load (corresponding to the calendar life), in the capacity reduction were compared and a condition for an accelerated test was also discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Consequence-based Safety Distances and Mitigation Measures for Gaseous Hydrogen Refueling Stations
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 897-905; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040897 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 233
Abstract
With the rapid development of hydrogen vehicle technology and large scale fuel cell vehicle (FCV) demonstration project worldwide, more hydrogen refueling stations need to be built. Safety distances of hydrogen refueling stations have always been a public concern and have become a critical [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of hydrogen vehicle technology and large scale fuel cell vehicle (FCV) demonstration project worldwide, more hydrogen refueling stations need to be built. Safety distances of hydrogen refueling stations have always been a public concern and have become a critical issue to further implementation of hydrogen station. In this paper, safety distances for 35MPa and 70MPa gaseous hydrogen refueling station are evaluated on the basis of the maximum consequences likely to occur. Four typical consequences of hydrogen release are considered in modeling: physical explosion, jet fire, flash fire and confined vapor cloud explosion. Results show that physical explosion and the worst case of confined vapor cloud explosion produce the longest harm effect distances for instantaneous and continuous release, respectively, indicating that they may be considered as leading consequences for the determination of safety distances. For both 35MPa station and 70MPa station, safety measures must be implemented because the calculated safety distances of most hydrogen facilities can not meet the criteria in national code if without sufficient mitigation measures. In order to reduce the safety distances to meet the national code, some mitigation measures are investigated including elevation of hydrogen facilities, using smaller vessel and pipe work, and setting enclosure around compressors. Results show that these measures are effective to improve safety but each has different effectiveness on safety distance reduction. The combination of these safety measures may effectively eliminate the hazard of 35MPa station, however, may be not enough for 70MPa station. Further improvements need to be studied for compressors inside 70MPa station. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Commercial solution to mass penetration of first generation battery electric vehicle in China
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 890-896; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040890 - 31 Dec 2010
Viewed by 264
Abstract
With the rapid increasing of motor stock in China, the pressure from climate changing and energy safety is more pressing and the GHG emission and fuel efficiency regulation are more rigid to initiate the electrification of the transportation. Despite the rapid progress currently [...] Read more.
With the rapid increasing of motor stock in China, the pressure from climate changing and energy safety is more pressing and the GHG emission and fuel efficiency regulation are more rigid to initiate the electrification of the transportation. Despite the rapid progress currently being made in the global electric vehicle technologies, substantial barriers to widespread vehicle adoption still exist, such as higher price, inconvenience charging, limited range, battery environmental issues etc. In this paper, an innovative business model of battery leasing is provided and its commercial potential is analyzed as well. The new business model will pave the way for the EV rolling out in China. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Changes of Japanese Consumer Preference for Electric Vehicles
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 880-889; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040880 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 239
Abstract
Changes of Japanese consumer preference for electric vehicles (EVs) with new EV commercialisation and subsidy implementation has been quantitatively evaluated by applying conjoint analysis to the respondents choice experiment data collected by internet questionnaire survey that have been conducted in February 2009 and [...] Read more.
Changes of Japanese consumer preference for electric vehicles (EVs) with new EV commercialisation and subsidy implementation has been quantitatively evaluated by applying conjoint analysis to the respondents choice experiment data collected by internet questionnaire survey that have been conducted in February 2009 and 2010. Powertrains (battery electric vehicle (BEV), gasoline hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and gasoline plug-in HEV (PHEV)), vehicle price, vehicle range, driving cost and passenger capacity have been chosen as attributes of vehicles and marginal utility and its monetary measure of each attribute have been calculated by setting the gasoline vehicle (GV) with typical specifications as baseline. The estimated results indicate that the vehicle range of BEVs under the current battery technology level lead to utility decline and that those EVs with fewer seats by mounting devices for electric driving would not be accepted by consumers. In terms of powertrain selection, consumers express strong preference for HEVs, whereas for BEVs and PHEVs they express low / negative preference or hold their judgment for choosing. From the comparison of the estimated marginal utilities for powertrain in 2009 and 2010, significant statistical differences are found for HEVs and Kei passenger type BEVs. Moreover, it is confirmed that implementation of has played an important role to enhance consciousness of HEVs and Kei passenger type BEVs as environmentally friendly vehicles. It is true that the current subsidy has played an important role to raise awareness of some kind of EVs. However, in order to improve environment by diffusing other kinds of EVs that have higher environmental performance than HEVs, not only the commercialisation of those kinds of vehicles that satisfy consumer needs at acceptable vehicle price levels but also further schemes should be required to gain consumer recognition especially for BEVs and PHEVs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Living Space Analysis in the Battery Leasing Business
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 870-879; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040870 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 213
Abstract
The paper analyzes the living space of the battery leasing company in the business model “vehicle and battery separated, battery leasing”, and its effected factors such as the battery price, the battery life cycle, the gasoline price, as well as battery type and [...] Read more.
