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Viruses, Volume 15, Issue 7 (July 2023) – 213 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): How do viruses find their hosts? In a laboratory, viruses and host cells are mixed, but in nature, it is wilderness. Viruses may encode sensors such as Hoc, as was found in bacteriophage T4 and other phages. The capsid is decorated with Hoc fibers that help navigate the virus’ movements to reach the host. Phages cluster or disperse, piggyback on bacteria to go to distant places, or persist in gut mucosa rich in host bacteria, and so on. Thus, even the tiniest life forms may be equipped with devices to sense, navigate, and survive. The flexibility of the Hoc fiber structure and its interaction with capsid lattice and electrostatic surface are well-evolved to serve as sensors. Such genes are often overlooked using a narrow definition of a laboratory virus infection but are essential in the natural environment. View this paper
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12 pages, 1498 KiB  
Article
Evidence for Microchimerism in Baboon Recipients of Pig Hearts
by Hina Jhelum, Martin Bender, Bruno Reichart, Maren Mokelke, Julia Radan, Elisabeth Neumann, Ludwig Krabben, Jan-Michael Abicht, Benedikt Kaufer, Matthias Längin and Joachim Denner
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1618; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071618 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1459
Abstract
Xenotransplantation, like allotransplantation, is usually associated with microchimerism, i.e., the presence of cells from the donor in the recipient. Microchimerism was reported in first xenotransplantation trials in humans, as well as in most preclinical trials in nonhuman primates (for review, see Denner, Viruses [...] Read more.
Xenotransplantation, like allotransplantation, is usually associated with microchimerism, i.e., the presence of cells from the donor in the recipient. Microchimerism was reported in first xenotransplantation trials in humans, as well as in most preclinical trials in nonhuman primates (for review, see Denner, Viruses 2023, 15, 190). When using pigs as xenotransplantation donors, their cells contain porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) in their genome. This makes it difficult to discriminate between microchimerism and PERV infection of the recipient. Here, we demonstrate the appropriate virological methods to be used for the identification of microchimerism, first by screening for porcine cellular genes, and then how to detect infection of the host. Using porcine short interspersed nuclear sequences (SINEs), which have hundreds of thousands of copies in the pig genome, significantly increased the sensitivity of the screening for pig cells. Second, absence of PERV RNA demonstrated an absence of viral genomic RNA or expression as mRNA. Lastly, absence of antibodies against PERV proteins conclusively demonstrated an absence of a PERV infection. When applying these methods for analyzing baboons after pig heart transplantation, microchimerism could be demonstrated and infection excluded in all animals. These methods can be used in future clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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13 pages, 1671 KiB  
Article
Genetic Variability and Molecular Evolution of Tomato Mosaic Virus Populations in Three Northern China Provinces
by Jinfu Lyu, Yuanyuan Yang, Xiaohui Sun, Shanshan Jiang, Hao Hong, Xiaoping Zhu and Yongguang Liu
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1617; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071617 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
RNA viruses tend to mutate during transmission and host infection, which is critical to viral adaptation and evolution. Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) is a member of the genus Tobamovirus (family Virgaviridae) and an economically important virus with detrimental effects on tomatoes worldwide. [...] Read more.
RNA viruses tend to mutate during transmission and host infection, which is critical to viral adaptation and evolution. Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) is a member of the genus Tobamovirus (family Virgaviridae) and an economically important virus with detrimental effects on tomatoes worldwide. Although the ToMV gene sequences have been completed in China, their genetic diversity and population structure remain unclear. We collected 425 tomato samples from tomato-growing areas in three northern Chinese provinces 2016. Reverse transcription PCR results showed that the average incidence of the virus in the field samples was 67.15%, and ToMV was detected in all test areas. The analysis of ToMV single nucleotide polymorphisms in China showed that ToMV was evolutionarily conserved, and the variation in the whole genome was uneven. Pairwise identity analysis showed significant variability in genome sequences among ToMV strains with genomic nucleotide identities of 73.2–99.6%. The ToMV population in the northern Chinese provinces had purification and selection functions, which were beneficial in the evolution of the ToMV population. Although there has been some distribution of ToMV strains in China, the virus was generally stabilized as a uniform strain under the pressure of purification selection. Our findings show how to monitor the prevalent strains of ToMV and their virulence in China and provide useful information for its prevention and control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
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21 pages, 962 KiB  
Article
Differences in Trends in Admissions and Outcomes among Patients from a Secondary Hospital in Madrid during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Hospital-Based Epidemiological Analysis (2020–2022)
by Rafael Garcia-Carretero, Oscar Vazquez-Gomez, María Ordoñez-Garcia, Noelia Garrido-Peño, Ruth Gil-Prieto and Angel Gil-de-Miguel
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1616; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071616 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Spain had some of Europe’s highest incidence and mortality rates for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study highlights the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on daily health care in terms of incidence, critical patients, and mortality. We describe the characteristics and clinical outcomes [...] Read more.
Spain had some of Europe’s highest incidence and mortality rates for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study highlights the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on daily health care in terms of incidence, critical patients, and mortality. We describe the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients, comparing variables over the different waves. We performed a descriptive, retrospective study using the historical records of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We describe demographic characteristics, admissions, and occupancy. Time series allowed us to visualize and analyze trends and patterns, and identify several waves during the 27-month period. A total of 3315 patients had been hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19. One-third of these patients were hospitalized during the first weeks of the pandemic. We observed that 4.6% of all hospitalizations had been admitted to the intensive care unit, and we identified a mortality rate of 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Arithmetic- and semi-logarithmic-scale charts showed how admissions and deaths rose sharply during the first weeks, increasing by 10 every few days. We described a single hospital’s response and experiences during the pandemic. This research highlights certain demographic profiles in a population and emphasizes the importance of identifying waves when performing research on COVID-19. Our results can extend the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 and can be applied in other contexts, and can be considered when further analyzing the clinical, epidemiological, or demographic characteristics of populations with COVID-19. Our findings suggest that the pandemic should be analyzed not as a whole but rather in different waves. Full article
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19 pages, 1568 KiB  
Systematic Review
Maternal Fever and Reduced Fetal Movement as Predictive Risk Factors for Adverse Neonatal Outcome in Cases of Congenital SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data from Case Reports and Case Series
by Elena S. Bernad, Florentina Duica, Panagiotis Antoniadis, Andreea Moza, Diana Lungeanu, Marius Craina, Brenda C. Bernad, Edida Maghet, Ingrid-Andrada Vasilache, Anca Laura Maghiari, Diana-Aurora Arnautu and Daniela Iacob
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1615; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071615 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2516
Abstract
Objectives: To determine risk factors for primary and secondary adverse neonatal outcomes in newborns with congenital SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data sources: PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar from January 2020 to January 2022. Study eligibility criteria: newborns delivered after 24 weeks of gestation with confirmed/possible congenital [...] Read more.
