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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Gear Shift and Engine Start Losses on Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

1
Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
2
Drivetrain Innovations B.V., Croy 46, 5653 LD Eindhoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5(1), 125-136; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5010125
Published: 30 March 2012
PDF [587 KB, uploaded 17 May 2018]

Abstract

In this paper, energetic loss models in the events of shifting gear and starting engine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle equipped with an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) will be introduced. The optimal control algorithm for the start-stop, power split and gear shift problem based on Dynamic Programming-Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle control approach is used to evaluate the effect of gear shift and engine start losses on the optimal solution. Furthermore, with preview route information available, a model predictive control algorithm is utilized to investigate the achievable fuel savings with respect to the prediction horizon. Under influence of the gear shift loss, simulation results of the prototype hybrid passenger car disclose a superior fuel efficiency property of the powershift AMT over its normal AMT counterpart. Sensitivity analysis of the traction force interruption time in a gear shift process can give a new perception on fuel economy benefit of powershift transmissions (e.g. automatic, dual clutch, powershift AMT, etc.) over a normal AMT. The study also reveals a minimum prediction length of 4s required for the design of such a realtime implementable controller to get the possible maximum fuel economy level under the impact of the engine start loss.
Keywords: gear shift loss; engine start loss; hybrid electric vehicle; dynamic programming-Pontryagin’s minimum principle; model predictive control gear shift loss; engine start loss; hybrid electric vehicle; dynamic programming-Pontryagin’s minimum principle; model predictive control
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ngo, V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A. Effect of Gear Shift and Engine Start Losses on Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles. World Electr. Veh. J. 2012, 5, 125-136.

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