The paper analyzes the living space of the battery leasing company in the business model “vehicle and battery separated, battery leasing”, and its effected factors such as the battery price, the battery life cycle, the gasoline price, as well as battery type and vehicle type. The results have shown that leasing battery cannot get profit under the current battery price, life-cycle, gasoline price, and the financial subsidies. However, with the decrease of the battery price and the increase of battery cycle life and the gasoline price, the battery leasing company is possible to get the living space. Micro EVs give the battery leasing company an upper bound 10 percent higher than that of the compact EVs in the same situation. To make the living space of the battery leasing company just exist, the financial subsidies should be at least 5000 RMB/kw.h. The application of lead-acid battery will help the battery leasing company gain the living space. The lower bound corresponding to the lead-acid battery is only 23 percent of that corresponding to the li-ion battery. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Technology Evolution in Formula Electric and Hybrid Italy
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 865-869; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040865 - 31 Dec 2010
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Formula Electric and Hybrid Italy is an annual international competition among student teams of University and Technical Institutes students, exhibiting and demonstrating vehicles developed by themselves, incorporating innovative technological concepts and solutions for Battery electric, Hybrid and Fuel cell vehicles.
The aims are:
[...] Read more.
Formula Electric and Hybrid Italy is an annual international competition among student teams of University and Technical Institutes students, exhibiting and demonstrating vehicles developed by themselves, incorporating innovative technological concepts and solutions for Battery electric, Hybrid and Fuel cell vehicles.
The aims are:
The competitive events offer an overview of the advanced technology and trends in the field of electrically propelled road vehicles.
From the beginning in 2005 the technology achievements in the field of battery, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles have been progressively enriched and contributed to introduce new concepts, solution validation, for hint to industrial development and market indication.
The results, achieved with the contribution of student teams of various European, American and Asian Countries, concern innovations and validation in the field of:
- Hybrid propulsion technology, including “plug-in” operation
- Electric power train, including multiple motors drive and new regenerative braking concept
- Application and management of advanced storage systems, Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors
- Fuel cell vehicle operation
The operation in team by students on engineering projects, oriented to competition, is a stimulating factor to the innovation and an important element for their technical and cultural formation, in view of their future integration in the industrial world. Full article
Open AccessArticle
SIM-Drive
-About the efficient electric vehicle spread strategy by open source method-
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 860-864; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040860 - 31 Dec 2010
Viewed by 226
Abstract
This proposal describes new electric vehicles (EVs), whose development has been led by SIM-Drive Corporation. Presently, Dr.Hiroshi Shimizu(President of SIM-Drive Corporation) has completed eight prototype vehicles; he is now developing the next prototype that is comparable to the current models of EVs that [...] Read more.
This proposal describes new electric vehicles (EVs), whose development has been led by SIM-Drive Corporation. Presently, Dr.Hiroshi Shimizu(President of SIM-Drive Corporation) has completed eight prototype vehicles; he is now developing the next prototype that is comparable to the current models of EVs that are available on the market.The development technique is a open source method. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Safety Design of CHAdeMO Quick Charging System
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 855-859; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040855 - 31 Dec 2010
Viewed by 254
Abstract
At present, low-output 1 to 2 kW AC electric vehicle chargers are the norm for the charging infrastructure installed in residential areas and business offices. In order to shorten the charging times, there is a belief that it would be best to implement [...] Read more.
At present, low-output 1 to 2 kW AC electric vehicle chargers are the norm for the charging infrastructure installed in residential areas and business offices. In order to shorten the charging times, there is a belief that it would be best to implement changes that would increase the kW output. However, an objective look at the conditions surrounding the charging process shows such modifications are not necessary. There is a sufficient amount of charging time available and the upgrading of the distribution power grid would require the installation of additional high-power electrical equipment that would ultimately burden users.
