Special Issue "Mycoviruses"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ioly Kotta-Loizou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
Interests: mycovirus; virus–host interaction; virus replication and expression; virus evolution
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

I am honoured to have been approached to act as the Guest Editor for a Special Issue dedicated to mycoviruses. My interest in viruses stems from their unique nature at the interface between living and non-living entities. The often underappreciated and overlooked mycoviruses in particular offered me the opportunity to discover novel types and explore unusual interactions in settings of medical, ecological and economical importance with potential biotechnological implications. I would like to invite you all to contribute to the Special Issue by submitting your recent works for publication, as an original research article, a short communication or a review. Population studies highlighting the diversity of mycoviruses in organisms and ecosystems, previously undescribed mycovirus families and investigations on mycovirus-host interactions, including but not limited to the role of RNA silencing in mycovirus infections, are most welcome. I am looking forward to hearing from you. 

Yours sincerely,

Dr. Ioly Kotta-Loizou
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • mycoviruses
  • population studies
  • mycovirus evolution
  • mycovirus-host interactions
  • RNA silencing

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Published Papers (33 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Mycoviruses: Past, Present, and Future
Viruses 2019, 11(4), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11040361 - 19 Apr 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1870
Abstract
Approximately a year ago, when I accepted the offer to act as a Guest Editor for the Special Issue ‘Mycoviruses’ organised by the MDPI journal Viruses, I dared not expect that ‘Mycoviruses’ would include such a large number of manuscripts [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Virus Infection of Aspergillus fumigatus Compromises the Fungus in Intermicrobial Competition
Viruses 2021, 13(4), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13040686 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 413
Abstract
Aspergillus and Pseudomonas compete in nature, and are the commonest bacterial and fungal pathogens in some clinical settings, such as the cystic fibrosis lung. Virus infections of fungi occur naturally. Effects on fungal physiology need delineation. A common reference Aspergillus fumigatus strain, long [...] Read more.
Aspergillus and Pseudomonas compete in nature, and are the commonest bacterial and fungal pathogens in some clinical settings, such as the cystic fibrosis lung. Virus infections of fungi occur naturally. Effects on fungal physiology need delineation. A common reference Aspergillus fumigatus strain, long studied in two (of many) laboratories, was found infected with the AfuPmV-1 virus. One isolate was cured of virus, producing a virus-free strain. Virus from the infected strain was purified and used to re-infect three subcultures of the virus-free fungus, producing six fungal strains, otherwise isogenic. They were studied in intermicrobial competition with Pseudomonasaeruginosa. Pseudomonas culture filtrates inhibited forming or preformed Aspergillus biofilm from infected strains to a greater extent, also seen when Pseudomonas volatiles were assayed on Aspergillus. Purified iron-chelating Pseudomonas molecules, known inhibitors of Aspergillus biofilm, reproduced these differences. Iron, a stimulus of Aspergillus, enhanced the virus-free fungus, compared to infected. All infected fungal strains behaved similarly in assays. We show an important consequence of virus infection, a weakening in intermicrobial competition. Viral infection may affect the outcome of bacterial–fungal competition in nature and patients. We suggest that this occurs via alteration in fungal stress responses, the mechanism best delineated here is a result of virus-induced altered Aspergillus iron metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Mycoviruses)
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Communication
Characterization of the Mycovirome of the Phytopathogenic Fungus, Neofusicoccum parvum
Viruses 2021, 13(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030375 - 27 Feb 2021
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Neofusicoccum parvum is a fungal plant-pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, and is considered one of the most aggressive causal agents of the grapevine trunk disease (GTD) Botryosphaeria dieback. In this study, the mycovirome of a single strain of N. parvum (COLB) [...] Read more.
Neofusicoccum parvum is a fungal plant-pathogen belonging to the family Botryosphaeriaceae, and is considered one of the most aggressive causal agents of the grapevine trunk disease (GTD) Botryosphaeria dieback. In this study, the mycovirome of a single strain of N. parvum (COLB) was characterized by high throughput sequencing analysis of total RNA and subsequent bioinformatic analyses. Contig annotations, genome completions, and phylogenetic analyses allowed us to describe six novel mycoviruses belonging to four different viral families. The virome is composed of two victoriviruses in the family Totiviridae, one alphaendornavirus in the family Endornaviridae, two mitoviruses in the family Mitoviridae, and one narnavirus belonging to the family Narnaviridae. The presence of the co-infecting viruses was confirmed by sequencing the RT-PCR products generated from total nucleic acids extracted from COLB. This study shows that the mycovirome of a single N. parvum strain is highly diverse and distinct from that previously described in N. parvum strains isolated from grapevines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Mycoviruses)
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Article
Four Novel Botourmiaviruses Co-Infecting an Isolate of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121383 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
Via virome sequencing, six viruses were detected from Magnaporthe oryzae strains YC81-2, including one virus in the family Tombusviridae, one virus in the family Narnaviridae and four viruses in the family Botourmiaviridae. Since the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of one botourmiavirus [...] Read more.
Via virome sequencing, six viruses were detected from Magnaporthe oryzae strains YC81-2, including one virus in the family Tombusviridae, one virus in the family Narnaviridae and four viruses in the family Botourmiaviridae. Since the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of one botourmiavirus show the highest identity (79%) with Magnaporthe oryzae ourmia-like virus 1 (MOLV1), the virus that was grouped into the genus Magoulivirus was designated as Magnaporthe oryzae botourmiavirus 2 (MOBV2). The three other novel botourmiaviruses were selected for further study. The complete nucleotide sequences of the three botourmiaviruses were determined. Sequence analysis showed that virus 1, virus 2, and virus 3 were 2598, 2385, and 2326 nts in length, respectively. The variable 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR) and 5′-UTR of each virus could be folded into a stable stem-loop secondary structure. Each virus consisted of a unique ORF encoding a putative RdRp. The putative proteins with a conserved GDD motif of RdRp showed the highest sequence similarity to RdRps of viruses in the family Botourmiaviridae. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these viruses were three distinct novel botourmiaviruses, clustered into the Botourmiaviridae family but not belonging to any known genera of this family. Thus, virus 1, virus 2, and virus 3 were designated as Magnaporthe oryzae botourmiavirus 5, 6, and 7 (MOBV5, MOBV6, and MOBV7), respectively. Our results suggest that four distinct botourmiaviruses, MOBV2, MOBV5, MOBV6, and MOBV7, co-infect a single strain of Magnaporthe oryzae, and MOBV5, MOBV6, and MOBV7 are members of three unclassified genera in the family Botourmiaviridae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Mycoviruses)
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Communication
Description of a Novel Mycovirus in the Phytopathogen Fusarium culmorum and a Related EVE in the Yeast Lipomyces starkeyi
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12050523 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
A new mycovirus was found in the Fusarium culmorum strain A104-1 originally sampled on wheat in Belgium. This novel virus, for which the name Fusarium culmorum virus 1 (FcV1) is suggested, is phylogenetically related to members of the previously proposed family ‘’Unirnaviridae’’. FcV1 [...] Read more.
A new mycovirus was found in the Fusarium culmorum strain A104-1 originally sampled on wheat in Belgium. This novel virus, for which the name Fusarium culmorum virus 1 (FcV1) is suggested, is phylogenetically related to members of the previously proposed family ‘’Unirnaviridae’’. FcV1 has a monopartite dsRNA genome of 2898 bp that harbors two large non-overlapping ORFs. A typical -1 slippery motif is found at the end of ORF1, advocating that ORF2 is translated by programmed ribosomal frameshifting. While ORF2 exhibits a conserved replicase domain, ORF1 encodes for an undetermined protein. Interestingly, a hypothetically transcribed gene similar to unirnaviruses ORF1 was found in the genome of Lipomyces starkeyi, presumably resulting from a viral endogenization in this yeast. Conidial isolation and chemical treatment were unsuccessful to obtain a virus-free isogenic line of the fungal host, highlighting a high retention rate for FcV1 but hindering its biological characterization. In parallel, attempt to horizontally transfer FcV1 to another strain of F. culmorum by dual culture failed. Eventually, a screening of other strains of the same fungal species suggests the presence of FcV1 in two other strains from Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Mycoviruses)
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Article
ORF Ι of Mycovirus SsNSRV-1 is Associated with Debilitating Symptoms of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040456 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
We previously identified Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded virus 1 (SsNSRV-1), the first (−) ssRNA mycovirus, associated with hypovirulence of its fungal host Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this study, functional analysis of Open Reading Frame Ι (ORF Ι) of SsNSRV-1 was performed. The [...] Read more.
We previously identified Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded virus 1 (SsNSRV-1), the first (−) ssRNA mycovirus, associated with hypovirulence of its fungal host Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this study, functional analysis of Open Reading Frame Ι (ORF Ι) of SsNSRV-1 was performed. The integration and expression of ORF Ι led to defects in hyphal tips, vegetative growth, and virulence of the mutant strains of S. sclerotiorum. Further, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) responding to the expression of ORF Ι were identified by transcriptome analysis. In all, 686 DEGs consisted of 267 up-regulated genes and 419 down-regulated genes. DEGs reprogramed by ORF Ι were relevant to secretory proteins, pathogenicity, transcription, transmembrane transport, protein biosynthesis, modification, and metabolism. Alternative splicing was also detected in all mutant strains, but not in hypovirulent strain AH98, which was co-infected by SsNSRV-1 and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 1 (SsHV-1). Thus, the integrity of SsNSRV-1 genome may be necessary to protect viral mRNA from splicing and inactivation by the host. Taken together, the results suggested that protein ORF Ι could regulate the transcription, translation, and modification of host genes in order to facilitate viral proliferation and reduce the virulence of the host. Therefore, ORF Ι may be a potential gene used for the prevention of S. sclerotiorum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Mycoviruses)
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Article
Molecular Characterization of a Novel Strain of Fusarium graminearum Virus 1 Infecting Fusarium graminearum
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030357 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) have attracted more attention for their possible hypovirulence (attenuation of fungal virulence) trait, which may be developed as a biocontrol agent of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most discovered mycoviruses are asymptomatic in their hosts. In most cases, mycovirus hypovirulent factors [...] Read more.
Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) have attracted more attention for their possible hypovirulence (attenuation of fungal virulence) trait, which may be developed as a biocontrol agent of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most discovered mycoviruses are asymptomatic in their hosts. In most cases, mycovirus hypovirulent factors have not been explored clearly. In this study, we characterized a ssRNA mycovirus in Fusarium graminearum strain HB56-9. The complete nucleotide genome was obtained by combining random sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full genome was 6621-nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail. The mycovirus was quite interesting because it shared 95.91% nucleotide identities with previously reported Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain DK21 (FgV1-DK21), while the colony morphology of their fungal hosts on PDA plates were very different. The novel virus was named Fusarium graminearum virus 1 Chinese isolate (FgV1-ch). Like FgV1-DK21, FgV1-ch also contains four putative open reading frames (ORFs), including one long and three short ORFs. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that FgV1-ch is clustered into a proposed family Fusariviridae. FgV1-ch, unlike FgV1-DK21, had mild or no effects on host mycelial growth, spore production and virulence. The nucleotide differences between FgV1-ch and FgV1-DK21 will help to elucidate the hypovirulence determinants during mycovirus–host interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Mycoviruses)
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Article
Characterization and Incidence of the First Member of the Genus Mitovirus Identified in the Phytopathogenic Species Fusarium oxysporum
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030279 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
A novel mycovirus named Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi mitovirus 1 (FodMV1) has been identified infecting a strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi from Colombia. The genome of FodMV1 is 2313 nt long, and comprises a 172-nt 5’-UTR, a 2025-nt single ORF [...] Read more.
A novel mycovirus named Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi mitovirus 1 (FodMV1) has been identified infecting a strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi from Colombia. The genome of FodMV1 is 2313 nt long, and comprises a 172-nt 5’-UTR, a 2025-nt single ORF encoding an RdRp of 675 amino acid residues, and a 113-nt 3´-UTR. Homology BlastX searches identifies FodMV1 as a novel member of the genus Mitovirus in the family Narnaviridae. As the rest of mitoviruses, the genome of FodMV1 presents a high percentage of A+U (58.8%) and contains a number of UGA codons that encode the amino acid tryptophan rather than acting as stop codons as in the universal genetic code. Another common feature with other mitoviruses is that the 5′- and 3′-UTR regions of FodMV1 can be folded into potentially stable stem-loop structures. Result from phylogenetic analysis place FodMV1 in a different clade than the rest of mitoviruses described in other Fusarium spp. Incidence of FodMV1-infections in the collection of F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi isolates analyzed is relatively high. Of particular interest is the fact that FodMV1 has been detected infecting isolates from two geographical areas as distant as Spain and Colombia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Mycoviruses)
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Communication
Molecular Characterization of a Novel Ourmia-Like Virus Infecting Phoma matteucciicola
Viruses 2020, 12(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020231 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
Here, we report a novel (+) ssRNA mycovirus, Phoma matteucciicola ourmia-like virus 1 (PmOLV1), isolated from Phoma matteucciicola strain LG915-1. The genome of PmOLV1 was 2603 nucleotides long and contained a single open reading frame (ORF), which could be translated into a product [...] Read more.
Here, we report a novel (+) ssRNA mycovirus, Phoma matteucciicola ourmia-like virus 1 (PmOLV1), isolated from Phoma matteucciicola strain LG915-1. The genome of PmOLV1 was 2603 nucleotides long and contained a single open reading frame (ORF), which could be translated into a product of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) by both standard and mitochondrial genetic codons. Cellular fractionation assay indicated that PmOLV1 RNAs are likely more enriched in mitochondria than in cytoplasm. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PmOLV1 is a new member of the genus Penoulivirus (recently proposed) within the family Botourmiaviridae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Mycoviruses)
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Article
Chrysoviruses Inhabited Symbiotic Fungi of Lichens
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121120 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1533
Abstract
A lichen body is formed most often from green alga cells trapped in a net of ascomycetous fungi and accompanied by endolichenic or parasitic fungi, other algae, and symbiotic or free-living bacteria. The lichen’s microcosmos is inhabited by mites, insects, and other animals [...] Read more.
A lichen body is formed most often from green alga cells trapped in a net of ascomycetous fungi and accompanied by endolichenic or parasitic fungi, other algae, and symbiotic or free-living bacteria. The lichen’s microcosmos is inhabited by mites, insects, and other animals for which the lichen is a source of food or a place to live. Novel, four-segmented dsRNA viruses were detected in saxicolous Chrysothrix chlorina and Lepraria incana lichens. Comparison of encoded genome proteins revealed classification of the viruses to the genus Alphachrysovirus and a relationship to chrysoviruses from filamentous ascomycetous fungi. We propose the names Chrysothrix chrysovirus 1 (CcCV1) and Lepraria chrysovirus 1 (LiCV1) as acronyms for these viruses. Surprisingly, observation of Chrysothrix chlorina hybridization with fluorescent-labelled virus probe by confocal microscope revealed that the CcCV1 virus is not present in the lichen body-forming fungus but in accompanying endolichenic Penicillium citreosulfuratum fungus. These are the first descriptions of mycoviruses from a lichen environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Mycoviruses)
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Article
Mitovirus and Mitochondrial Coding Sequences from Basal Fungus Entomophthora muscae
Viruses 2019, 11(4), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11040351 - 17 Apr 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
Fungi constituting the Entomophthora muscae species complex (members of subphylum Entomophthoromycotina, phylum Zoopagamycota) commonly kill their insect hosts and manipulate host behaviors in the process. In this study, we made use of public transcriptome data to identify and characterize eight new [...] Read more.
Fungi constituting the Entomophthora muscae species complex (members of subphylum Entomophthoromycotina, phylum Zoopagamycota) commonly kill their insect hosts and manipulate host behaviors in the process. In this study, we made use of public transcriptome data to identify and characterize eight new species of mitoviruses associated with several different E. muscae isolates. Mitoviruses are simple RNA viruses that replicate in host mitochondria and are frequently found in more phylogenetically apical fungi (members of subphylum Glomeromyoctina, phylum Mucoromycota, phylum Basidiomycota and phylum Ascomycota) as well as in plants. E. muscae is the first fungus from phylum Zoopagomycota, and thereby the most phylogenetically basal fungus, found to harbor mitoviruses to date. Multiple UGA (Trp) codons are found not only in each of the new mitovirus sequences from E. muscae but also in mitochondrial core-gene coding sequences newly assembled from E. muscae transcriptome data, suggesting that UGA (Trp) is not a rarely used codon in the mitochondria of this fungus. The presence of mitoviruses in these basal fungi has possible implications for the evolution of these viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Communication
Co-Infection with Three Mycoviruses Stimulates Growth of a Monilinia fructicola Isolate on Nutrient Medium, but Does Not Induce Hypervirulence in a Natural Host
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010089 - 21 Jan 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia laxa are the most destructive fungal species infecting stone fruit (Prunus species). High-throughput cDNA sequencing of M. laxa and M. fructicola isolates collected from stone fruit orchards revealed that 14% of isolates were infected with one or more [...] Read more.
Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia laxa are the most destructive fungal species infecting stone fruit (Prunus species). High-throughput cDNA sequencing of M. laxa and M. fructicola isolates collected from stone fruit orchards revealed that 14% of isolates were infected with one or more of three mycoviruses: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 2 (SsHV2, genus Hypovirus), Fusarium poae virus 1 (FPV1, genus Betapartitivirus), and Botrytis virus F (BVF, genus Mycoflexivirus). Isolate M196 of M. fructicola was co-infected with all three viruses, and this isolate was studied further. Several methods were applied to cure M196 of one or more mycoviruses. Of these treatments, hyphal tip culture either alone or in combination with antibiotic treatment generated isogenic lines free of one or more mycoviruses. When isogenic fungal lines were cultured on nutrient agar medium in vitro, the triple mycovirus-infected parent isolate M196 grew 10% faster than any of the virus-cured isogenic lines. BVF had a slight inhibitory effect on growth, and FPV1 did not influence growth. Surprisingly, after inoculation to fruits of sweet cherry, there were no significance differences in disease progression between isogenic lines, suggesting that these mycoviruses did not influence the virulence of M. fructicola on a natural host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
Article
A Rapid Method for Sequencing Double-Stranded RNAs Purified from Yeasts and the Identification of a Potent K1 Killer Toxin Isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010070 - 16 Jan 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2622
Abstract
Mycoviruses infect a large number of diverse fungal species, but considering their prevalence, relatively few high-quality genome sequences have been determined. Many mycoviruses have linear double-stranded RNA genomes, which makes it technically challenging to ascertain their nucleotide sequence using conventional sequencing methods. Different [...] Read more.
Mycoviruses infect a large number of diverse fungal species, but considering their prevalence, relatively few high-quality genome sequences have been determined. Many mycoviruses have linear double-stranded RNA genomes, which makes it technically challenging to ascertain their nucleotide sequence using conventional sequencing methods. Different specialist methodologies have been developed for the extraction of double-stranded RNAs from fungi and the subsequent synthesis of cDNAs for cloning and sequencing. However, these methods are often labor-intensive, time-consuming, and can require several days to produce cDNAs from double-stranded RNAs. Here, we describe a comprehensive method for the rapid extraction and sequencing of dsRNAs derived from yeasts, using short-read next generation sequencing. This method optimizes the extraction of high-quality double-stranded RNAs from yeasts and 3′ polyadenylation for the initiation of cDNA synthesis for next-generation sequencing. We have used this method to determine the sequence of two mycoviruses and a double-stranded RNA satellite present within a single strain of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The quality and depth of coverage was sufficient to detect fixed and polymorphic mutations within viral populations extracted from a clonal yeast population. This method was also able to identify two fixed mutations within the alpha-domain of a variant K1 killer toxin encoded on a satellite double-stranded RNA. Relative to the canonical K1 toxin, these newly reported mutations increased the cytotoxicity of the K1 toxin against a specific species of yeast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Article
A Novel Partitivirus in the Hypovirulent Isolate QT5-19 of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Botrytis cinerea
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010024 - 03 Jan 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3309
Abstract
A pink isolate (QT5-19) of Botrytis cinerea was compared with three gray isolates of B. cinerea for growth and morphogenesis on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and for pathogenicity on tobacco. A double-stranded (ds) RNA mycovirus infecting QT5-19 was identified based on its genome [...] Read more.
A pink isolate (QT5-19) of Botrytis cinerea was compared with three gray isolates of B. cinerea for growth and morphogenesis on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and for pathogenicity on tobacco. A double-stranded (ds) RNA mycovirus infecting QT5-19 was identified based on its genome feature and morphology of the virus particles. The results showed that QT5-19 grew rapidly and established flourishing colonies as the gray isolates did. However, it is different from the gray isolates, as it failed to produce conidia and sclerotia asthe gray isolates did. QT5-19 hardly infected tobacco, whereas the gray isolates aggressively infected tobacco. Two dsRNAs were detected in QT5-19, dsRNA 1 and dsRNA 2, were deduced to encode two polypepetides with homology to viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and coat protein (CP), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of RdRp and CP indicated that the two dsRNAs represent the genome of a novel partitivirus in the genus Alphapartitivirus, designated here as Botrytis cinerea partitivirus 2 (BcPV2). BcPV2 in QT5-19 was successfully transmitted to the three gray isolates through hyphal contact. The resulting BcPV2-infected derivatives showed rapid growth on PDA with defects in conidiogenesis and sclerogenesis, and hypovirulence on tobacco. This study suggests that BcPV2 is closely associated with hypovirulence of B. cinerea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Communication
Identification, Molecular Characterization, and Biology of a Novel Quadrivirus Infecting the Phytopathogenic Fungus Leptosphaeria biglobosa
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010009 - 25 Dec 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Here we report the molecular characterisation of a novel dsRNA virus isolated from the filamentous, plant pathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria biglobosa and known to cause significant alterations to fungal pigmentation and growth and to result in hypervirulence, as illustrated by comparisons between virus-infected and [...] Read more.
Here we report the molecular characterisation of a novel dsRNA virus isolated from the filamentous, plant pathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria biglobosa and known to cause significant alterations to fungal pigmentation and growth and to result in hypervirulence, as illustrated by comparisons between virus-infected and -cured isogenic fungal strains. The virus forms isometric particles approximately 40–45 nm in diameter and has a quadripartite dsRNA genome structure with size ranges of 4.9 to 4 kbp, each possessing a single ORF. Sequence analysis of the putative proteins encoded by dsRNAs 1–4, termed P1–P4, respectively, revealed modest similarities to the amino acid sequences of equivalent proteins predicted from the nucleotide sequences of known and suspected members of the family Quadriviridae and for that reason the virus was nominated Leptosphaeria biglobosa quadrivirus-1 (LbQV-1). Sequence and phylogenetic analysis using the P3 sequence, which encodes an RdRP, revealed that LbQV-1 was most closely related to known and suspected quadriviruses and monopartite totiviruses rather than other quadripartite mycoviruses including chrysoviruses and alternaviruses. Of the remaining encoded proteins, LbQV-1 P2 and P4 are structural proteins but the function of P1 is unknown. We propose that LbQV-1 is a novel member of the family Quadriviridae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Article
Transcriptional and Small RNA Responses of the White Mold Fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to Infection by a Virulence-Attenuating Hypovirus
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120713 - 14 Dec 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Mycoviruses belonging to the family Hypoviridae cause persistent infection of many different host fungi. We previously determined that the white mold fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 2-L (SsHV2-L) exhibits reduced virulence, delayed/reduced sclerotial formation, and enhanced production of aerial [...] Read more.
Mycoviruses belonging to the family Hypoviridae cause persistent infection of many different host fungi. We previously determined that the white mold fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 2-L (SsHV2-L) exhibits reduced virulence, delayed/reduced sclerotial formation, and enhanced production of aerial mycelia. To gain better insight into the cellular basis for these changes, we characterized changes in mRNA and small RNA (sRNA) accumulation in S. sclerotiorum to infection by SsHV2-L. A total of 958 mRNAs and 835 sRNA-producing loci were altered after infection by SsHV2-L, among which >100 mRNAs were predicted to encode proteins involved in the metabolism and trafficking of carbohydrates and lipids. Both S. sclerotiorum endogenous and virus-derived sRNAs were predominantly 22 nt in length suggesting one dicer-like enzyme cleaves both. Novel classes of endogenous small RNAs were predicted, including phasiRNAs and tRNA-derived small RNAs. Moreover, S. sclerotiorum phasiRNAs, which were derived from noncoding RNAs and have the potential to regulate mRNA abundance in trans, showed differential accumulation due to virus infection. tRNA fragments did not accumulate differentially after hypovirus infection. Hence, in-depth analysis showed that infection of S. sclerotiorum by a hypovirulence-inducing hypovirus produced selective, large-scale reprogramming of mRNA and sRNA production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Article
Metatranscriptomic Analysis and In Silico Approach Identified Mycoviruses in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus spp.
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120707 - 12 Dec 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1868
Abstract
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), including Rhizophagus spp., can play important roles in nutrient cycling of the rhizosphere. However, the effect of virus infection on AMF’s role in nutrient cycling cannot be determined without first knowing the diversity of the mycoviruses in AMF. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), including Rhizophagus spp., can play important roles in nutrient cycling of the rhizosphere. However, the effect of virus infection on AMF’s role in nutrient cycling cannot be determined without first knowing the diversity of the mycoviruses in AMF. Therefore, in this study, we sequenced the R. irregularis isolate-09 due to its previously demonstrated high efficiency in increasing the N/P uptake of the plant. We identified one novel mitovirus contig of 3685 bp, further confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR. Also, publicly available Rhizophagus spp. RNA-Seq data were analyzed to recover five partial virus sequences from family Narnaviridae, among which four were from R. diaphanum MUCL-43196 and one was from R. irregularis strain-C2 that was similar to members of the Mitovirus genus. These contigs coded genomes larger than the regular mitoviruses infecting pathogenic fungi and can be translated by either a mitochondrial translation code or a cytoplasmic translation code, which was also reported in previously found mitoviruses infecting mycorrhizae. The five newly identified virus sequences are comprised of functionally conserved RdRp motifs and formed two separate subclades with mitoviruses infecting Gigaspora margarita and Rhizophagus clarus, further supporting virus-host co-evolution theory. This study expands our understanding of virus diversity. Even though AMF is notably hard to investigate due to its biotrophic nature, this study demonstrates the utility of whole root metatranscriptome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Communication
Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a Partitivirus from Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA Strain C24
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120703 - 11 Dec 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
The complete genome of a novel double-stranded (ds) RNA mycovirus, named as Rhizoctonia solani partitivirus 5 (RsPV5), isolated from rice sheath blight fungus R. solani AG-1 IA strain C24, was sequenced and analysed. RsPV5 consists of two segments, dsRNA-1 (1899 nucleotides) and dsRNA-2 [...] Read more.
The complete genome of a novel double-stranded (ds) RNA mycovirus, named as Rhizoctonia solani partitivirus 5 (RsPV5), isolated from rice sheath blight fungus R. solani AG-1 IA strain C24, was sequenced and analysed. RsPV5 consists of two segments, dsRNA-1 (1899 nucleotides) and dsRNA-2 (1787 nucleotides). DsRNA-1 has an open reading frame (ORF) 1 that potentially codes for a protein of 584 amino acid (aa) containing the conserved motifs of a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and dsRNA-2 also contains a ORF 2, encoding a putative capsid protein (CP) of 513 aa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RsPV5 clustered together with six other viruses in an independent clade of the genus Alphapartitivirus, indicating that RsPV5 was a new member of the genus Alphapartitivirus, within the family Partitiviridae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Article
Genetic and Phenotypic Characterization of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 from Eurasian Georgia
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120687 - 03 Dec 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) infects the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and acts as a biological control agent against this harmful tree disease. In this study, we screened the recently characterized C. parasitica population in Eurasian Georgia for the presence of CHV-1. We [...] Read more.
Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) infects the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and acts as a biological control agent against this harmful tree disease. In this study, we screened the recently characterized C. parasitica population in Eurasian Georgia for the presence of CHV-1. We found 62 CHV-1 infected C. parasitica isolates (9.3%) among a total of 664 isolates sampled in 14 locations across Georgia. The prevalence of CHV-1 at the different locations ranged from 0% in the eastern part of the country to 29% in the western part. Sequencing of two specific regions of the viral genome one each in ORFA and ORFB revealed a unique CHV-1 subtype in Georgia. This subtype has a recombinant pattern combining the ORFA region from the subtype F2 and the ORFB region from subtype D. All 62 viral strains belonged to this Georgian CHV-1 subtype (subtype G). The CHV-1 subtype G strongly reduced the parasitic growth of C. parasitica isolates from Georgia, with a more severe effect on the European genepool compared to the Georgian genepool. The CHV-1 subtype detected in Georgia provides a valuable candidate for biological control applications in the Caucasus region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Communication
Mycoviral Population Dynamics in Spanish Isolates of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120665 - 24 Nov 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
The use of mycoviruses to manipulate the virulence of entomopathogenic fungi employed as biocontrol agents may lead to the development of novel methods to control attacks by insect pests. Such approaches are urgently required, as existing agrochemicals are being withdrawn from the market [...] Read more.
The use of mycoviruses to manipulate the virulence of entomopathogenic fungi employed as biocontrol agents may lead to the development of novel methods to control attacks by insect pests. Such approaches are urgently required, as existing agrochemicals are being withdrawn from the market due to environmental and health concerns. The aim of this work is to investigate the presence and diversity of mycoviruses in large panels of entomopathogenic fungi, mostly from Spain and Denmark. In total, 151 isolates belonging to the genera Beauveria, Metarhizium, Lecanicillium, Purpureocillium, Isaria, and Paecilomyces were screened for the presence of dsRNA elements and 12 Spanish B. bassiana isolates were found to harbor mycoviruses. All identified mycoviruses belong to three previously characterised species, the officially recognised Beauveria bassiana victorivirus 1 (BbVV-1) and the proposed Beauveria bassiana partitivirus 2 (BbPV-2) and Beauveria bassiana polymycovirus 1 (BbPmV-1); individual B. bassiana isolates may harbor up to three of these mycoviruses. Notably, these mycovirus species are under distinct selection pressures, while recombination of viral genomes increases population diversity. Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequences revealed that the current population structure in Spain is potentially a result of both vertical and horizontal mycovirus transmission. Finally, pathogenicity experiments using the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata showed no direct correlation between the presence of any particular mycovirus and the virulence of the B. bassiana isolates, but illustrated potentially interesting isolates that exhibit relatively high virulence, which will be used in more detailed virulence experimentation in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Article
Detection of a Conspecific Mycovirus in Two Closely Related Native and Introduced Fungal Hosts and Evidence for Interspecific Virus Transmission
Viruses 2018, 10(11), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10110628 - 13 Nov 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Hymenoscyphus albidus is a native fungus in Europe where it behaves as a harmless decomposer of leaves of common ash. