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Future Internet, Volume 12, Issue 5 (May 2020) – 17 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In modern cloud- and fog-based architecture, the exchange, management, continued discovery, and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
DPIA in Context: Applying DPIA to Assess Privacy Risks of Cyber Physical Systems
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050093 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 322
Abstract
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) seamlessly integrate physical objects with technology, thereby blurring the boundaries between the physical and virtual environments. While this brings many opportunities for progress, it also adds a new layer of complexity to the risk assessment process when attempting to [...] Read more.
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) seamlessly integrate physical objects with technology, thereby blurring the boundaries between the physical and virtual environments. While this brings many opportunities for progress, it also adds a new layer of complexity to the risk assessment process when attempting to ascertain what privacy risks this might impose on an organisation. In addition, privacy regulations, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), mandate assessment of privacy risks, including making Data Protection Impact Assessments (DPIAs) compulsory. We present the DPIA Data Wheel, a holistic privacy risk assessment framework based on Contextual Integrity (CI), that practitioners can use to inform decision making around the privacy risks of CPS. This framework facilitates comprehensive contextual inquiry into privacy risk, that accounts for both the elicitation of privacy risks, and the identification of appropriate mitigation strategies. Further, by using this DPIA framework we also provide organisations with a means of assessing privacy from both the perspective of the organisation and the individual, thereby facilitating GDPR compliance. We empirically evaluate this framework in three different real-world settings. In doing so, we demonstrate how CI can be incorporated into the privacy risk decision-making process in a usable, practical manner that will aid decision makers in making informed privacy decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future and Emerging topics in Security for Cyber-Physical Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Neither Denied nor Exposed: Fixing WebRTC Privacy Leaks
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050092 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 393
Abstract
To establish peer-to-peer connections and achieve real-time web-based communication, the Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC) framework requires address information of the communicating peers. This means that users behind, say, Network Address Translation (NAT) or firewalls normally rely on the Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE) framework [...] Read more.
To establish peer-to-peer connections and achieve real-time web-based communication, the Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC) framework requires address information of the communicating peers. This means that users behind, say, Network Address Translation (NAT) or firewalls normally rely on the Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE) framework for the sake of negotiating information about the connection and media transferring. This typically involves Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN)/Traversal using Relays around NAT (TURN) servers, which assist the peers with discovering each other’s private and public IP:port, and relay traffic if direct connection fails. Nevertheless, these IP:port pieces of data can be easily captured by anyone who controls the corresponding STUN/TURN server, and even more become readily available to the JavaScript application running on the webpage. While this is acceptable for a user that deliberately initiates a WebRTC connection, it becomes a worrisome privacy issue for those being unaware that such a connection is attempted. Furthermore, the application acquires more information about the local network architecture compared to what is exposed in usual HTTP interactions, where only the public IP is visible. Even though this problem is well-known in the related literature, no practical solution has been proposed so far. To this end, and for the sake of detecting and preventing in real time the execution of STUN/TURN clandestine, privacy-invading requests, we introduce two different kinds of solutions: (a) a browser extension, and (b) an HTTP gateway, implemented in C++ as well as in Golang. Both solutions detect any WebRTC API call before it happens and inform accordingly the end-user about the webpage’s intentions. We meticulously evaluate the proposed schemes in terms of performance and demonstrate that, even in the worst case, the latency introduced is tolerable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cybersecurity)
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Open AccessArticle
A Bibliometric Overview of Twitter-Related Studies Indexed in Web of Science
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050091 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 671
Abstract
Twitter has been one of the most popular social network sites for academic research; the main objective of this study was to update the current knowledge boundary surrounding Twitter-related investigations and, further, identify the major research topics and analyze their evolution across time. [...] Read more.