Objectives: To determine risk factors for primary and secondary adverse neonatal outcomes in newborns with congenital SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data sources: PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar from January 2020 to January 2022. Study eligibility criteria: newborns delivered after 24 weeks of gestation with confirmed/possible congenital SARS-CoV-2 infection, according to standard classification criteria. Methods: Execution of the IPD analyses followed the PRISMA-IPD statement. Univariate non-parametric tests compared numerical data distributions. Fisher’s exact or Chi-square test determined categorical variables’ statistical significance. Multivariate logistic regression revealed risk factors for adverse neonatal outcome. Results: Maternal fever was associated with symptomatic congenital infection (OR: 4.55, 95% CI: 1.33–15.57). Two-thirds of women that reported decreased fetal movements were diagnosed with IUFD (p-value = 0.001). Reduced fetal movement increased the risk of intrauterine fetal death by 7.84 times (p-value = 0.016, 95% CI: 2.23–27.5). The risk of stillbirth decreased with gestational age at the time of maternal infection (p-value < 0.05, OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79–0.97). Conclusions: Maternal fever and perception of reduced fetal movement may be predictive risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcome in cases with congenital SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
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12 pages, 6320 KiB  
Article
Type II Grass Carp Reovirus Rapidly Invades Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) via Nostril–Olfactory System–Brain Axis, Gill, and Skin on Head
by Wentao Zhu, Meihua Qiao, Meidi Hu, Xingchen Huo, Yongan Zhang and Jianguo Su
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071614 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
Type II grass carp reovirus (GCRV-II) with high pathogenicity and infectivity causes severe hemorrhagic disease, which leads to extensive death in the grass carp and black carp aquaculture. However, the early invasion portal remains unclear. In this study, we explored the invasion portal, [...] Read more.
Type II grass carp reovirus (GCRV-II) with high pathogenicity and infectivity causes severe hemorrhagic disease, which leads to extensive death in the grass carp and black carp aquaculture. However, the early invasion portal remains unclear. In this study, we explored the invasion portal, time, and pathway of GCRV-II by immersion infection in grass carp. Through the detection of the infected grass carp external body surface tissues, most of them could be detected to carry GCRV-II within 45 min except for the skin covered by scales. Further shortening the duration of infection, we proved that GCRV-II rapidly invades through the nostril (especially), gill, and skin on head at only 5 min post-immersion, rather than merely by adhesion. Subsequently, visual localization investigations of GCRV-II were conducted on the nostril, olfactory system (olfactory bulb and olfactory tract), and brain via immunofluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We found that few viruses were located in the nostril at 5 min post-immersion infection, while a significantly increased quantity of viruses were distributed in all of the examined tissues at 45 min. Furthermore, the semi-qRT-PCR and Western blotting results of different infection times confirmed that GCRV-II invades grass carp via the nostril–olfactory system–brain axis and then viral replication unfolds. These results revealed the infection mechanism of GCRV-II in terms of the invasion portal, time, and pathway in grass carp. This study aims to understand the invasion mode of GCRV-II in grass carp, thus providing theoretical support for the prevention and control strategies of hemorrhagic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Aquatic Viruses Research in China)
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12 pages, 908 KiB  
Article
Fatty Acids Composition and HIV Infection: Altered Levels of n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Are Associated with Disease Progression
by Thor Ueland, Bjørn Waagsbø, Rolf K. Berge, Marius Trøseid, Pål Aukrust and Jan K. Damås
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071613 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
Fatty acids (FAs) are important regulators of immune responses and innate defense mechanisms. We hypothesized that disturbed FA metabolism could contribute to the progression of HIV infection. Plasma levels of 45 FAs were analyzed with gas chromatography in healthy controls and HIV-infected patients [...] Read more.
Fatty acids (FAs) are important regulators of immune responses and innate defense mechanisms. We hypothesized that disturbed FA metabolism could contribute to the progression of HIV infection. Plasma levels of 45 FAs were analyzed with gas chromatography in healthy controls and HIV-infected patients with regard to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. In vitro, we assessed MAC-PPD-induced release of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral and bone marrow mononuclear cells (PBMC and BMMC) according to levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). While plasma saturated FAs were higher in HIV infection, PUFAs, and in particular the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA), were lower in patients with advanced disease. The ratio between AA and precursor dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, reflecting Δ5-desaturase activity, was markedly lower and inversely correlated with plasma HIV RNA levels in these patients. Depletion of AA was observed prior to MAC infection, and MAC-PPD-induced release of TNF and IL-6 in PBMC and BMMC was lower in patients with low plasma AA. Our findings suggest that dysregulated metabolism of n-6 PUFAs may play a role in the progression of HIV infection. While high AA may contribute to chronic inflammation in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients, low AA seems to increase the susceptibility to MAC infection in patients with advanced disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Virology and Viral Diseases)
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12 pages, 481 KiB  
Article
Lipids and Transaminase in Antiretroviral-Treatment-Experienced People Living with HIV, Switching to a Doravirine-Based vs. a Rilpivirine-Based Regimen: Data from a Real-Life Setting
by Paolo Maggi, Elena Delfina Ricci, Canio Vito Martinelli, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Nicola Squillace, Chiara Molteni, Addolorata Masiello, Giancarlo Orofino, Barbara Menzaghi, Rita Bellagamba, Francesca Vichi, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Giordano Madeddu, Giovanni Francesco Pellicanò, Maria Aurora Carleo, Antonio Cascio, Andrea Parisini, Lucia Taramasso, Laura Valsecchi, Leonardo Calza, Stefano Rusconi, Eleonora Sarchi, Salvatore Martini, Olivia Bargiacchi, Katia Falasca, Giovanni Cenderello, Sergio Ferrara, Antonio Di Biagio and Paolo Bonfantiadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1612; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071612 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
Doravirine (DOR) is a newly approved non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). We aimed to investigate, in a real-life setting, how switching to a DOR-based regimen rather than a rilpivirine (RPV)-based regimen impacted metabolic and hepatic safety. The analysis included 551 antiretroviral treatment (ART)-experienced [...] Read more.