Nevertheless, in some cases, fast charging is necessary. Hence, in order to fulfill this need, the installation of a moderate number of quick chargers would be more effective than increasing the output of the individual AC chargers in a halfway manner. The role of this quick-charging infrastructure would primarily be supplementary and in order to achieve a substantial reduction in the charging time, the output would have to be boosted up to around 50kW. Such upgrades would increase the risks associated with high voltage electricity such as electric shocks, burn injuries and fires.
Therefore, after taking these risks into consideration, the CHAdeMO quick charger was designed so that general users will not be exposed to any unnecessary danger when charging their EVs. A report of the CHAdeMO quick charger design features is as follows. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Research on the Diffusion Speed of EV based on Diffusion Process Analysis of New Consumer Electronics Products
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 846-854; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040846 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 209
Abstract
Predicting how the electric vehicle market will develop in the future is an important issue, not only for countries that have been leading the car market, such as Japan, but also for developing countries. Thus, in order to predict the diffusion of electric [...] Read more.
Predicting how the electric vehicle market will develop in the future is an important issue, not only for countries that have been leading the car market, such as Japan, but also for developing countries. Thus, in order to predict the diffusion of electric vehicles, the diffusion speed and price transition of existing cars were analyzed quantitatively, and research was performed to clarify the optimum prediction method for the diffusion rate of a car. In a prior study, the diffusion speed and price transition of new products after the commencement of sales were studied using consumer electronics products. The key roles played by the engineering development and the production and sales of a key device for each consumer electronics product were established. Furthermore, the obtained results could be extended to the auto industry, where the same tendency is observed. In this study, the results were expressed by a quantitative pattern and applied to the prediction of the diffusion speed and price transition of an electric vehicle. First, in relation to the diffusion, it was found that the countrywide establishment of quick charge stations has priority over a reduction in the price of an electric vehicle. Next, in order to predict the diffusion speed, electric vehicles were divided into compact EVs (replacements for compact cars) and micro-EVs (think of a product category between a compact car and a motorcycle), and were analyzed individually. Each key device was specified, and estimations were made of its development, production, and supply. The use of this method revealed that the diffusion rate for compact EVs will reach 20% approximately 14 years from the commencement of sales and that the diffusion speed for micro-EVs is dependent on the battery development speed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Environmental-friendliness of Waseda Advanced Electric Micro Bus
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 835-845; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040835 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 213
Abstract
The Waseda Advanced Electric Micro Bus (WEB) has been developed and tested for convenient regional public transportation. By adopting an advanced hybrid electric power supply system (Nickel Sodium Chloride Battery & Super capacitor for WEB-1, Nickel Sodium Chloride Battery & Li-ion Battery for [...] Read more.
The Waseda Advanced Electric Micro Bus (WEB) has been developed and tested for convenient regional public transportation. By adopting an advanced hybrid electric power supply system (Nickel Sodium Chloride Battery & Super capacitor for WEB-1, Nickel Sodium Chloride Battery & Li-ion Battery for WEB-2) and related key components, significant improvements in energy consumption and CO2 emissions have been achieved, compared to that of an equivalent diesel micro bus. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Creating new value-added configurations in the electric vehicle industry
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 823-834; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040823 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 220
Abstract
As the electric vehicle industry prepares to make the transition from niche to volume applications, so it is apparent that the traditional automotive industry value chain is insufficient to the task. The successful production, sale and use of electric vehicles on a large [...] Read more.
As the electric vehicle industry prepares to make the transition from niche to volume applications, so it is apparent that the traditional automotive industry value chain is insufficient to the task. The successful production, sale and use of electric vehicles on a large scale demands that the industry look beyond traditional boundaries to create new value added configurations. In this perspective, electric vehicles are not simply another technology that can be folded into the existing way of doing business for the automotive industry. On the contrary, this paper seeks to show that the mass adoption of electric vehicles will bring new ways of creating and capturing added value. The growth of the electric vehicle sector is unlikely to be entirely monopolized by the existing major vehicle manufacturers, although it is entirely reasonable to expect that their overall preeminence will be preserved as the entities with the technological capability, brand reputation and marketing knowledge and structures to build and supply electric vehicles to customers. It is concluded that about designing product and mobility offerings to achieve market acceptance in the face of levels of fragmentation and turbulence unprecedented in the industry. Risk aversion may not constitute a viable strategy in these circumstances, but neither are there simple solutions to be applied. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of CHAdeMO Quick Charging System
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 818-822; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040818 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 241
Abstract
In the transportation sector, electric vehicles (EV) are expected to play an instrumental role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions due to their eco-friendly and high-energy efficiency features. Further, in light of recent plans that have been announced globally to introduce the EV, it [...] Read more.