Twitter has been one of the most popular social network sites for academic research; the main objective of this study was to update the current knowledge boundary surrounding Twitter-related investigations and, further, identify the major research topics and analyze their evolution across time. A bibliometric analysis has been applied in this article: we retrieved 19,205 Twitter-related academic articles from Web of Science after several steps of data cleaning and preparation. The R package “Bibliometrix” was mainly used in analyzing this content. Our study has two sections, and performance analysis contains 5 categories (Annual Scientific Production, Most Relevant Sources, Most Productive Authors, Most Cited Publications, Most Relevant Keywords.). The science mapping included country collaboration analysis and thematic analysis. We highlight our thematic analysis by splitting the whole bibliographic dataset into three temporal periods, thus a thematic evolution across time has been presented. This study is one of the most comprehensive bibliometric overview in analyzing Twitter-related studies by far. We proceed to explain how the results will benefit the understanding of current academic research interests on the social media giant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Web, New Media, Algorithms and Power)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Blockchain Structure for a Crowdsensing-Based Smart Parking System
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050090 - 16 May 2020
Viewed by 434
Abstract
As a representative example for the construction of a smart city, a smart parking system has been developed in past research and implemented through IoT and cloud technologies. However, the initial installation cost of IoT sensor devices is preventing the spread of this [...] Read more.
As a representative example for the construction of a smart city, a smart parking system has been developed in past research and implemented through IoT and cloud technologies. However, the initial installation cost of IoT sensor devices is preventing the spread of this technology, and thus as an alternative, a crowdsensing-based system, operating through data from publicly owned mobile devices, has been proposed. In this paper, we propose a multi-blockchain structure (i.e., constructed with public chain and private chain) in a crowdsensing-based smart parking system. In this structure, many sensing data contributors participate through the opened public blockchain, to transparently provide sensing information and to claim corresponding rewards. The private blockchain provides an environment for sharing the collected information among service providers in real time and for providing parking information to users. The bridge node performs an information relay role between the two blockchains. Performance analysis and security analysis on the implemented proposed system show the feasibility of our proposed system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things (IoT) Applications for Industry 4.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Simulation Tools for Fog Computing—A Comprehensive Survey from a Cost Perspective
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050089 - 16 May 2020
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Fog computing is an emerging and evolving technology, which bridges the cloud with the network edges, allowing computing to work in a decentralized manner. As such, it introduces a number of complex issues to the research community and the industry alike. Both of [...] Read more.
Fog computing is an emerging and evolving technology, which bridges the cloud with the network edges, allowing computing to work in a decentralized manner. As such, it introduces a number of complex issues to the research community and the industry alike. Both of them have to deal with many open challenges including architecture standardization, resource management and placement, service management, Quality of Service (QoS), communication, participation, to name a few. In this work, we provide a comprehensive literature review along two axes—modeling with an emphasis in the proposed fog computing architectures and simulation which investigates the simulation tools which can be used to develop and evaluate novel fog-related ideas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Network Cost Reduction in Cloud/Fog Computing Environments)
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Open AccessConcept Paper
RE-examining the Effect of Online Social Support on Subjective Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Experience
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050088 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Building upon the perspectives of social capital theory, social support, and experience, this study developed a theoretical model to investigate the determinants of subjective well-being on social media. This study also examined the moderating role of experience on the relationship between subjective well-being [...] Read more.
Building upon the perspectives of social capital theory, social support, and experience, this study developed a theoretical model to investigate the determinants of subjective well-being on social media. This study also examined the moderating role of experience on the relationship between subjective well-being and social support. Data collected from 267 social media users in Taiwan were used to test the proposed model. Structural equation modeling analysis was used to test the measurement model and the structural model. The findings reveal that receiving online support and providing online support are the key predictors of subjective well-being. Furthermore, social capital positively influences the reception and provision of online support. Finally, providing online support has a significant effect on the subjective well-being of users with low levels of use experience, while receiving online support exerts a stronger influence on the subjective well-being of users with high levels of use experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Web, New Media, Algorithms and Power)
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Open AccessArticle
Language-Independent Fake News Detection: English, Portuguese, and Spanish Mutual Features
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050087 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Online Social Media (OSM) have been substantially transforming the process of spreading news, improving its speed, and reducing barriers toward reaching out to a broad audience. However, OSM are very limited in providing mechanisms to check the credibility of news propagated through their [...] Read more.