Doravirine (DOR) is a newly approved non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). We aimed to investigate, in a real-life setting, how switching to a DOR-based regimen rather than a rilpivirine (RPV)-based regimen impacted metabolic and hepatic safety. The analysis included 551 antiretroviral treatment (ART)-experienced people living with HIV (PLWH), starting RPV-based or DOR-based regimens with viral load < 200 copies/mL, baseline (T0), and at least one control visit (6-month visit, T1). We enrolled 295 PLWH in the RPV and 256 in the DOR cohort. At T1, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-C (LDL-C), and triglycerides significantly decreased in both DOR and RPV cohorts, while high-density lipoprotein-C (HDL-C) only decreased in RPV-treated people. Consistently, the TC/HDL-C ratio declined more markedly in the DOR (−0.36, p < 0.0001) than in the RPV cohort (−0.08, p = 0.25) (comparison p = 0.39). Similar trends were observed when excluding the PLWH on lipid-lowering treatment from the analysis. People with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels showed a slight ALT increase in both cohorts, and those with baseline ALT > 40 IU/L experienced a significant decline (−14 IU/L, p = 0.008) only in the DOR cohort. Lipid profile improved in both cohorts, and there was a significant reduction in ALT in PLWH with higher-than-normal baseline levels on DOR-based ART. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Virology and Viral Diseases)
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18 pages, 4577 KiB  
Article
Widespread Reassortment Contributes to Antigenic Shift in Bluetongue Viruses from South Africa
by Antoinette Van Schalkwyk, Peter Coetzee, Karen Ebersohn, Beate Von Teichman and Estelle Venter
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071611 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1278
Abstract
Bluetongue (BT), a viral disease of ruminants, is endemic throughout South Africa, where outbreaks of different serotypes occur. The predominant serotypes can differ annually due to herd immunity provided by annual vaccinations using a live attenuated vaccine (LAV). This has led to both [...] Read more.
Bluetongue (BT), a viral disease of ruminants, is endemic throughout South Africa, where outbreaks of different serotypes occur. The predominant serotypes can differ annually due to herd immunity provided by annual vaccinations using a live attenuated vaccine (LAV). This has led to both wild-type and vaccine strains co-circulating in the field, potentially leading to novel viral strains due to reassortment and recombination. Little is known about the molecular evolution of the virus in the field in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of field strains of BTV in South Africa and to provide an initial assessment of the evolutionary processes shaping BTV genetic diversity in the field. Complete genomes of 35 field viruses belonging to 11 serotypes, collected from different regions of the country between 2011 and 2017, were sequenced. The sequences were phylogenetically analysed in relation to all the BTV sequences available from GenBank, including the LAVs and reference strains, resulting in the analyses and reassortment detection of 305 BTVs. Phylogenomic analysis indicated a geographical selection of the genome segments, irrespective of the serotype. Based on the initial assessment of the current genomic clades that circulate in South Africa, the selection for specific clades is prevalent in directing genome segment reassortment, which seems to exclude the vaccine strains and in multiple cases involves Segment-2 resulting in antigenic shift. Full article
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14 pages, 2312 KiB  
Article
Nonenveloped Avian Reoviruses Released with Small Extracellular Vesicles Are Highly Infectious
by Zuopei Wang, Menghan He, Han He, Kyle Kilby, Roberto de Antueno, Elizabeth Castle, Nichole McMullen, Zhuoyu Qian, Tzviya Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, Roy Duncan and Chungen Pan
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071610 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
Vesicle-encapsulated nonenveloped viruses are a recently recognized alternate form of nonenveloped viruses that can avoid immune detection and potentially increase systemic transmission. Avian orthoreoviruses (ARVs) are the leading cause of various disease conditions among birds and poultry. However, whether ARVs use cellular vesicle [...] Read more.
Vesicle-encapsulated nonenveloped viruses are a recently recognized alternate form of nonenveloped viruses that can avoid immune detection and potentially increase systemic transmission. Avian orthoreoviruses (ARVs) are the leading cause of various disease conditions among birds and poultry. However, whether ARVs use cellular vesicle trafficking routes for egress and cell-to-cell transmission is still poorly understood. We demonstrated that fusogenic ARV-infected quail cells generated small (~100 nm diameter) extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contained electron-dense material when observed by transmission electron microscope. Cryo-EM tomography indicated that these vesicles did not contain ARV virions or core particles, but the EV fractions of OptiPrep gradients did contain a small percent of the ARV virions released from cells. Western blotting of detergent-treated EVs revealed that soluble virus proteins and the fusogenic p10 FAST protein were contained within the EVs. Notably, virus particles mixed with the EVs were up to 50 times more infectious than virions alone. These results suggest that EVs and perhaps fusogenic FAST-EVs could contribute to ARV virulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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13 pages, 2300 KiB  
Article
Clinical Profile of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Mechanisms of the Cellular Immune Response and Immunogenetic Markers in Patients from Brazil
by Vanessa Pacheco, Rosane Cuber Guimarães, Danielly Corrêa-Moreira, Carlos Eduardo Magalhães, Douglas Figueiredo, Patricia Guttmann, Gisela Freitas Trindade, Juliana Fernandes Amorim da Silva, Ana Paula Dinis Ano Bom, Maria de Lourdes Maia, Juliana Gil Melgaço, Tamiris Azamor da Costa Barros, Andrea Marques Vieira da Silva, Collaborative Group and Manoel Marques Evangelista Oliveira
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071609 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate some mechanisms of the immune response of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 in both acute infection and early and late convalescence phases. Methods: This is a cohort study of 70 cases of COVID-19, confirmed by [...] Read more.
Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate some mechanisms of the immune response of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 in both acute infection and early and late convalescence phases. Methods: This is a cohort study of 70 cases of COVID-19, confirmed by RT-PCR, followed up to 60 days. Plasma Samples and clinical data were. Viral load, blood count, indicators inflammation were the parameters evaluated. Cellular immune response was evaluated by flow cytometry and Luminex immunoassays. Results: In the severe group, hypertension was the only reported comorbidity. Non severe patients have activated memory naive CD4+ T cells. Critically ill patients have central memory CD4+ T cell activation. Severe COVID-19 patients have both central memory and activated effector CD8+ T cells. Non-severe COVID-19 cases showed an increase in IL1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF and severely ill patients had higher levels of the cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and CXCL8. Conclusions: The present work showed that different cellular responses are observed according to the COVID-19 severity in patients from Brazil an epicenter the pandemic in South America. Also, we notice that some cytokines can be used as predictive markers for the disease outcome, possibility implementation of strategies effective by health managers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19)
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11 pages, 987 KiB  
Article
Rhinovirus Genotypes Circulating in Bulgaria, 2018–2021
by Irina Georgieva, Asya Stoyanova, Svetla Angelova, Neli Korsun, Savina Stoitsova and Lubomira Nikolaeva-Glomb
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1608; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071608 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Rhinoviruses (RV) are one of the most common causative agents of respiratory infections, with significant socioeconomic impact. RV infections are not notifiable in Bulgaria, and little is known about the different RV genotypes circulating in the country. This study aims to investigate the [...] Read more.