In the transportation sector, electric vehicles (EV) are expected to play an instrumental role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions due to their eco-friendly and high-energy efficiency features. Further, in light of recent plans that have been announced globally to introduce the EV, it is believed that the spread of this new technology will be inevitable.
Although EVs were on track to become widespread many times in the past, they never did take off and the underlying reason(s) why must be investigated so as to not repeat the same mistakes that had prevented the past dissemination of this revolutionary new technology.
The major factor impeding the spread of EVs is the limited capacity of the lithium ion battery stored inside the vehicle. Although, there have been price and performance improvements allowing for widespread application to cell phones and computers etcetera, the exorbitant costs make substantial onboard battery enhancements prohibitive. Although the present infrastructure is unable to support electric vehicles, it is believed that with sufficient upgrades such facilities can be made useful and help pave the way for reduced battery capacity. In developing the design of the CHAdeMO standard quick charger, the following past infrastructure challenges were addressed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Modelling, Evaluation and Optimization of Vehicle-to-Grid Operation
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 809-817; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040809 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 175
Abstract
This paper describes a simulation model of PHEV integration with the grid. This model provides primary PHEV charging and discharging scenarios based on the general PHEV owner behaviors and the typical PHEV charging circuitry configuration. Initially, the uncontrolled PHEV charging scenarios are performed [...] Read more.
This paper describes a simulation model of PHEV integration with the grid. This model provides primary PHEV charging and discharging scenarios based on the general PHEV owner behaviors and the typical PHEV charging circuitry configuration. Initially, the uncontrolled PHEV charging scenarios are performed to evaluate the impact of the PHEV loading on the distribution grid operation. The night charging scenario is chosen for detailed analysis and the load flow is used to calculate the power distribution and loss on the 33-bus test power network. The results indicate the inadequacy of current power capacity to meet the growing electricity demand from PHEVs. A simple control method of off-peak charging is performed to show the improvement in voltage levelling and line loading. Therefore, the appropriate control scheme should be derived for regulating the PHEV charging and discharging. An optimal algorithm is proposed for utilizing the PHEV charging and discharging power in a distribution system to minimize the total real power loss. During charging period, the power rate of individual battery charging is coordinated according to the optimal objective and constraints of charger, battery and power grid. Compared to the uncontrolled PHEV charging results, the optimal algorithm can achieve the maximum loss reduction for each charging scenario. Moreover, voltage drop at each node is limited in a tolerable range while the tightened branch current restrictions are satisfied. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Life Cycle Assessment of Rapeseed Biodiesel
by and
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 804-808; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040804 - 31 Dec 2010
Viewed by 189
Abstract
Life Cycle Assessment(LCA), objective of which is to elucidate the impact of biodiesel on energy supply and natural environment and its economic value while giving an assessment on commercialization application of biodiesel, is performed in this study. Based on LCA methodology, production cost [...] Read more.
Life Cycle Assessment(LCA), objective of which is to elucidate the impact of biodiesel on energy supply and natural environment and its economic value while giving an assessment on commercialization application of biodiesel, is performed in this study. Based on LCA methodology, production cost and CO2 emission estimation of rapeseed biodiesel industry were conducted. Results of the assessment indicate that the total amount of absorbed CO2 during the whole life cycle of rapeseed biodiesel is much larger than that has been emitted and rapeseed biodiesel is really an environment-friendly energy source. With the contribution of biodiesel derived from rapeseed oil made during the process of its full life cycle, green house emissions could be enormously reduced. However, in terms of production cost, the phenomenon that considerable portion of the total cost is occupied by the cost of raw material is observed in rapeseed biodiesel. Specifically, the portion of raw material cost is larger than 89% while the portion of crew oil is larger than 87%. The improvement of economical efficiency in the commercialization application of rapeseed biodiesel depends on the reduction of raw material cost. If we want to develop rapeseed biodiesel in China, government’s encouraging policies, such as tax exceptions and financial subsidies, are necessary. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fuel Cell Hybrid Taxi Well-to-Wheel Life-Cycle Analysis
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 798-803; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040798 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 313
Abstract
In a collaboration led by hydrogen fuel cell developer Intelligent Energy, a fleet of classic London cabs fitted out with hydrogen fuel cell power systems will be produced, with the objective of having a small fleet ready for full road trials in time [...] Read more.
In a collaboration led by hydrogen fuel cell developer Intelligent Energy, a fleet of classic London cabs fitted out with hydrogen fuel cell power systems will be produced, with the objective of having a small fleet ready for full road trials in time for the 2012 Olympics. This research develops the Well-to-Wheel (WTW) Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) for two hydrogen powered vehicle powertrain options (fuel cell plug-in hybrid vehicle, PHEV-FC; and fuel cell hybrid vehicle, HEV-FC), in comparison to the conventional ICE Diesel Taxi and a full electric vehicle (EV). In terms of energy pathways, the introduction of these different vehicle technologies is associated with alternative energy sources in a Taxi fleet so the following fuel pathways are compared: diesel, considering the average European diesel fuel characteristics; electricity, considering the 2008 UK electricity generation mix; and hydrogen, considering the compressed hydrogen option from centralized natural gas reforming. This Well-to-Wheel analysis combines the Tank-to-Wheel (TTW), which accounts for the emissions and fuel consumption that result from moving the vehicle through its drive cycle, with the Well-to-Tank (WTT), which accounts for the fuel production stage. For the European certification driving cycle (NEDC), the PHEV-FC Taxi resulted in the lower WTW energy and CO2 emissions results (2.99 MJ/km and 159 g/km), followed by the HEV-FC Taxi (3.28 MJ/km and 174 g/km), and by the EV (3.21 MJ/km and 173 g/km), compared to the ICE Diesel (3.60 MJ/km and 280 g/km). For a more demanding London driving cycle a 33, 28, 54 and 154% increase in the WTW energy consumption and CO2 emissions is observed for the PHEV-FC Taxi, HEV-FC Taxi, EV and ICE Diesel respectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells Using in the Car
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 793-797; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040793 - 31 Dec 2010
Viewed by 224
Abstract
In recent years, renewable energy technologies are being explored to meet the challenges of energy security and climate change. Solar energy is a clean and green renewable source of energy. It is an inevitable option to use photovoltaic effect to directly convert sunlight [...] Read more.
In recent years, renewable energy technologies are being explored to meet the challenges of energy security and climate change. Solar energy is a clean and green renewable source of energy. It is an inevitable option to use photovoltaic effect to directly convert sunlight into electricity. CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) thin films were formed from an electrodeposited CuInSe2 (CIS) precursor by thermal processing in vacuum in which the film stoichiometry was adjusted by adding In, Ga and Se. The structure, composition, morphology and opto-electronic properties of the as-deposited and selenized CIS precursors were characterized by various techniques. A 17.2% CIGS based thin film solar cell was developed using the electrodeposited and processed film. The cell structure consisted of Mo/CIGS/CdS/ZnO/MgF2. The cell parameters such as Jsc, Voc, FF and η were determined from I-V characterization of the cell. The solar electric vehicle is made using flexible thin film solar cells. With the solar cell the full charge endurance of SEV can be increased about 35% substantially compared with no solar cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Electric Vehicles based on Long-term Travel Activity Data of Passenger Cars
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 787-792; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040787 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 194
Abstract
This study aimed to clarify whether currently available electric vehicles (EVs) could feasibly match the performance of gasoline-powered passenger cars with respect to the actual travel activity data collected for 18 gasoline-powered cars over the years 2006 and 2007 in Tsukuba in Japan. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to clarify whether currently available electric vehicles (EVs) could feasibly match the performance of gasoline-powered passenger cars with respect to the actual travel activity data collected for 18 gasoline-powered cars over the years 2006 and 2007 in Tsukuba in Japan. We examined 3 types of EV of different vehicle size and battery capacity, and calculated the running energy of each based on the vehicle specifications and actual speed pattern data. Auxiliary energy consumption such as that required for headlights at nighttime and air-conditioning on hot or cold days was added to the running energy. Supposing charging ability of 100V and 8A at home, when the energy consumed during a day did not exceed the initial available energy of the battery, we determined that the EV could replace a gasolinepowered vehicle for that day. Our calculations showed that an EV with a 9 kWh battery could completely replace only 1 of the 18 cars, and EVs with a 16 or 24 kWh battery could completely replace only 3 more. However, we found that an EV with a 16 or 24 kWh battery could replace 17 out of the 18 cars if we accept that we may not be able to use the EV or may need to use fast charging 2 days a month. Simply increasing the battery capacity is not sufficient because the larger the EV’s battery the bigger and heavier the vehicle and the longer the charging time needed. Though it is necessary to improve the charging ability at home, it might be a good policy that we think the use of other transportation rather than making an EV perfect so as to match the long-range travel needs one or two days a month. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Environmental performance of a battery electric vehicle: a descriptive Life Cycle Assessment approach
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 782-786; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040782 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 422
Abstract
In this paper the environmental impacts of a battery electric vehicle (BEV) are assessed in a Belgian context. A full descriptive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed, including the well-to-wheel (WTW) emissions (for a BEV these are the emissions coming from the electricity [...] Read more.
