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Viruses, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Mouse polyomavirus uses importin-mediated transport for the delivery of its genomes into the cell [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Natural Immunity to HIV: A Template for Vaccine Strategies
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040215
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We
[...] Read more.
Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We and others have identified HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals among African female commercial sex workers (CSWs). Analyses of genital samples from HESNs have demonstrated potent innate and anti-inflammatory conditions, HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells as well as immunoglobulins (Igs), and increased regulatory cell populations, all of which support a delicate balance between strength and control against HIV intrusion. Moreover, we have recently shown that frequencies of innate marginal zone (MZ) B-cells are decreased in the blood of HESNs when compared to HIV-uninfected non-CSW women, suggesting their recruitment to peripheral sites. This coincides with the fact that levels of B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF), known to shape the MZ pool and whose overexpression leads to MZ deregulation in HIV-infected progressors, are significantly lower in the blood of HESNs when compared to both HIV-infected CSWs and HIV-uninfected non-CSW women. Interestingly, MZ B-cells can bind HIV gp120 and produce specific IgG and IgA, and have a propensity for B regulatory potential, which could help both the fight against HIV and maintenance of low inflammatory conditions in HESNs. HESN individuals provide an exceptional opportunity to identify important clues for the development of protective devices, and efforts should aim at soliciting immune responses observed in the context of their natural immunity to HIV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle Mycoviruses as Triggers and Targets of RNA Silencing in White Mold Fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040214
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to demonstrate the existence of antiviral RNA silencing mechanisms in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by infecting wild-type and RNA-silencing-deficient strains of the fungus with an RNA virus and a DNA virus. Key silencing-related genes were disrupted to dissect the RNA silencing pathway.
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This study aimed to demonstrate the existence of antiviral RNA silencing mechanisms in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by infecting wild-type and RNA-silencing-deficient strains of the fungus with an RNA virus and a DNA virus. Key silencing-related genes were disrupted to dissect the RNA silencing pathway. Specifically, dicer genes (dcl-1, dcl-2, and both dcl-1/dcl-2) were displaced by selective marker(s). Disruption mutants were then compared for changes in phenotype, virulence, and susceptibility to virus infections. Wild-type and mutant strains were transfected with a single-stranded RNA virus, SsHV2-L, and copies of a single-stranded DNA mycovirus, SsHADV-1, as a synthetic virus constructed in this study. Disruption of dcl-1 or dcl-2 resulted in no changes in phenotype compared to wild-type S. sclerotiorum; however, the double dicer mutant strain exhibited significantly slower growth. Furthermore, the Δdcl-1/dcl-2 double mutant, which was slow growing without virus infection, exhibited much more severe debilitation following virus infections including phenotypic changes such as slower growth, reduced pigmentation, and delayed sclerotial formation. These phenotypic changes were absent in the single mutants, Δdcl-1 and Δdcl-2. Complementation of a single dicer in the double disruption mutant reversed viral susceptibility to the wild-type state. Virus-derived small RNAs were accumulated from virus-infected wild-type strains with strand bias towards the negative sense. The findings of these studies indicate that S. sclerotiorum has robust RNA silencing mechanisms that process both DNA and RNA mycoviruses and that, when both dicers are silenced, invasive nucleic acids can greatly debilitate the virulence of this fungus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Open AccessArticle piRNA Profiling of Dengue Virus Type 2-Infected Asian Tiger Mosquito and Midgut Tissues
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040213
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a competent vector for the majority of arboviruses. The mosquito innate immune response is a primary determinant for arthropod-borne virus transmission, and the midgut is the first barrier to pathogen transmission. Mosquito antiviral immunity is
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The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a competent vector for the majority of arboviruses. The mosquito innate immune response is a primary determinant for arthropod-borne virus transmission, and the midgut is the first barrier to pathogen transmission. Mosquito antiviral immunity is primarily mediated by the small interfering RNA pathway. However, the roles that the P-element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway play in antiviral immunity in Ae. albopictus and its midgut still need further exploration. This study aimed to explore the profiles of both viral-derived and host-originated piRNAs in the whole body and midgut infected with Dengue virus 2 (DENV-2) in Ae. albopictus, and to elucidate gene expression profile differences of the PIWI protein family between adult females and their midguts. A deep sequencing-based method was used to identify and analyze small non-coding RNAs, especially the piRNA profiles in DENV-2-infected Ae. albopictus and its midgut. The top-ranked, differentially-expressed piRNAs were further validated using Stem-loop qRT-PCR. Bioinformatics analyses and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) methods were used to detect PIWI protein family members, and their expression profiles. DENV-2 derived piRNAs (vpiRNA, 24–30 nts) were observed in both infected Ae. albopictus and its midgut; however, only vpiRNA in the whole-body library had a weak preference for adenine at position 10 (10A) in the sense molecules as a feature of secondary piRNA. These vpiRNAs were not equally distributed, instead they were derived from a few specific regions of the genome, especially several hot spots, and displayed an obvious positive strand bias. We refer to the differentially expressed host piRNAs after DENV infection as virus-induced host endogenous piRNAs (vepiRNAs). However, we found that vepiRNAs were abundant in mosquito whole-body tissue, but deficient in the midgut. A total of eleven PIWI family genes were identified in Ae. albopictus; however, only AalPiwi5–7 and AalAgo3(1–2) were readily detected in the midgut. The characteristics of piRNAs in DENV-2-infected Ae. albopictus adult females were similar to those previously described for flavivirus infections but were not observed in the midgut. The reduced levels of vepiRNAs and incomplete expression of PIWI pathway genes in midgut samples from DENV-2-infected Ae. albopictus suggests that viral regulation of host piRNAs may not be an important factor in the midgut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Defense in Invertebrates)
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Open AccessArticle Does BCA3 Play a Role in the HIV-1 Replication Cycle?
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040212
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
The cellular role of breast carcinoma-associated protein (BCA3), also known as A-kinase-interacting protein 1 (AKIP-1), is not fully understood. Recently, we reported that full-length, but not C-terminally truncated, BCA3 is incorporated into virions of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, and that BCA3 enhances HIV-1 protease-induced
[...] Read more.
The cellular role of breast carcinoma-associated protein (BCA3), also known as A-kinase-interacting protein 1 (AKIP-1), is not fully understood. Recently, we reported that full-length, but not C-terminally truncated, BCA3 is incorporated into virions of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, and that BCA3 enhances HIV-1 protease-induced apoptosis. In the present study, we report that BCA3 is associated with purified and subtilisin-treated HIV particles. Using a combination of immune-based methods and confocal microscopy, we show that the C-terminus of BCA3 is required for packaging into HIV-1 particles. However, we were unable to identify an HIV-1 binding domain for BCA3, and we did not observe any effect of incorporated BCA3 on HIV-1 infectivity. Interestingly, the BCA3 C-terminus was previously identified as a binding site for the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc), a cellular protein that is specifically packaged into HIV-1 particles. Based on our analysis of PKAc–BCA3 interactions, we suggest that BCA3 incorporation into HIV-1 particles is mediated by its ability to interact with PKAc. Full article
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Open AccessReview Gemcitabine and Nucleos(t)ide Synthesis Inhibitors Are Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Drugs that Activate Innate Immunity
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040211
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Nucleoside analogs have been frequently identified as antiviral agents. In recent years, gemcitabine, a cytidine analog in clinical use for the treatment of many solid tumors, was also shown to have antiviral activity against a broad range of viruses. Nucleoside analogs generally interfere
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Nucleoside analogs have been frequently identified as antiviral agents. In recent years, gemcitabine, a cytidine analog in clinical use for the treatment of many solid tumors, was also shown to have antiviral activity against a broad range of viruses. Nucleoside analogs generally interfere with cellular nucleos(t)ide synthesis pathways, resulting in the depletion or imbalance of (d)NTP pools. Intriguingly, a few recent reports have shown that some nucleoside analogs, including gemcitabine, activated innate immunity, inducing the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, through nucleos(t)ide synthesis inhibition. The precise crosstalk between these two independent processes remains to be determined. Nonetheless, we summarize the current knowledge of nucleos(t)ide synthesis inhibition-related innate immunity and propose it as a newly emerging antiviral mechanism of nucleoside analogs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prior Puma Lentivirus Infection Modifies Early Immune Responses and Attenuates Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cats
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040210
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
We previously showed that cats that were infected with non-pathogenic Puma lentivirus (PLV) and then infected with pathogenic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (co-infection with the host adapted/pathogenic virus) had delayed FIV proviral and RNA viral loads in blood, with viral set-points that were
[...] Read more.
We previously showed that cats that were infected with non-pathogenic Puma lentivirus (PLV) and then infected with pathogenic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (co-infection with the host adapted/pathogenic virus) had delayed FIV proviral and RNA viral loads in blood, with viral set-points that were lower than cats infected solely with FIV. This difference was associated with global CD4+ T cell preservation, greater interferon gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA expression, and no cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in co-infected cats relative to cats with a single FIV infection. In this study, we reinforced previous observations that prior exposure to an apathogenic lentivirus infection can diminish the effects of acute infection with a second, more virulent, viral exposure. In addition, we investigated whether the viral load differences that were observed between PLV/FIV and FIV infected cats were associated with different immunocyte phenotypes and cytokines. We found that the immune landscape at the time of FIV infection influences the infection outcome. The novel findings in this study advance our knowledge about early immune correlates and documents an immune state that is associated with PLV/FIV co-infection that has positive outcomes for lentiviral diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonprimate Lentivirus)
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Open AccessComment Phages Make for Jolly Good Stories
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040209
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Phage therapy has an intriguing history. It was widely used from the 1920s until the 1940s. After this period, it was nearly completely forgotten in the Western world, while it continued to be used in the Soviet part of the globe. The study
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Phage therapy has an intriguing history. It was widely used from the 1920s until the 1940s. After this period, it was nearly completely forgotten in the Western world, while it continued to be used in the Soviet part of the globe. The study of the history of phage therapy provides valuable input into the present development of the field. Science journalists uncovered much of this history and played an important role in the communication of phage therapy after the fall of the Soviet Union, when it came to the attention of Western researchers and doctors. This interest was fueled by the antibiotic resistance crisis. At this time, communication about phage therapy had a wide potential audience, that encompassed medical experts and researchers, as well as the public, because knowledge about this forgotten therapy was very limited. In such a situation, good communication had and still has the potential to catalyze important discussions among different groups; whereas, bad communication could have considerably hindered and still can hinder the possible renaissance of phage therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality)