Rhinoviruses (RV) are one of the most common causative agents of respiratory infections, with significant socioeconomic impact. RV infections are not notifiable in Bulgaria, and little is known about the different RV genotypes circulating in the country. This study aims to investigate the diversity of RV genotypes that were circulating in Bulgaria in the period 2018–2021 in samples from ILI/ARI patients. Genotype assignment was based on sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5′ untranslated region and the VP4-VP2 region. Out of a total of 1385 nasopharyngeal swabs tested, 166 were RV-positive (RV detection rate: 11.99% (166/1385)). Those with a cycle threshold <25 were selected for genotyping (n = 63). RV isolates were successfully genotyped and classified into 34 genotypes within Rhinovirus A (RV-A), Rhinovirus B (RV-B) and Rhinovirus C (RV-C) species. Presumptive recombination events between the 5′UTR and VP4-VP2 regions were detected in three of the isolates. RV-A and RV-C were the prevalent RV species, with significantly more frequent detections of RV-A in the years before the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the post-pandemic period, when RV-C prevailed. The present study is the first to determine RV genotypes in Bulgaria and the circulation of RV-C has been described for the first time in the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteroviruses 2023)
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12 pages, 3102 KiB  
Article
Visual and Super-Sensitive Detection of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus by Dot-ELISA and Au Nanoparticle-Based Immunochromatographic Test Strip
by Cui Zhang, Mengmeng Guo, Jinxi Dong, Li Liu, Xueping Zhou and Jianxiang Wu
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071607 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) is the only species in the Mahromovirus genus and is often co-infected with one or several viruses of the Potyvirus genus, posing a great threat to the global maize industry. Effective viral integrated management measures are dependent on [...] Read more.
Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) is the only species in the Mahromovirus genus and is often co-infected with one or several viruses of the Potyvirus genus, posing a great threat to the global maize industry. Effective viral integrated management measures are dependent on the timely and proper detection of the causal agent of the disease. In this work, six super-sensitive and specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MCMV were first prepared using purified MCMV virions as the immunogen. Then, the Dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA) was established based on the obtained mAbs, and it can detect MCMV in infected maize leaf crude extracts diluted up to 1:10,240-fold (w/v, g/mL). Furthermore, a rapid and user-friendly Au nanoparticle-based immunochromatographic test strip (AuNP-ICTS) based on paired mAbs 7B12 and 17C4 was created for monitoring MCMV in point-of-care tests, and it can detect the virus in a 25,600-fold dilution (w/v, g/mL) of MCMV-infected maize leaf crude extracts. The whole test process for ICTS was completed in 10 min. Compared with conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the detection endpoint of both serological methods is higher than that of RT-PCR, especially the Dot-ELISA, which is 12.1 times more sensitive than that of RT-PCR. In addition, the detection results of 20 blinded maize samples by the two serological assays were consistent with those of RT-PCR. Therefore, the newly created Dot-ELISA and AuNP-ICTS exhibit favorable application potential for the detection of MCMV in plant samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody-Based Therapeutics and Diagnostics for Viral Diseases)
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17 pages, 3616 KiB  
Article
Adaptation of Droplet Digital PCR-Based HIV Transcription Profiling to Digital PCR and Association of HIV Transcription and Total or Intact HIV DNA
by Carolin Tumpach, Ajantha Rhodes, Youry Kim, Jesslyn Ong, Haoming Liu, Doris Chibo, Julian Druce, Deborah Williamson, Rebecca Hoh, Steven G. Deeks, Steven A. Yukl, Michael Roche, Sharon R. Lewin and Sushama Telwatte
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071606 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
In most people living with HIV (PLWH) on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), cell-associated viral transcripts are readily detectable in CD4+ T cells despite the absence of viremia. Quantification of HIV RNA species provides insights into the transcriptional activity of proviruses that persist in [...] Read more.
In most people living with HIV (PLWH) on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), cell-associated viral transcripts are readily detectable in CD4+ T cells despite the absence of viremia. Quantification of HIV RNA species provides insights into the transcriptional activity of proviruses that persist in cells and tissues throughout the body during ART (‘HIV reservoir’). One such technique for HIV RNA quantitation, ‘HIV transcription profiling’, developed in the Yukl laboratory, measures a series of HIV RNA species using droplet digital PCR. To take advantage of advances in digital (d)PCR, we adapted the ‘HIV transcription profiling’ technique to Qiagen’s dPCR platform (QIAcuity) and compared its performance to droplet digital (dd)PCR (Bio-Rad QX200 system). Using RNA standards, the two technologies were tested in parallel and assessed for multiple parameters including sensitivity, specificity, linearity, and intra- and inter-assay variability. The newly validated dPCR assays were then applied to samples from PLWH to determine HIV transcriptional activity relative to HIV reservoir size. We report that HIV transcriptional profiling was readily adapted to dPCR and assays performed similarly to ddPCR, with no differences in assay characteristics. We applied these assays in a cohort of 23 PLWH and found that HIV reservoir size, based on genetically intact proviral DNA, does not predict HIV transcriptional activity. In contrast, levels of total DNA correlated with levels of most HIV transcripts (initiated, proximally and distally elongated, unspliced, and completed, but not multiply spliced), suggesting that a considerable proportion of HIV transcripts likely originate from defective proviruses. These findings may have implications for measuring and assessing curative strategies and clinical trial outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Virology and Viral Diseases)
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17 pages, 3545 KiB  
Article
Detection and Molecular Characterization of Adenoviruses in Captive and Free-Roaming African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus): Evidence for Possible Recombination and Cross-Species Transmission
by Diana M. Mancuso, Kerry Gainor, Kerry M. Dore, Christa A. Gallagher, Katalina Cruz, Amy Beierschmitt, Yashpal S. Malik and Souvik Ghosh
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1605; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071605 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1154
Abstract
In the present study, 31 samples (12 fecal, 9 nasal and 10 rectal swabs) from 28/92 (30.43%, 10 captive and 18 free-roaming African green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus sabaeus)) apparently healthy AGMs in the Caribbean Island of St. Kitts tested positive for adenoviruses [...] Read more.