In this paper the environmental impacts of a battery electric vehicle (BEV) are assessed in a Belgian context. A full descriptive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed, including the well-to-wheel (WTW) emissions (for a BEV these are the emissions coming from the electricity production) and the cradle-tograve emissions (related directly and indirectly to the production and the end-of-life (EOL) processing of the vehicle). First an overview of the energy consumption of the different vehicle technologies is given. This clearly shows that battery electric vehicles are less energy intensive than other vehicle technologies. Secondly, the environmental impacts of a BEV during its entire life cycle are assessed in detail. This illustrates the relative importance of the manufacturing step for a BEV and the strongly reduced environmental impact when recycling the battery. Furthermore, the influence of the electricity supply mix on the overall environmental impact of a BEV is assessed. The investigated electricity production plants include renewable and non-renewable resources: wind, hydro, nuclear, biogas, natural gas, oil and coal. The assessed impact categories are: acidification, human health and the greenhouse effect (GHE). A BEV has a better scores than a petrol vehicle except for the full coal or oil electricity production scenario, for which the BEV can have a bad score for human health and acidification. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Driver influence in hybrid vehicle economic appraisal
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 774-781; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040774 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 203
Abstract
Hybrids are seen as a potential solution to urban traffic pollution and energy consumption; however studies show how pollution economic appraisal is one order of magnitude lower than fuel cost putting all the burden of the economic success the hybrid capability of reducing [...] Read more.
Hybrids are seen as a potential solution to urban traffic pollution and energy consumption; however studies show how pollution economic appraisal is one order of magnitude lower than fuel cost putting all the burden of the economic success the hybrid capability of reducing fuel consumption.
Two Honda Civic Hybrid of the Italian Ministry of Environment fleet were constantly monitored while driven one each by the calmest and by the most aggressive of the Ministry drivers to assess driver effects on air pollutant emissions.
Measurements have shown how the aggressive driver emits 10 times more VOC, and 4 times more CO and NOx than the calm driver while consuming 35% more fuel. In the economic appraisal over the expected 14 years vehicle life however the aggressive driver costs 16 300 € while the aggressive one 22 500 € only 38% more. This is due to the extremely low cost of emissions (excluding CO2) which is 160 € for the calm driver and 610 € for the aggressive one for the entire life of the vehicle.
Unless pollutants are monetized according to the position where they are “left” in the atmosphere there is no way emission differences between cars and drivers can be reflected in any economic appraisal. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cost-Emission Analysis of Vehicle-to-Grid System
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 767-773; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040767 - 31 Dec 2010
Viewed by 192
Abstract
In recent years, electric vehicles (EVs) have been widely accepted by general publics due to their low emissions. Particularly, those EVs which are able to be connected to power grid have earned lots of attention. In this paper, a multilayer framework is newly [...] Read more.