Open AccessArticle Cytoplasmic Translocation of Nucleolar Protein NOP53 Promotes Viral Replication by Suppressing Host Defense
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040208
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
NOP53 is a tumor suppressor protein located in the nucleolus and is translocated to the cytoplasm during infection by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as shown in our previous study. Cytoplasmic NOP53 interacts with the retinoic acid-inducible
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NOP53 is a tumor suppressor protein located in the nucleolus and is translocated to the cytoplasm during infection by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as shown in our previous study. Cytoplasmic NOP53 interacts with the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) to remove its K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to attenuation of type I interferon IFN-β. In the present study, we found no obvious translocation of NOP53 in infection by a mutant virus lacking ICP4 (HSV-1/d120, replication inadequate). Blocking cytoplasmic translocation of NOP53 by the deletion of its nuclear export sequence (NES) abrogated its ability to support viral replication. These results demonstrated that NOP53 redistribution is related to viral replication. It is interesting that treatment with poly (I:C) or RIG-I-N (a constitutively-active variant) directly induced NOP53 cytoplasmic translocation. To better assess the function of cytoplasmic NOP53 in viral replication, the NOP53-derived protein N3-T, which contains a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-derived cell-penetrating Tat peptide at the C-terminal region of N3 (residues 330–432), was constructed and expressed. The recombinant N3-T protein formed trimers, attenuated the expression of IFN-β and IFN-stimulated genes, as well as decreased the phosphorylation level of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Furthermore, N3-T promoted the efficient replication of enveloped and non-enveloped DNA and RNA viruses belonging to 5 families. Our findings expand the understanding of the mechanism by which viruses utilize the nucleolar protein NOP53 for optimal viral replication. Full article
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Open AccessArticle CD81 Receptor Regions outside the Large Extracellular Loop Determine Hepatitis C Virus Entry into Hepatoma Cells
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040207
Received: 18 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters human hepatocytes using four essential entry factors, one of which is human CD81 (hCD81). The tetraspanin hCD81 contains a large extracellular loop (LEL), which interacts with the E2 glycoprotein of HCV. The role of the non-LEL regions of
[...] Read more.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters human hepatocytes using four essential entry factors, one of which is human CD81 (hCD81). The tetraspanin hCD81 contains a large extracellular loop (LEL), which interacts with the E2 glycoprotein of HCV. The role of the non-LEL regions of hCD81 (intracellular tails, four transmembrane domains, small extracellular loop and intracellular loop) is poorly understood. Here, we studied the contribution of these domains to HCV susceptibility of hepatoma cells by generating chimeras of related tetraspanins with the hCD81 LEL. Our results show that non-LEL regions in addition to the LEL determine susceptibility of cells to HCV. While closely related tetraspanins (X. tropicalis CD81 and D. rerio CD81) functionally complement hCD81 non-LEL regions, distantly related tetraspanins (C. elegans TSP9 amd D. melanogaster TSP96F) do not and tetraspanins with intermediate homology (hCD9) show an intermediate phenotype. Tetraspanin homology and susceptibility to HCV correlate positively. For some chimeras, infectivity correlates with surface expression. In contrast, the hCD9 chimera is fully surface expressed, binds HCV E2 glycoprotein but is impaired in HCV receptor function. We demonstrate that a cholesterol-coordinating glutamate residue in CD81, which hCD9 lacks, promotes HCV infection. This work highlights the hCD81 non-LEL regions as additional HCV susceptibility-determining factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview Applications of the FIV Model to Study HIV Pathogenesis
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040206
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard
[...] Read more.
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard to its application as a model to study the closely related lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In particular, FIV and HIV share remarkable structure and sequence organization, utilize parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry, and result in a similar spectrum of immunodeficiency-related diseases due to analogous modes of immune dysfunction. This review summarizes current knowledge of FIV infection kinetics and the mechanisms of immune dysfunction in relation to opportunistic disease, specifically in regard to studying HIV pathogenesis. Furthermore, we present data that highlight changes in the oral microbiota and oral immune system during FIV infection, and outline the potential for the feline model of oral AIDS manifestations to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms of HIV-induced oral disease. Finally, we discuss advances in molecular biology, vaccine development, neurologic dysfunction, and the ability to apply pharmacologic interventions and sophisticated imaging technologies to study experimental and naturally occurring FIV, which provide an excellent, but often overlooked, resource for advancing therapies and the management of HIV/AIDS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonprimate Lentivirus)
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Open AccessReview Bacteriophage Applications for Food Production and Processing
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040205
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Foodborne illnesses remain a major cause of hospitalization and death worldwide despite many advances in food sanitation techniques and pathogen surveillance. Traditional antimicrobial methods, such as pasteurization, high pressure processing, irradiation, and chemical disinfectants are capable of reducing microbial populations in foods to
[...] Read more.