In the present study, 31 samples (12 fecal, 9 nasal and 10 rectal swabs) from 28/92 (30.43%, 10 captive and 18 free-roaming African green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus sabaeus)) apparently healthy AGMs in the Caribbean Island of St. Kitts tested positive for adenoviruses (AdVs) by DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (pol)-, or hexon-based screening PCR assays. Based on analysis of partial deduced amino acid sequences of Pol- and hexon- of nine AGM AdVs, at least two AdV genetic variants (group-I: seven AdVs with a Simian mastadenovirus-F (SAdV-F)/SAdV-18-like Pol and hexon, and group-II: two AdVs with a SAdV-F/SAdV-18-like Pol and a Human mastadenovirus-F (HAdV-F)/HAdV-40-like hexon) were identified, which was corroborated by analysis of the nearly complete putative Pol, complete hexon, and partial penton base sequences of a representative group-I (strain KNA-08975), and -II (KNA-S6) AdV. SAdV-F-like AdVs were reported for the first time in free-roaming non-human primates (NHPs) and after ~six decades from captive NHPs. Molecular characterization of KNA-S6 (and the other group-II AdV) indicated possible recombination and cross-species transmission events involving SAdV-F-like and HAdV-F-like viruses, corroborating the hypothesis that the evolutionary pathways of HAdVs and SAdVs are intermingled, complicated by recombination and inter-species transmission events, especially between related AdV species, such as HAdV-F and SAdV-F. To our knowledge, this is the first report on detection and molecular characterization of AdVs in AGMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteric and Respiratory Viruses in Animals 2023)
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10 pages, 1781 KiB  
Brief Report
Unveiling the Impact of the Omicron Variant: Insights from Genomic Surveillance in Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwest Brazil
by Lívia de Mello Almeida Maziero, Marta Giovanetti, Vagner Fonseca, Marina Castilhos Souza Umaki Zardin, Gislene Garcia de Castro Lichs, Grazielli Rocha de Rezende Romera, Daniel Henrique Tsuha, Danila Fernanda Rodrigues Frias, Valdir Castanho Escandolhero, Luiz Henrique Demarchi, Larissa Domingues Castilho, Karine Ferreira Barbosa, Danielle Galindo Martins Tebet, Joilson Xavier, Hegger Fritsch, Mauricio Lima, Carla de Oliveira, Elaine Vieira Santos, Simone Kashima, Rodrigo Fabiano do Carmo Said, Alexander Rosewell, Julio Croda, Luiz Carlos Junior Alcantara and Crhistinne Cavalheiro Maymone Gonçalvesadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071604 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Genomic surveillance has emerged as a crucial tool in monitoring and understanding the dynamics of viral variants during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the Midwest region of Brazil, Mato Grosso do Sul has faced a significant burden from the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, with a total [...] Read more.
Genomic surveillance has emerged as a crucial tool in monitoring and understanding the dynamics of viral variants during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the Midwest region of Brazil, Mato Grosso do Sul has faced a significant burden from the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, with a total of 613,000 confirmed cases as of June 2023. In collaboration with the Central Public Health Laboratory in the capital city of Campo Grande, we conducted a portable whole-genome sequencing and phylodynamic analysis to investigate the circulation of the Omicron variant in the region. The study aimed to uncover the genomic landscape and provide valuable insights into the prevalence and transmission patterns of this highly transmissible variant. Our findings revealed an increase in the number of cases within the region during 2022, followed by a gradual decline as a result of the successful impact of the vaccination program together with the capacity of this unpredictable and very transmissible variant to quickly affect the proportion of susceptible population. Genomic data indicated multiple introduction events, suggesting that human mobility played a differential role in the variant’s dispersion dynamics throughout the state. These findings emphasize the significance of implementing public health interventions to mitigate further spread and highlight the powerful role of genomic monitoring in promptly tracking and uncovering the circulation of viral strains. Together those results underscore the importance of proactive surveillance, rapid genomic sequencing, and data sharing to facilitate timely public health responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2)
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16 pages, 2844 KiB  
Article
SARS-CoV-2 Serological Investigation of White-Tailed Deer in Northeastern Ohio
by Patricia A. Boley, Patricia M. Dennis, Julia N. Faraone, Jiayu Xu, Mingde Liu, Xiaoyu Niu, Stormy Gibson, Vanessa Hale, Qiuhong Wang, Shan-Lu Liu, Linda J. Saif and Scott P. Kenney
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071603 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1677
Abstract
Coronaviruses are known to cross species barriers, and spill over among animals, from animals to humans, and vice versa. SARS-CoV-2 emerged in humans in late 2019. It is now known to infect numerous animal species, including companion animals and captive wildlife species. Experimental [...] Read more.
Coronaviruses are known to cross species barriers, and spill over among animals, from animals to humans, and vice versa. SARS-CoV-2 emerged in humans in late 2019. It is now known to infect numerous animal species, including companion animals and captive wildlife species. Experimental infections in other animals have established that many species are susceptible to infection, with new ones still being identified. We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) proteins, that is both sensitive and specific. It can detect S antibodies in sera at dilutions greater than 1:10,000, and does not cross-react with antibodies to the other coronaviruses tested. We used the S antibody ELISA to test serum samples collected from 472 deer from ten sites in northeastern Ohio between November 2020 and March 2021, when the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was first peaking in humans in Ohio, USA. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were found in serum samples from every site, with an overall positivity rate of 17.2%; we further compared the viral neutralizing antibody titers to our ELISA results. These findings demonstrate the need to establish surveillance programs to monitor deer and other susceptible wildlife species globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Hosts of SARS-CoV-2)
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15 pages, 3795 KiB  
Article
Porcine Circovirus 2 Increases the Frequency of Transforming Growth Factor-β via the C35, S36 and V39 Amino Acids of the ORF4
by Cheng Han, Weicheng Xu, Jianfang Wang, Xiaolin Hou, Shuanghai Zhou, Qinye Song, Xuewei Liu and Huanrong Li
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1602; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071602 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1204
Abstract
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is one of the most important endemic swine pathogens, inducing immunosuppression in pigs and predisposing them to secondary bacterial or viral infections. Our previous studies show that PCV2 infection stimulated pig intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) to produce the secretory [...] Read more.
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is one of the most important endemic swine pathogens, inducing immunosuppression in pigs and predisposing them to secondary bacterial or viral infections. Our previous studies show that PCV2 infection stimulated pig intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) to produce the secretory transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which, in turn, caused CD4+ T cells to differentiate into regulatory T cells (Tregs). This may be one of the key mechanisms by which PCV2 induces immunosuppression. Here, we attempt to identify the viral proteins that affect the TGF-β secretion, as well as the key amino acids that are primarily responsible for this occurrence. The three amino acids C35, S36 and V39 of the ORF4 protein are the key sites at which PCV2 induces a large amount of TGF-β production in IPEC-J2 and influences the frequency of Tregs. This may elucidate the regulatory effect of PCV2 on the Tregs differentiation from the perspective of virus structure and intestinal epithelial cell interaction, laying a theoretical foundation for improving the molecular mechanism of PCV2-induced intestinal mucosal immunosuppression in piglets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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13 pages, 4857 KiB  
Article
Rescue of a Live-Attenuated Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus HSGP Strain Using a Virulent Strain and a Partially Attenuated Strain
by Sok Song, Gyu-Nam Park, Jihye Shin, Ki-Sun Kim, Byung-Hyun An, SeEun Choe, Song-Yi Kim, Bang-Hun Hyun and Dong-Jun An
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071601 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1307
Abstract
In South Korea in 2013, the G1-based vaccine failed to prevent an outbreak of G2b-type porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which is more pathogenic than the traditional G1-type strain, thereby allowing the virus to spread. In 2017 and 2018, field samples were cultured [...] Read more.