Online Social Media (OSM) have been substantially transforming the process of spreading news, improving its speed, and reducing barriers toward reaching out to a broad audience. However, OSM are very limited in providing mechanisms to check the credibility of news propagated through their structure. The majority of studies on automatic fake news detection are restricted to English documents, with few works evaluating other languages, and none comparing language-independent characteristics. Moreover, the spreading of deceptive news tends to be a worldwide problem; therefore, this work evaluates textual features that are not tied to a specific language when describing textual data for detecting news. Corpora of news written in American English, Brazilian Portuguese, and Spanish were explored to study complexity, stylometric, and psychological text features. The extracted features support the detection of fake, legitimate, and satirical news. We compared four machine learning algorithms (k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB)) to induce the detection model. Results show our proposed language-independent features are successful in describing fake, satirical, and legitimate news across three different languages, with an average detection accuracy of 85.3% with RF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Web, New Media, Algorithms and Power)
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation of a Topology Independent MAC (TiMAC) Policy on a Low-Cost IoT System
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050086 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 436
Abstract
The emerging new paradigm under the fifth generation of wireless communications technologies (5G) and high expectations for massively expanding today’s Internet of Things (IoT) under 5G, are expected to support a large plurality of low-cost devices for an all-increasing number of new IoT [...] Read more.
The emerging new paradigm under the fifth generation of wireless communications technologies (5G) and high expectations for massively expanding today’s Internet of Things (IoT) under 5G, are expected to support a large plurality of low-cost devices for an all-increasing number of new IoT applications. Many emerging IoT applications are going to take advantage of techniques and technologies that have high demands from low-cost devices in terms of processing large amounts of data and communication. For example, in systems based on fog computing technology, low-cost devices have to assign some of their limited resources for processing purposes. Considering the drawbacks emerging from using low-cost devices and the fact that many applications are in need for time-constrained approaches, TDMA-based Medium Access Control (MAC) policies need to be revisited and implemented in low-cost devices of today. In this sense, a policy independent of the underlying topology, TiMAC policy, is considered here and is implemented in low-cost devices using 433 MHz RF modules. Even though the implementation is limited by synchronization issues and a small number of nodes, the obtained experimental results demonstrate the potential for employing TDMA-based MAC policies on IoT systems consisting of low-cost devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Network Cost Reduction in Cloud/Fog Computing Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
Artificial Intelligence Systems-Aided News and Copyright: Assessing Legal Implications for Journalism Practices
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050085 - 08 May 2020
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Automated news, or artificial intelligence systems (AIS)-aided production of news items, has been developed from 2010 onwards. It comprises a variety of practices in which the use of data, software and human intervention is involved in diverse degrees. This can affect the application [...] Read more.
Automated news, or artificial intelligence systems (AIS)-aided production of news items, has been developed from 2010 onwards. It comprises a variety of practices in which the use of data, software and human intervention is involved in diverse degrees. This can affect the application of intellectual property and copyright law in many ways. Using comparative legal methods, we examine the implications of them for some legal categories, such as authorship (and hence required originality) and types of works, namely collaborative, derivative and, most especially, collective works. Sui generis and neighboring rights are also considered for examination as being appliable to AIS-aided news outputs. Our main conclusion is that the economics intellectual property rights are guaranteed in any case through collective works. We propose a shorter term of duration before entering public domain. Still, there is a place for more authorial, personal rights. It shows, however, more difficulty when coming to moral rights, especially in Common Law countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Web, New Media, Algorithms and Power)
Open AccessArticle
A Time Bank System Design on the Basis of Hyperledger Fabric Blockchain
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050084 - 08 May 2020
Viewed by 425
Abstract
This paper presents a blockchain-based time bank system on the basis of the Hyperledger Fabric framework, which is one of the permissioned blockchain networks. Most of the services provided by existing Time Bank systems were recorded and conducted manually in the past; furthermore, [...] Read more.
This paper presents a blockchain-based time bank system on the basis of the Hyperledger Fabric framework, which is one of the permissioned blockchain networks. Most of the services provided by existing Time Bank systems were recorded and conducted manually in the past; furthermore, jobs for matching services with receivers were managed by people. Running a time bank in this way will cost lots of time and human resources and, worse, it lacks security. This work designs and realizes a time bank system enabling all the service-related processes being executed and recorded on a blockchain. The matching between services’ supply-and-demand tasks can directly be done through autonomous smart contracts. Building a time bank system on blockchain benefits the transaction of time credit which plays the role of digital currency on the system. In addition, the proposed time bank also retains a grading system, allowing its members to give each other a grade for reflecting their degrees of satisfaction about the results provided by the system. This grading system will incentivize the members to provide a better quality of service and adopt a nicer attitude for receiving a service, which may positively endorse the development of a worldwide time bank system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mobile Application to Provide Traffic Congestion Estimates and Tourism Spots to Promote Additional Stopovers
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050083 - 29 Apr 2020
Viewed by 543
Abstract
In Japan, traffic congestions often occur on the expressways connecting tourism areas with the Tokyo metropolitan area. This congestion can be mitigated if tourists delayed their departure of homeward trips to avoid peak traffic hours. A potential method to promote staggered departure times [...] Read more.
In Japan, traffic congestions often occur on the expressways connecting tourism areas with the Tokyo metropolitan area. This congestion can be mitigated if tourists delayed their departure of homeward trips to avoid peak traffic hours. A potential method to promote staggered departure times is providing the estimates of near-future traffic congestion. This study hypothesized and experimentally confirmed that some tourists would delay their departure to avoid traffic based on near-future traffic estimates. The experiment was conducted in the Yatsugatake area using a mobile application that provided this information to tourists. The results suggest that approximately 40% of self-driving tourists will perform an additional stopover if the returning route is congested and near-future traffic congestion estimate is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICITE 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Digital Cloud Environment: Present Challenges and Future Forecast
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050082 - 29 Apr 2020
Viewed by 515
Abstract
This article addresses the challenges of a digital cloud environment when it comes to global scalability with a large number of remote servers and an unsecure public cloud, such as Amazon. The goal of the study was to work out an approach for [...] Read more.
This article addresses the challenges of a digital cloud environment when it comes to global scalability with a large number of remote servers and an unsecure public cloud, such as Amazon. The goal of the study was to work out an approach for evaluating the reasonable system capacity under heavy workload. For that purpose, Zabbix monitoring solution is used and business metrics are applied in relation to existing system ones. A prediction data model is proposed to compute the future forecast of the user activity based on the collected historical statistics and to verify whether capacity adjustment is possible or not. The results of capacity planning are implemented at Genesys International Telecommunications Company. System analysis of the production environment indicates the possibility to downscale the capacity of certain virtual servers, which allowed savings to the annual operational costs of $3500 (50%) for each affected server. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adolescent’s Collective Intelligence: Empirical Evidence in Real and Online Classmates Groups
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050081 - 29 Apr 2020
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Humans create teams to be more successful in a large variety of tasks. Groups are characterized by an emergent property called collective intelligence, which leads them to be smarter than single individuals. Previous studies proved that collective intelligence characterizes both real and online [...] Read more.
Humans create teams to be more successful in a large variety of tasks. Groups are characterized by an emergent property called collective intelligence, which leads them to be smarter than single individuals. Previous studies proved that collective intelligence characterizes both real and online environments, focusing on adults’ performances. In this work, we explored which factors promote group success in an offline and online logical task with adolescents. Five hundred and fifty high school students participated in the experiment and faced Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices, first by themselves using the computer, then in a group. Groups interactions could have been computer-mediated or face-to-face, and the participants were randomly assigned to one of the two experimental conditions. Results suggest that groups perform better than singles, regardless of the experimental condition. Among adolescents, online groups performance was negatively affected by participants’ average perception of group cohesion, the difficulty of the problem, and the number of communicative exchanges that occur in the interaction. On the contrary, the factors that improve their performances were the average intelligence of the teammates, their levels of neuroticism, and the group heterogeneity in terms of social abilities. This work contributes to the literature with a comprehensive model of collective intelligence among young people. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Immersive Safe Oceans Technology: Developing Virtual Onboard Training Episodes for Maritime Safety
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050080 - 28 Apr 2020
Viewed by 602
Abstract
This paper introduces four safety training episodes and virtual training technology called Immersive Safe Oceans which can be used in further education of professionals in immersive training scenarios. These episodes were developed for maritime safety and are under testing. Immersive Safe Oceans Technology [...] Read more.