Foodborne illnesses remain a major cause of hospitalization and death worldwide despite many advances in food sanitation techniques and pathogen surveillance. Traditional antimicrobial methods, such as pasteurization, high pressure processing, irradiation, and chemical disinfectants are capable of reducing microbial populations in foods to varying degrees, but they also have considerable drawbacks, such as a large initial investment, potential damage to processing equipment due to their corrosive nature, and a deleterious impact on organoleptic qualities (and possibly the nutritional value) of foods. Perhaps most importantly, these decontamination strategies kill indiscriminately, including many—often beneficial—bacteria that are naturally present in foods. One promising technique that addresses several of these shortcomings is bacteriophage biocontrol, a green and natural method that uses lytic bacteriophages isolated from the environment to specifically target pathogenic bacteria and eliminate them from (or significantly reduce their levels in) foods. Since the initial conception of using bacteriophages on foods, a substantial number of research reports have described the use of bacteriophage biocontrol to target a variety of bacterial pathogens in various foods, ranging from ready-to-eat deli meats to fresh fruits and vegetables, and the number of commercially available products containing bacteriophages approved for use in food safety applications has also been steadily increasing. Though some challenges remain, bacteriophage biocontrol is increasingly recognized as an attractive modality in our arsenal of tools for safely and naturally eliminating pathogenic bacteria from foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality)
Open AccessArticle Variability Studies of Two Prunus-Infecting Fabaviruses with the Aid of High-Throughput Sequencing
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040204
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
During their lifetime, perennial woody plants are expected to face multiple infection events. Furthermore, multiple genotypes of individual virus species may co-infect the same host. This may eventually lead to a situation where plants harbor complex communities of viral species/strains. Using high-throughput sequencing,
[...] Read more.
During their lifetime, perennial woody plants are expected to face multiple infection events. Furthermore, multiple genotypes of individual virus species may co-infect the same host. This may eventually lead to a situation where plants harbor complex communities of viral species/strains. Using high-throughput sequencing, we describe co-infection of sweet and sour cherry trees with diverse genomic variants of two closely related viruses, namely prunus virus F (PrVF) and cherry virus F (CVF). Both viruses are most homologous to members of the Fabavirus genus (Secoviridae family). The comparison of CVF and PrVF RNA2 genomic sequences suggests that the two viruses may significantly differ in their expression strategy. Indeed, similar to comoviruses, the smaller genomic segment of PrVF, RNA2, may be translated in two collinear proteins while CVF likely expresses only the shorter of these two proteins. Linked with the observation that identity levels between the coat proteins of these two viruses are significantly below the family species demarcation cut-off, these findings support the idea that CVF and PrVF represent two separate Fabavirus species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Tree Viruses and Viroids)
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Open AccessPerspective Remembering Jan Svoboda: A Personal Reflection
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040203
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
The Czech scientist Jan Svoboda was a pioneer of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). In the 1960s, before the discovery of reverse transcriptase, he demonstrated the long-term persistence of the viral genome in non-productive mammalian cells, and he supported the DNA provirus hypothesis of
[...] Read more.
The Czech scientist Jan Svoboda was a pioneer of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). In the 1960s, before the discovery of reverse transcriptase, he demonstrated the long-term persistence of the viral genome in non-productive mammalian cells, and he supported the DNA provirus hypothesis of Howard Temin. He showed how the virus can be rescued in the infectious form and elucidated the replication-competent nature of the Prague strain of RSV later used for the identification of the src oncogene. His studies straddled molecular oncology and virology, and he remained an active contributor to the field until his death last year. Throughout the 50 years that I was privileged to know Svoboda as my mentor and friend, I admired his depth of scientific inquiry and his steadfast integrity in the face of political oppression. Full article
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Open AccessReview Concepts in Light Microscopy of Viruses
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040202
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
Viruses threaten humans, livestock, and plants, and are difficult to combat. Imaging of viruses by light microscopy is key to uncover the nature of known and emerging viruses in the quest for finding new ways to treat viral disease and deepening the understanding
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Viruses threaten humans, livestock, and plants, and are difficult to combat. Imaging of viruses by light microscopy is key to uncover the nature of known and emerging viruses in the quest for finding new ways to treat viral disease and deepening the understanding of virus–host interactions. Here, we provide an overview of recent technology for imaging cells and viruses by light microscopy, in particular fluorescence microscopy in static and live-cell modes. The review lays out guidelines for how novel fluorescent chemical probes and proteins can be used in light microscopy to illuminate cells, and how they can be used to study virus infections. We discuss advantages and opportunities of confocal and multi-photon microscopy, selective plane illumination microscopy, and super-resolution microscopy. We emphasize the prevalent concepts in image processing and data analyses, and provide an outlook into label-free digital holographic microscopy for virus research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Advanced Imaging to the Study of Virus Replication)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Rabies Virus by 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-Glucose Involves mTOR-Dependent Autophagy
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040201
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (23970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The compound 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (PGG), a gallotannin present in various plants such as Rhus chinensis Mill and Paeonia suffruticosa, has a broad spectrum of antiviral effects. The present study investigated its potency against infection of mice with rabies virus
[...] Read more.