In South Korea in 2013, the G1-based vaccine failed to prevent an outbreak of G2b-type porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which is more pathogenic than the traditional G1-type strain, thereby allowing the virus to spread. In 2017 and 2018, field samples were cultured sequentially on Vero cells to isolate HS (virulent) and SGP-M1 (partially attenuated) strains, respectively, of the G2b type. The HS strain harbors a single amino acid (aa) change and two aa deletions in the N-terminal domain of S1 (55I56G57E→55K56Δ57Δ). The SGP-M1 strain harbors a seven aa deletion in the C-terminal domain of S2 (1380~1386ΔFEKVHVQ). By co-infecting various animal cells with these two strains (HS and SGP-M1), we succeeded in cloning strain HSGP, which harbors the mutations present in the two original viruses. The CPE pattern of the HSGP strain was different from that of the HS and SGP-M1 strains, with higher viral titers. Studies in piglets showed attenuated pathogenicity of the HSGP strain, with no clinical symptoms or viral shedding, and histopathologic lesions similar to those in negative controls. These findings confirm that deletion of specific sequences from the S gene attenuates the pathogenicity of PEDV. In addition, HSGP strains created by combining two different strains have the potential for use as novel attenuated live vaccine candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Enteric Viruses)
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17 pages, 3021 KiB  
Article
Human Post-Translational SUMOylation Modification of SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein Enhances Its Interaction Affinity with Itself and Plays a Critical Role in Its Nuclear Translocation
by Vipul Madahar, Runrui Dang, Quanqing Zhang, Chuchu Liu, Victor G. J. Rodgers and Jiayu Liao
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071600 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5276
Abstract
Viruses, such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), infect hosts and take advantage of host cellular machinery for genome replication and new virion production. Identifying and elucidating host pathways for viral infection is critical for understanding the development of the viral [...] Read more.
Viruses, such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), infect hosts and take advantage of host cellular machinery for genome replication and new virion production. Identifying and elucidating host pathways for viral infection is critical for understanding the development of the viral life cycle and novel therapeutics. The SARS-CoV-2 N protein is critical for viral RNA (vRNA) genome packaging in new virion formation. Using our quantitative Förster energy transfer/Mass spectrometry (qFRET/MS) coupled method and immunofluorescence imaging, we identified three SUMOylation sites of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein. We found that (1) Small Ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification in Nucleocapsid (N) protein interaction affinity increased, leading to enhanced oligomerization of the N protein; (2) one of the identified SUMOylation sites, K65, is critical for its nuclear translocation. These results suggest that the host human SUMOylation pathway may be critical for N protein functions in viral replication and pathology in vivo. Thus, blocking essential host pathways could provide a novel strategy for future anti-viral therapeutics development, such as for SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses. Full article
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10 pages, 449 KiB  
Article
Application of High-Pressure Processing (or High Hydrostatic Pressure) for the Inactivation of Human Norovirus in Korean Traditionally Preserved Raw Crab
by Pantu Kumar Roy, Eun Bi Jeon, Ji Yoon Kim and Shin Young Park
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071599 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a common cause of outbreaks linked to food. In this study, the effectiveness of a non-thermal method known as high-pressure processing (HPP) on the viable reduction of an HuNoV GII.4 strain on raw crabs was evaluated at three different [...] Read more.
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a common cause of outbreaks linked to food. In this study, the effectiveness of a non-thermal method known as high-pressure processing (HPP) on the viable reduction of an HuNoV GII.4 strain on raw crabs was evaluated at three different pressures (200, 400, and 600 MPa). HuNoV viability in raw crabs was investigated by using propidium monoazide/sarkosyl (PMA) as a nucleic acid intercalating dye prior to performing a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The effect of the HPP exposure on pH, sensory, and Hunter colors were also assessed. HuNoV was reduced in raw crabs compared with control to HPP (0.15–1.91 log) in non-PMA and (0.67–2.23 log) in PMA. HuNoV genomic titer reduction was <2 log copy number/µL) when HPP was treated for 5 min without PMA pretreatment, but it was reduced to >2 log copy number/µL after PMA. The pH and Hunter colors of the untreated and HPP-treated raw crabs were significantly different (p < 0.05), but sensory attributes were not significant. The findings indicate that PMA/RT-qPCR could be used to detect HuNoV infectivity without altering the quality of raw crabs after a 5 min treatment with HPP. Therefore, HuNoV GII.4 could be reduced up to 2.23 log in food at a commercially acceptable pressure duration of 600 MPa for 5 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Virology and Viral Diseases)
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14 pages, 1427 KiB  
Review
Cerebrovascular Disease in COVID-19
by James E. Siegler, Savanna Dasgupta, Mohamad Abdalkader, Mary Penckofer, Shadi Yaghi and Thanh N. Nguyen
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071598 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
Not in the history of transmissible illnesses has there been an infection as strongly associated with acute cerebrovascular disease as the novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. While the risk of stroke has known associations with other viral infections, such as influenza and human immunodeficiency [...] Read more.
Not in the history of transmissible illnesses has there been an infection as strongly associated with acute cerebrovascular disease as the novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. While the risk of stroke has known associations with other viral infections, such as influenza and human immunodeficiency virus, the risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke related to SARS-CoV-2 is unprecedented. Furthermore, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has so profoundly impacted psychosocial behaviors and modern medical care that we have witnessed shifts in epidemiology and have adapted our treatment practices to reduce transmission, address delayed diagnoses, and mitigate gaps in healthcare. In this narrative review, we summarize the history and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cerebrovascular disease, and lessons learned regarding the management of patients as we endure this period of human history. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 and Thrombosis 2023)
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13 pages, 2787 KiB  
Article
Apis mellifera Solinvivirus-1, a Novel Honey Bee Virus That Remained Undetected for over a Decade, Is Widespread in the USA
by Eugene V. Ryabov, Anthony J. Nearman, Ashrafun Nessa, Kyle Grubbs, Benjamin Sallmann, Rachel Fahey, Mikayla E. Wilson, Karen D. Rennich, Nathalie Steinhauer, Anne Marie Fauvel, Yanping Chen, Jay D. Evans and Dennis vanEngelsdorp
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071597 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3571
Abstract
A metagenomic analysis of the virome of honey bees (Apis mellifera) from an apiary with high rates of unexplained colony losses identified a novel RNA virus. The virus, which was named Apis mellifera solinvivirus 1 (AmSV1), contains a 10.6 kb positive-strand [...] Read more.
A metagenomic analysis of the virome of honey bees (Apis mellifera) from an apiary with high rates of unexplained colony losses identified a novel RNA virus. The virus, which was named Apis mellifera solinvivirus 1 (AmSV1), contains a 10.6 kb positive-strand genomic RNA with a single ORF coding for a polyprotein with the protease, helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains, as well as a single jelly-roll structural protein domain, showing highest similarity with viruses in the family Solinviviridae. The injection of honey bee pupae with AmSV1 preparation showed an increase in virus titer and the accumulation of the negative-strand of AmSV1 RNA 3 days after injection, indicating the replication of AmSV1. In the infected worker bees, AmSV1 was present in heads, thoraxes, and abdomens, indicating that this virus causes systemic infection. An analysis of the geographic and historic distribution of AmSV1, using over 900 apiary samples collected across the United States, showed AmSV1 presence since at least 2010. In the year 2021, AmSV1 was detected in 10.45% of apiaries (95%CI: 8.41–12.79%), mostly sampled in June and July in Northwestern and Northeastern United States. The diagnostic methods and information on the AmSV1 distribution will be used to investigate the connection of AmSV1 to honey bee colony losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Viruses)
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17 pages, 2079 KiB  
Article
Continued Circulation of Highly Pathogenic H5 Influenza Viruses in Vietnamese Live Bird Markets in 2018–2021
by Lizheng Guan, Lavanya Babujee, Victoria L. Browning, Robert Presler, David Pattinson, Hang Le Khanh Nguyen, Vu Mai Phuong Hoang, Mai Quynh Le, Harm van Bakel, Gabriele Neumann and Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071596 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
We isolated 77 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses during routine surveillance in live poultry markets in northern provinces of Vietnam from 2018 to 2021. These viruses are of the H5N6 subtype and belong to HA clades 2.3.4.4g and 2.3.4.4h. Interestingly, we did not [...] Read more.
We isolated 77 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses during routine surveillance in live poultry markets in northern provinces of Vietnam from 2018 to 2021. These viruses are of the H5N6 subtype and belong to HA clades 2.3.4.4g and 2.3.4.4h. Interestingly, we did not detect viruses of clade 2.3.4.4b, which in recent years have dominated in different parts of the world. The viruses isolated in this current study do not encode major determinants of mammalian adaptation (e.g., PB2-E627K or PB1-D701N) but possess amino acid substitutions that may affect viral receptor-binding, replication, or the responses to human antiviral factors. Several of the highly pathogenic H5N6 virus samples contained other influenza viruses, providing an opportunity for reassortment. Collectively, our study demonstrates that the highly pathogenic H5 viruses circulating in Vietnam in 2018–2021 were different from those in other parts of the world, and that the Vietnamese H5 viruses continue to evolve through mutations and reassortment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics 2.0)
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21 pages, 395 KiB  
Review
Current Perspectives on the Management of Herpesvirus Infections in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients
by S. Reshwan K. Malahe, Jeroen J. A. van Kampen, Olivier C. Manintveld, Rogier A. S. Hoek, Caroline M. den Hoed, Carla C. Baan, Marcia M. L. Kho and Georges M. G. M. Verjans
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1595; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071595 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) are at high risk of human herpesvirus (HHV)-related morbidity and mortality due to the use of immunosuppressive therapy. We aim to increase awareness and understanding of HHV disease burden in SOTRs by providing an overview of current prevention [...] Read more.
Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) are at high risk of human herpesvirus (HHV)-related morbidity and mortality due to the use of immunosuppressive therapy. We aim to increase awareness and understanding of HHV disease burden in SOTRs by providing an overview of current prevention and management strategies as described in the literature and guidelines. We discuss challenges in both prevention and treatment as well as future perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transfusion & Transplantation Transmitted Viral Infections)
13 pages, 913 KiB  
Article
First Insight into the Seroepidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) in Dogs, Cats, Horses, Cattle, Sheep, and Goats from Bulgaria
by Ilia Tsachev, Krasimira Gospodinova, Roman Pepovich, Katerina Takova, Todor Kundurzhiev, Gergana Zahmanova, Kristin Kaneva and Magdalena Baymakova
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1594; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071594 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
In recent years, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been found to be widespread among different animal species worldwide. In Bulgaria, high HEV seropositivity was found among pigs (60.3%), wild boars (40.8%), and East Balkan swine (82.5%). The aim of the present study [...] Read more.
In recent years, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been found to be widespread among different animal species worldwide. In Bulgaria, high HEV seropositivity was found among pigs (60.3%), wild boars (40.8%), and East Balkan swine (82.5%). The aim of the present study was to establish the seroprevalence of HEV among dogs, cats, horses, cattle, sheep, and goats in Bulgaria. In total, 720 serum samples from six animal species were randomly collected: dogs—90 samples; cats—90; horses—180; cattle—180; sheep—90; and goats—90. The serum samples were collected from seven districts of the country: Burgas, Kardzhali, Pazardzhik, Plovdiv, Sliven, Smolyan, and Stara Zagora. The animal serum samples were tested for HEV antibodies using the commercial Wantai HEV-Ab ELISA kit (Beijing, China). The overall HEV seroprevalence among different animal species from Bulgaria was as follows: dogs—21.1%; cats—17.7%; horses—8.3%; cattle—7.7%; sheep—32.2%; and goats—24.4%. We found the lowest overall HEV seropositivity in Plovdiv district (6.2%; 4/64; p = 0.203) and Smolyan district (8.8%; 4/45; p = 0.129), vs. the highest in Pazardzhik district (21.6%; 29/134; p = 0.024) and Burgas district (28.8%; 26/90; p = 0.062). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological evidence of HEV infection in dogs, cats, horses, cattle, sheep, and goats from Bulgaria. We found high HEV seropositivity in small ruminants (sheep and goats), moderate seropositivity in pets (dogs and cats), and a low level of seropositivity in large animals (horses and cattle). Previous Bulgarian studies and the results of this research show that HEV infection is widespread among animals in our country. In this regard, the Bulgarian health authorities must carry out increased surveillance and control of HEV infection among animals in Bulgaria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics 2.0)
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18 pages, 1356 KiB  
Review
Begomovirus–Host Interactions: Viral Proteins Orchestrating Intra and Intercellular Transport of Viral DNA While Suppressing Host Defense Mechanisms
by Sâmera S. Breves, Fredy A. Silva, Nívea C. Euclydes, Thainá F. F. Saia, James Jean-Baptiste, Eugenio R. Andrade Neto and Elizabeth P. B. Fontes
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071593 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
Begomoviruses, which belong to the Geminiviridae family, are intracellular parasites transmitted by whiteflies to dicotyledonous plants thatsignificantly damage agronomically relevant crops. These nucleus-replicating DNA viruses move intracellularly from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and then, like other plant viruses, cause disease by spreading [...] Read more.
Begomoviruses, which belong to the Geminiviridae family, are intracellular parasites transmitted by whiteflies to dicotyledonous plants thatsignificantly damage agronomically relevant crops. These nucleus-replicating DNA viruses move intracellularly from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and then, like other plant viruses, cause disease by spreading systemically throughout the plant. The transport proteins of begomoviruses play a crucial role in recruiting host components for the movement of viral DNA within and between cells, while exhibiting functions that suppress the host’s immune defense. Pioneering studies on species of the Begomovirus genus have identified specific viral transport proteins involved in intracellular transport, cell-to-cell movement, and systemic spread. Recent research has primarily focused on viral movement proteins and their interactions with the cellular host transport machinery, which has significantly expanded understanding on viral infection pathways. This review focuses on three components within this context: (i) the role of viral transport proteins, specifically movement proteins (MPs) and nuclear shuttle proteins (NSPs), (ii) their ability to recruit host factors for intra- and intercellular viral movement, and (iii) the suppression of antiviral immunity, with a particular emphasis on bipartite begomoviral movement proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geminiviruses 2023)
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17 pages, 3692 KiB  
Article
Improved Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) for the Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Yam mosaic virus
by Ruth O. Festus, Susan E. Seal, Ruth Prempeh, Marian D. Quain and Gonçalo Silva
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071592 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
Yam (Dioscorea spp.) productivity is constrained significantly by the lack of a formal seed system. Vegetative propagation, through tuber setts as ‘seed’ yams, encourages the recycling of virus-infected planting materials, contributing to high virus incidence and yield losses. Efforts are ongoing to [...] Read more.
Yam (Dioscorea spp.) productivity is constrained significantly by the lack of a formal seed system. Vegetative propagation, through tuber setts as ‘seed’ yams, encourages the recycling of virus-infected planting materials, contributing to high virus incidence and yield losses. Efforts are ongoing to increase the production of high-quality seed yams in a formal seed system to reduce virus-induced yield losses and enhance the crop’s productivity and food security. Specific and sensitive diagnostic tests are imperative to prevent the multiplication of virus-infected materials contributing to a sustainable seed yam certification system. During routine indexing of yam accessions, discrepancies were observed between the results obtained from the reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) test and those from reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); RT-LAMP failed to detect Yam mosaic virus (YMV) in some samples that tested positive by RT-PCR. This prompted the design of a new set of LAMP primers, YMV1-OPT primers. These primers detected as little as 0.1 fg/µL of purified RNA obtained from a YMV-infected plant, a sensitivity equivalent to that obtained with RT-PCR. RT-LAMP using YMV1-OPT primers is recommended for all future virus-indexing of seed yams for YMV, offering a rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
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14 pages, 3769 KiB  
Article
Nicotinamide Efficiently Suppresses Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and Porcine Deltacoronavirus Replication
by Mingxia Li, Liping Zhang, Li Pan, Peng Zhou, Ruiming Yu, Zhongwang Zhang, Jianliang Lv, Huichen Guo, Yonglu Wang, Sa Xiao and Xinsheng Liu
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071591 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), members of the genus Coronavirus, mainly cause acute diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration in piglets, and thus lead to serious economic losses. In this study, we investigated the effects of nicotinamide (NAM) on PEDV and [...] Read more.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), members of the genus Coronavirus, mainly cause acute diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration in piglets, and thus lead to serious economic losses. In this study, we investigated the effects of nicotinamide (NAM) on PEDV and PDCoV replication and found that NAM treatment significantly inhibited PEDV and PDCoV reproduction. Moreover, NAM plays an important role in replication processes. NAM primarily inhibited PEDV and PDCoV RNA and protein synthesis rather than other processes. Furthermore, we discovered that NAM treatment likely inhibits the replication of PEDV and PDCoV by downregulating the expression of transcription factors through activation of the ERK1/2/MAPK pathway. Overall, this study is the first to suggest that NAM might be not only an important antiviral factor for swine intestinal coronavirus, but also a potential candidate to be evaluated in the context of other human and animal coronaviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Viruses 2023)
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11 pages, 1629 KiB  
Article
The Susceptibility of BALB/c Mice to a Mouse-Adapted Ebola Virus Intravaginal Infection
by Olivier Escaffre, Terry L. Juelich, Jennifer K. Smith, Lihong Zhang, Nigel Bourne and Alexander N. Freiberg
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1590; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071590 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1096
Abstract
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes Ebola virus disease (EVD), which is characterized by hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans. EBOV sexual transmission has been a concern since the 2014–2016 outbreak in Africa, as persistent infection in the testis and transmission to women [...] Read more.
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes Ebola virus disease (EVD), which is characterized by hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans. EBOV sexual transmission has been a concern since the 2014–2016 outbreak in Africa, as persistent infection in the testis and transmission to women was demonstrated. The only study related to establishing an intravaginal small animal infection model was recently documented in IFNAR−/− mice using wild-type and mouse-adapted EBOV (maEBOV), and resulted in 80% mortality, supporting epidemiological data. However, this route of transmission is still poorly understood in women, and the resulting EVD from it is understudied. Here, we contribute to this field of research by providing data from immunocompetent BALB/c mice. We demonstrate that progesterone priming increased the likelihood of maEBOV vaginal infection and of exhibiting the symptoms of disease and seroconversion. However, our data suggest subclinical infection, regardless of the infective dose. We conclude that maEBOV can infect BALB/c mice through vaginal inoculation, but that this route of infection causes significantly less disease compared to intraperitoneal injection at a similar dose, which is consistent with previous studies using other peripheral routes of inoculation in that animal model. Our data are inconsistent with the disease severity described in female patients, therefore suggesting that BALB/c mice are unsuitable for modeling typical EVD following vaginal challenge with maEBOV. Further studies are required to determine the mechanisms by which EVD is attenuated in BALB/c mice, using maEBOV via the vaginal route, as in our experimental set-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and Cuevavirus Research)
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15 pages, 6523 KiB  
Article
Interaction between hTIM-1 and Envelope Protein Is Important for JEV Infection
by Zhenjie Liang, Junhui Pan, Shengda Xie, Xingmiao Yang and Ruibing Cao
Viruses 2023, 15(7), 1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15071589 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic virus, is one of the most important causes of human viral encephalitis. JEV relies on various attachment or entry co-factors to enter host cells. Among these co-factors, hTIM-1 has been identified as an attachment factor to [...] Read more.
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic virus, is one of the most important causes of human viral encephalitis. JEV relies on various attachment or entry co-factors to enter host cells. Among these co-factors, hTIM-1 has been identified as an attachment factor to promote JEV infection through interacting with phosphatidylserine (PS) on the viral envelope. However, the reasons why JEV prefers to use hTIM-1 over other PS binding receptors are unknown. Here, we demonstrated that hTIM-1 can directly interact with JEV E protein. The interaction between hTIM-1 and JEV relies on specific binding sites, respectively, ND114115 in the hTIM-1 IgV domain and K38 of the E protein. Furthermore, during the early stage of infection, hTIM-1 and JEV are co-internalized into cells and transported into early and late endosomes. Additionally, we found that the hTIM-1 soluble ectodomain protein effectively inhibits JEV infection in vitro. Moreover, hTIM-1-specific antibodies have been shown to downregulate JEV infectivity in cells. Taken together, these findings suggested that hTIM-1 protein directly interacts with JEV E protein and mediates JEV infection, in addition to the PS-TIM-1 interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alphavirus and Flavivirus Research)
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