In recent years, electric vehicles (EVs) have been widely accepted by general publics due to their low emissions. Particularly, those EVs which are able to be connected to power grid have earned lots of attention. In this paper, a multilayer framework is newly proposed for vehicle-to-grid operation and cost-emission analysis is carried out based on this framework. Hence, operation cost and emissions can be reduced by using these gridable EVs. The key is to introduce particle swarm optimization to find out the optimal scheduling of generating units and gridable EVs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cabin Heat Removal from an Electric Car
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 760-766; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040760 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 212
Abstract
This work studies the feasibility of reducing the temperature in an electric car cabin through a ventilation device. The temperature and velocity fields in the cabin were simultaneously solved for through CFD means. Current results show that most of the solar irradiation energy [...] Read more.
This work studies the feasibility of reducing the temperature in an electric car cabin through a ventilation device. The temperature and velocity fields in the cabin were simultaneously solved for through CFD means. Current results show that most of the solar irradiation energy is absorbed by the seats especially when they are directly hit by the sun beam. However, the seat temperature can be significantly brought down with the help of a ventilation device. There exists a flow rate which is sufficient enough to bring down the seat temperature. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Analysis and design for VMS EMC based on MPC555
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 754-759; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040754 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 194
Abstract
In order to ensure the vehicle management system (VMS) satisfy the RE and CE standards which are required by national regulations, the EMC design method is necessary to be integrated into the controller PCB design flow. Through filtering for signal line and decoupling [...] Read more.
In order to ensure the vehicle management system (VMS) satisfy the RE and CE standards which are required by national regulations, the EMC design method is necessary to be integrated into the controller PCB design flow. Through filtering for signal line and decoupling for power system on VMS based on MPC555, the properties of VMS’ EMC are improved. With spectrum analyzer and EMSCAN near-field scanner, the feasibility of Antiinterference measures is verified. The VMS passed the CE test level 5 and the RE test level 4 in CISPR25: 2002. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Wireless Power Transfer System via Magnetic Resonant Coupling at Fixed Resonance Frequency
-Power Transfer System Based on Impedance Matching-
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 744-753; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040744 - 31 Dec 2010
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 303
Abstract
To increase the usage of electric vehicles (EV), a safe and convenient method to charge the vehicles is essential. Recently, an efficient mid range wireless power transfer that uses magnetic resonant coupling, WiTricity, was proposed, and has received much attention due to its [...] Read more.
To increase the usage of electric vehicles (EV), a safe and convenient method to charge the vehicles is essential. Recently, an efficient mid range wireless power transfer that uses magnetic resonant coupling, WiTricity, was proposed, and has received much attention due to its practical range and efficiency. Studies show that the resonance frequency of the antennas changes as the gap between the antennas change. However, when this technology is applied in the MHz range (which allows small sized antennas), the usable frequency is bounded by the Industrial, Science, Medical (ISM) band. Therefore, to achieve maximum power transmission efficiency, the resonance frequency has to be fixed within the ISM band. In this paper, the possibility of using impedance matching (IM) networks to adjust the resonance frequency of a pair of antennas at a certain distance to 13.56MHz is studied. The simulations and experiments show that the IM circuits can change the frequency to 13.56MHz for different air gaps, improving the power transfer efficiency. Experiments also show that IM can be achieved just by observing and minimizing the reflected wave. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Vehicle Characterization for Smart Charging and V2G strategies
World Electr. Veh. J. 2010, 4(4), 733-743; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj4040733 - 31 Dec 2010
Viewed by 211
Abstract
TECNALIA has become a key active player in technology development for electric vehicles (EVs), in the fields of materials, mechanics, power electronics and smartgrids. In order to contribute to the development of the technologies dealing with the new paradigm that integrates EV within [...] Read more.
TECNALIA has become a key active player in technology development for electric vehicles (EVs), in the fields of materials, mechanics, power electronics and smartgrids. In order to contribute to the development of the technologies dealing with the new paradigm that integrates EV within the grid, where large EV fleets are connected to the grid and can even take part in the electricity markets, TECNALIA has deepen into the definition of the information needed in order to define the charging sequence of EVs. This paper explains the characterization of those elements, related to the vehicle and the user, which could influence on the definition of the optimal charging sequence of EVs. Modelling the behaviour of the vehicle charging system leads to the possibility of establishing charging sequences that minimize the energy spent per charging cycle. This information has been included in a communication protocol developed by TECNALIA and implemented in the EV-ON platform, which purpose is the development of smart charging and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) algorithms. Full article
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