This paper introduces four safety training episodes and virtual training technology called Immersive Safe Oceans which can be used in further education of professionals in immersive training scenarios. These episodes were developed for maritime safety and are under testing. Immersive Safe Oceans Technology is a cost-effective, portable technology that can be used on board just in time or in maritime training centers. Four introduced episodes, namely, (1) command bridge, (2) machine room, (3) crane, and (4) fire safety, illustrate how Immersive Safe Oceans technology can be used in various professional training scenarios. These episodes also emphasize the growing need for virtual reality training in the shipping industry. As a result, next generation learning will happen onboard in sophisticated virtual training centers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Infocommunications–Theory and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Human-Smart Environment Interactions in Smart Cities: Exploring Dimensionalities of Smartness
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050079 - 27 Apr 2020
Viewed by 610
Abstract
In the context of the challenges facing human computer interaction (HCI) on the one hand and the future Internet on the other, the purpose of this study is to explore the multi-dimensionality of smart cities, looking at relationships and interdependencies through correlating selected [...] Read more.
In the context of the challenges facing human computer interaction (HCI) on the one hand and the future Internet on the other, the purpose of this study is to explore the multi-dimensionality of smart cities, looking at relationships and interdependencies through correlating selected dimensions of smartness. Key dimensions of smartness are identified for exploration in the context of smart cities in this work through a review of the research literature. Methodologically, this work combines an exploratory case study approach consisting of multiple methods of data collection including survey and in-depth interviews, with an explanatory correlational design. In terms of results, the main findings of this work shed light on the relationships between selected dimensions of the multi-dimensionality construct of smartness in data-rich urban environments. This work is significant in that it provides correlational information for smart city dimensionalities while contributing to the research literature in this domain; uses a hybrid case study and correlational design in relation to the study of multi-dimensionality; and, opens spaces for the study of innovative urban initiatives, while taking the ideas and experiences of people from many sectors into consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities, Innovation, and Multi-Dimensionality)
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Open AccessArticle
Suitability of Graph Database Technology for the Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Data
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050078 - 26 Apr 2020
Viewed by 712
Abstract
Every day large quantities of spatio-temporal data are captured, whether by Web-based companies for social data mining or by other industries for a variety of applications ranging from disaster relief to marine data analysis. Making sense of all this data dramatically increases the [...] Read more.
Every day large quantities of spatio-temporal data are captured, whether by Web-based companies for social data mining or by other industries for a variety of applications ranging from disaster relief to marine data analysis. Making sense of all this data dramatically increases the need for intelligent backend systems to provide realtime query response times while scaling well (in terms of storage and performance) with increasing quantities of structured or semi-structured, multi-dimensional data. Currently, relational database solutions with spatial extensions such as PostGIS, seem to come to their limits. However, the use of graph database technology has been rising in popularity and has been found to handle graph-like spatio-temporal data much more effectively. Motivated by the need to effectively store multi-dimensional, interconnected data, this paper investigates whether or not graph database technology is better suited when compared to the extended relational approach. Three database technologies will be investigated using real world datasets namely: PostgreSQL, JanusGraph, and TigerGraph. The datasets used are the Yelp challenge dataset and an ambulance response simulation dataset, thus combining real world spatial data with realistic simulations offering more control over the dataset. Our extensive evaluation is based on how each database performs under practical data analysis scenarios similar to those found on enterprise level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sense Making in the Digital World)
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Open AccessArticle
A Scalable and Semantic Data as a Service Marketplace for Enhancing Cloud-Based Applications
Future Internet 2020, 12(5), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12050077 - 25 Apr 2020
Viewed by 904
Abstract
Data handling and provisioning play a dominant role in the structure of modern cloud–fog-based architectures. Without a strict, fast, and deterministic method of exchanging data we cannot be sure about the performance and efficiency of transactions and applications. In the present work we [...] Read more.
Data handling and provisioning play a dominant role in the structure of modern cloud–fog-based architectures. Without a strict, fast, and deterministic method of exchanging data we cannot be sure about the performance and efficiency of transactions and applications. In the present work we propose an architecture for a Data as a Service (DaaS) Marketplace, hosted exclusively in a cloud environment. The architecture includes a storage management engine that ensures the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements, a monitoring component that enables real time decisions about the resources used, and a resolution engine that provides semantic data discovery and ranking based on user queries. We show that the proposed system outperforms the classic ElasticSearch queries in data discovery use cases, providing more accurate results. Furthermore, the semantic enhancement of the process adds extra results which extend the user query with a more abstract definition to each notion. Finally, we show that the real-time scaling, provided by the data storage manager component, limits QoS requirements by decreasing the latency of the read and write data requests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Network Cost Reduction in Cloud/Fog Computing Environments)
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