The compound 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (PGG), a gallotannin present in various plants such as Rhus chinensis Mill and Paeonia suffruticosa, has a broad spectrum of antiviral effects. The present study investigated its potency against infection of mice with rabies virus (RABV). Results demonstrated that PGG strongly inhibited virus titers (50-fold), viral mRNA expression (up to 90%), and protein synthesis in vitro. Importantly, we found that PGG not only suppressed viral adsorption and entry, but also directly inactivated RABV through suppression of autophagy by mediating activation of the mTOR-dependent autophagy signaling pathway. In vivo, PGG (10 mg/kg) alleviated the clinical symptoms and reduced the mortality of infected mice by 27.3%. Collectively, our results indicate that PGG has potent anti-RABV effect, and merits further investigation as an anti-RABV drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle Accounting for Space—Quantification of Cell-To-Cell Transmission Kinetics Using Virus Dynamics Models
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040200
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) that describe the population dynamics of viruses and infected cells have been an essential tool to characterize and quantify viral infection dynamics. Although an important aspect of viral infection is the dynamics of viral spread,
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Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) that describe the population dynamics of viruses and infected cells have been an essential tool to characterize and quantify viral infection dynamics. Although an important aspect of viral infection is the dynamics of viral spread, which includes transmission by cell-free virions and direct cell-to-cell transmission, models used so far ignored cell-to-cell transmission completely, or accounted for this process by simple mass-action kinetics between infected and uninfected cells. In this study, we show that the simple mass-action approach falls short when describing viral spread in a spatially-defined environment. Using simulated data, we present a model extension that allows correct quantification of cell-to-cell transmission dynamics within a monolayer of cells. By considering the decreasing proportion of cells that can contribute to cell-to-cell spread with progressing infection, our extension accounts for the transmission dynamics on a single cell level while still remaining applicable to standard population-based experimental measurements. While the ability to infer the proportion of cells infected by either of the transmission modes depends on the viral diffusion rate, the improved estimates obtained using our novel approach emphasize the need to correctly account for spatial aspects when analyzing viral spread. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Role of the ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway in the Replication of Junín and Tacaribe Viruses
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040199
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We have previously shown that the infection of cell cultures with the arenaviruses Junín (JUNV), Tacaribe (TCRV), and Pichindé promotes the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and that this activation is required for the achievement
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We have previously shown that the infection of cell cultures with the arenaviruses Junín (JUNV), Tacaribe (TCRV), and Pichindé promotes the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and that this activation is required for the achievement of a productive infection. Here we examined the contribution of ERK1/2 in early steps of JUNV and TCRV multiplication. JUNV adsorption, internalization, and uncoating were not affected by treatment of cultured cells with U0126, an inhibitor of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. In contrast, U0126 caused a marked reduction in viral protein expression and RNA synthesis, while JUNV RNA synthesis was significantly augmented in the presence of an activator of the ERK1/2 pathway. Moreover, U0126 impaired the expression of a reporter gene in a TCRV-based replicon system, confirming the ability of the compound to hinder arenavirus macromolecular synthesis. By using a cell-based assay, we determined that the inhibitor did not affect the translation of a synthetic TCRV-like mRNA. No changes in the phosphorylation pattern of the translation factor eIF2α were found in U0126-treated cells. Our results indicate that U0126 impairs viral RNA synthesis, thereby leading to a subsequent reduction in viral protein expression. Thus, we conclude that ERK1/2 signaling activation is required for an efficient arenavirus RNA synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview Zika Virus in the Male Reproductive Tract
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040198
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are resurging across the globe. Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused significant concern in recent years because it can lead to congenital malformations in babies and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Unlike other arboviruses, ZIKV can be sexually transmitted and may persist
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Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are resurging across the globe. Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused significant concern in recent years because it can lead to congenital malformations in babies and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Unlike other arboviruses, ZIKV can be sexually transmitted and may persist in the male reproductive tract. There is limited information regarding the impact of ZIKV on male reproductive health and fertility. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie persistent ZIKV infections in men is critical to developing effective vaccines and therapies. Mouse and macaque models have begun to unravel the pathogenesis of ZIKV infection in the male reproductive tract, with the testes and prostate gland implicated as potential reservoirs for persistent ZIKV infection. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of ZIKV in the male reproductive tract, the development of animal models to study ZIKV infection at this site, and prospects for vaccines and therapeutics against persistent ZIKV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances on Zika Virus Research)
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Open AccessReview The Hard Way towards an Antibody-Based HIV-1 Env Vaccine: Lessons from Other Viruses
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040197
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 15 April 2018
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Abstract
Although effective antibody-based vaccines have been developed against multiple viruses, such approaches have so far failed for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Despite the success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) that has turned HIV-1 infection into a chronic disease and has reduced
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Although effective antibody-based vaccines have been developed against multiple viruses, such approaches have so far failed for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Despite the success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) that has turned HIV-1 infection into a chronic disease and has reduced the number of new infections worldwide, a vaccine against HIV-1 is still urgently needed. We discuss here the major reasons for the failure of “classical” vaccine approaches, which are mostly due to the biological properties of the virus itself. HIV-1 has developed multiple mechanisms of immune escape, which also account for vaccine failure. So far, no vaccine candidate has been able to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against primary patient viruses from different clades. However, such antibodies were identified in a subset of patients during chronic infection and were shown to protect from infection in animal models and to reduce viremia in first clinical trials. Their detailed characterization has guided structure-based reverse vaccinology approaches to design better HIV-1 envelope (Env) immunogens. Furthermore, conserved Env epitopes have been identified, which are promising candidates in view of clinical applications. Together with new vector-based technologies, considerable progress has been achieved in recent years towards the development of an effective antibody-based HIV-1 vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Vaccines)
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Open AccessReview Interferon Independent Non-Canonical STAT Activation and Virus Induced Inflammation
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040196
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 7 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
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Abstract
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of secreted proteins that play critical roles in antiviral immunity, antitumor activity, activation of cytotoxic T cells, and modulation of host immune responses. IFNs are cytokines, and bind receptors on cell surfaces to trigger signal transduction. The major
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Interferons (IFNs) are a group of secreted proteins that play critical roles in antiviral immunity, antitumor activity, activation of cytotoxic T cells, and modulation of host immune responses. IFNs are cytokines, and bind receptors on cell surfaces to trigger signal transduction. The major signaling pathway activated by IFNs is the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway, a complex pathway involved in both viral and host survival strategies. On the one hand, viruses have evolved strategies to escape from antiviral host defenses evoked by IFN-activated JAK/STAT signaling. On the other hand, viruses have also evolved to exploit the JAK/STAT pathway to evoke activation of certain STATs that somehow promote viral pathogenesis. In this review, recent progress in our understanding of the virus-induced IFN-independent STAT signaling and its potential roles in viral induced inflammation and pathogenesis are summarized in detail, and perspectives are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Inflammation)
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Open AccessArticle A New Model for the Dynamics of Hepatitis C Infection: Derivation, Analysis and Implications
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040195
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
We review various existing models of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and show that there are inconsistencies between the models and known behaviour of the infection. A new model for HCV infection is proposed, based on various dynamical processes that occur during the
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We review various existing models of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and show that there are inconsistencies between the models and known behaviour of the infection. A new model for HCV infection is proposed, based on various dynamical processes that occur during the infection that are described in the literature. This new model is analysed, and three steady state branches of solutions are found when there is no stem cell generation of hepatocytes. Unusually, the branch of infected solutions that connects the uninfected branch and the pure infection branch can be found analytically and always includes a limit point, subject to a few conditions on the parameters. When the action of stem cells is included, the bifurcation between the pure infection and infected branches unfolds, leaving a single branch of infected solutions. It is shown that this model can generate various viral load profiles that have been described in the literature, which is confirmed by fitting the model to four viral load datasets. Suggestions for possible changes in treatment are made based on the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Modeling of Viral Infections)
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Open AccessArticle Phylogenetic Analysis and Pathogenicity Assessment of the Emerging Recombinant Subgroup K of Avian Leukosis Virus in South China
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040194
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 7 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, cases of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection have become more frequent in China. We isolated 6 ALV strains from yellow feather broiler breeders in south China from 2014 to 2016. Their full genomes were sequenced, compared, and analyzed with other
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In recent years, cases of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection have become more frequent in China. We isolated 6 ALV strains from yellow feather broiler breeders in south China from 2014 to 2016. Their full genomes were sequenced, compared, and analyzed with other reference strains of ALV. The complete genomic nucleotide sequences of GD150509, GD160403, GD160607, GDFX0601, and GDFX0602 were 7482 bp in length, whereas GDFX0603 was 7480 bp. They shared 99.7% to 99.8% identity with each other. Homology analysis showed that the gag, pol, long terminal repeats (LTRs), and the transmembrane region (gp37) of the env genes of the 6 viruses were well conserved to endogenous counterpart sequences (>97.8%). However, the gp85 genes displayed high variability with any known chicken ALV strains. Growth kinetics of DF-1 cells infected with the isolated ALV showed viral titers that were lower than those infected with the GD13 (ALV-A), CD08 (ALV-B), and CHN06 (ALV-J) on day 7 post-infection. The infected Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens could produce continuous viremia, atrophy of immune organs, growth retardation and no tumors were observed. These subgroup ALVs are unique and may be common in south China. The results suggested that updating the control and eradication program of exogenous ALV for yellow feather broiler breeders in south China needs to be considered because of the emergence of the new subgroup viruses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Full-Genome Characterization and Genetic Evolution of West African Isolates of Bagaza Virus
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040193
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
Bagaza virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, first isolated in 1966 in Central African Republic. It has currently been identified in mosquito pools collected in the field in West and Central Africa. Emergence in wild birds in Europe and serological evidence in encephalitis patients
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Bagaza virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, first isolated in 1966 in Central African Republic. It has currently been identified in mosquito pools collected in the field in West and Central Africa. Emergence in wild birds in Europe and serological evidence in encephalitis patients in India raise questions on its genetic evolution and the diversity of isolates circulating in Africa. To better understand genetic diversity and evolution of Bagaza virus, we describe the full-genome characterization of 11 West African isolates, sampled from 1988 to 2014. Parameters such as genetic distances, N-glycosylation patterns, recombination events, selective pressures, and its codon adaptation to human genes are assessed. Our study is noteworthy for the observation of N-glycosylation and recombination in Bagaza virus and provides insight into its Indian origin from the 13th century. Interestingly, evidence of Bagaza virus codon adaptation to human house-keeping genes is also observed to be higher than those of other flaviviruses well known in human infections. Genetic variations on genome of West African Bagaza virus could play an important role in generating diversity and may promote Bagaza virus adaptation to other vertebrates and become an important threat in human health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Full Genome Sequencing Reveals New Southern African Territories Genotypes Bringing Us Closer to Understanding True Variability of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Africa
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040192
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hooved animals that poses a constant burden on farmers in endemic regions and threatens the livestock industries in disease-free countries. Despite the increased number of publicly available whole genome sequences, FMDV data are
[...] Read more.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hooved animals that poses a constant burden on farmers in endemic regions and threatens the livestock industries in disease-free countries. Despite the increased number of publicly available whole genome sequences, FMDV data are biased by the opportunistic nature of sampling. Since whole genomic sequences of Southern African Territories (SAT) are particularly underrepresented, this study sequenced 34 isolates from eastern and southern Africa. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two novel genotypes (that comprised 8/34 of these SAT isolates) which contained unusual 5′ untranslated and non-structural encoding regions. While recombination has occurred between these sequences, phylogeny violation analyses indicated that the high degree of sequence diversity for the novel SAT genotypes has not solely arisen from recombination events. Based on estimates of the timing of ancestral divergence, these data are interpreted as being representative of un-sampled FMDV isolates that have been subjected to geographical isolation within Africa by the effects of the Great African Rinderpest Pandemic (1887–1897), which caused a mass die-out of FMDV-susceptible hosts. These findings demonstrate that further sequencing of African FMDV isolates is likely to reveal more unusual genotypes and will allow for better understanding of natural variability and evolution of FMDV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Recombination: Ecology, Evolution and Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessArticle Combination Kinase Inhibitor Treatment Suppresses Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040191
Received: 17 March 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
Viruses must parasitize host cell translational machinery in order to make proteins for viral progeny. In this study, we sought to use this signal transduction conduit against them by inhibiting multiple kinases that influence translation. Previous work indicated that several kinases involved in
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Viruses must parasitize host cell translational machinery in order to make proteins for viral progeny. In this study, we sought to use this signal transduction conduit against them by inhibiting multiple kinases that influence translation. Previous work indicated that several kinases involved in translation, including p70 S6K, p90RSK, ERK, and p38 MAPK, are phosphorylated following Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Furthermore, inhibiting p70 S6K through treatment with the FDA approved drug rapamycin prevents RVFV pathogenesis in a mouse model of infection. We hypothesized that inhibiting either p70 S6K, p90RSK, or p90RSK’s upstream kinases, ERK and p38 MAPK, would decrease translation and subsequent viral replication. Treatment with the p70 S6K inhibitor PF-4708671 resulted in decreased phosphorylation of translational proteins and reduced RVFV titers. In contrast, treatment with the p90RSK inhibitor BI-D1870, p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580, or the ERK inhibitor PD0325901 alone had minimal influence on RVFV titers. The combination of PF-4708671 and BI-D1870 treatment resulted in robust inhibition of RVFV replication. Likewise, a synergistic inhibition of RVFV replication was observed with p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or the ERK inhibitor PD0325901 combined with rapamycin treatment. These findings serve as a proof of concept regarding combination kinase inhibitor treatment for RVFV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle Counteracting Akt Activation by HIV Protease Inhibitors in Monocytes/Macrophages
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040190
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
Akt signaling plays a central role in many biological processes that are key players in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. The persistence of latent reservoirs in successfully treated patients, mainly located in macrophages and latently infected resting CD4+ T cells, remains a
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Akt signaling plays a central role in many biological processes that are key players in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. The persistence of latent reservoirs in successfully treated patients, mainly located in macrophages and latently infected resting CD4+ T cells, remains a major obstacle in HIV-1 eradication. We assessed the in vitro effects of an HIV protease inhibitor (PI) and a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) on HIV-1 Nef-induced Akt activation in macrophages and on HIV-1 reactivation in U1 monocytoid cells. Ex vivo, we investigated the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on Akt activation, as measured by flow cytometry, and on the viral reservoir size, quantified by qPCR, in monocytes and autologous resting CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected individuals (Trial registration: NCT02858414). We found that, in myeloid cells, both Akt activation and HIV-1 reactivation were inhibited by PI but not by NNRTI in vitro. Our results indicate that cART decreases Akt activation and reduces the size of the HIV reservoir in both monocytes and resting CD4+ T cells. Our study indicates that Akt activation could play a role in HIV reservoir formation, indicating that drugs which target Akt could be efficient for limiting its size in aviremic chronically infected patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Development and Validation of a Microtiter Plate-Based Assay for Determination of Bacteriophage Host Range and Virulence
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040189
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
Bacteriophages, which are the natural predators of bacteria, have re-emerged as an attractive alternative to combat antibiotic resistant bacteria. Phages are highly specific at the species and strain level and measurement of the phage host range plays an important role in utilizing the
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Bacteriophages, which are the natural predators of bacteria, have re-emerged as an attractive alternative to combat antibiotic resistant bacteria. Phages are highly specific at the species and strain level and measurement of the phage host range plays an important role in utilizing the phage as antimicrobials. The most common method for phage host range determination has been to spot phage lysates on soft agar overlays and observe plaque formation. In this study, a liquid culture-based assay was developed in a 96-well microtiter plate format to measure the phage host range and virulence for a collection of 15 Salmonella phages against a panel of 20 Salmonella strains representing 11 serovars. This method was compared to a traditional spot method. The majority of the host range results from two methods were in agreement including in cases where a bacterial strain was insensitive to the phage. Each method produced a false-negative result in 19/300 (6%) of the measured phage-host combinations when compared to the other method. The spot method tended to indicate greater phage sensitivity than the microtiter assay even though direct comparisons of the response magnitude between the two methods is difficult since they operate on different mechanisms. The microtiter plate assay was able to provide data on both the phage host range and virulence in greater resolution in a high-throughput format. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage-Host Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Characterizing Phage Genomes for Therapeutic Applications
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040188
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (10429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Multi-drug resistance is increasing at alarming rates. The efficacy of phage therapy, treating bacterial infections with bacteriophages alone or in combination with traditional antibiotics, has been demonstrated in emergency cases in the United States and in other countries, however remains to be approved
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Multi-drug resistance is increasing at alarming rates. The efficacy of phage therapy, treating bacterial infections with bacteriophages alone or in combination with traditional antibiotics, has been demonstrated in emergency cases in the United States and in other countries, however remains to be approved for wide-spread use in the US. One limiting factor is a lack of guidelines for assessing the genomic safety of phage candidates. We present the phage characterization workflow used by our team to generate data for submitting phages to the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for authorized use. Essential analysis checkpoints and warnings are detailed for obtaining high-quality genomes, excluding undesirable candidates, rigorously assessing a phage genome for safety and evaluating sequencing contamination. This workflow has been developed in accordance with community standards for high-throughput sequencing of viral genomes as well as principles for ideal phages used for therapy. The feasibility and utility of the pipeline is demonstrated on two new phage genomes that meet all safety criteria. We propose these guidelines as a minimum standard for phages being submitted to the FDA for review as investigational new drug candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality)
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Open AccessArticle Pervasive Chimerism in the Replication-Associated Proteins of Uncultured Single-Stranded DNA Viruses
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040187
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
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Abstract
Numerous metagenomic studies have uncovered a remarkable diversity of circular replication-associated protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses, the majority of which are uncultured and unclassified. Unlike capsid proteins, the Reps show significant similarity across different groups of CRESS DNA viruses and have conserved
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Numerous metagenomic studies have uncovered a remarkable diversity of circular replication-associated protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses, the majority of which are uncultured and unclassified. Unlike capsid proteins, the Reps show significant similarity across different groups of CRESS DNA viruses and have conserved domain organization with the N-terminal nuclease and the C-terminal helicase domain. Consequently, Rep is widely used as a marker for identification, classification and assessment of the diversity of CRESS DNA viruses. However, it has been shown that in certain viruses the Rep nuclease and helicase domains display incongruent evolutionary histories. Here, we systematically evaluated the co-evolutionary patterns of the two Rep domains across classified and unclassified CRESS DNA viruses. Our analysis indicates that the Reps encoded by members of the families Bacilladnaviridae, Circoviridae, Geminiviridae, Genomoviridae, Nanoviridae and Smacoviridae display largely congruent evolutionary patterns in the two domains. By contrast, among the unclassified CRESS DNA viruses, 71% appear to have chimeric Reps. Such massive chimerism suggests that unclassified CRESS DNA viruses represent a dynamic population in which exchange of gene fragments encoding the nuclease and helicase domains is extremely common. Furthermore, purging of the chimeric sequences uncovered six monophyletic Rep groups that may represent new families of CRESS DNA viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Recombination: Ecology, Evolution and Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessReview Feline APOBEC3s, Barriers to Cross-Species Transmission of FIV?
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040186
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 7 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
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Abstract
The replication of lentiviruses highly depends on host cellular factors, which defines their species-specific tropism. Cellular restriction factors that can inhibit lentiviral replication were recently identified. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was found to be sensitive to several feline cellular restriction factors, such as
[...] Read more.
The replication of lentiviruses highly depends on host cellular factors, which defines their species-specific tropism. Cellular restriction factors that can inhibit lentiviral replication were recently identified. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was found to be sensitive to several feline cellular restriction factors, such as apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) and tetherin, but FIV evolved to counteract them. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms by which feline APOBEC3 restriction factors inhibit FIV replication and discuss the molecular interaction of APOBEC3 proteins with the viral antagonizing protein Vif. We speculate that feline APOBEC3 proteins could explain some of the observed FIV cross-species transmissions described in wild Felids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonprimate Lentivirus)
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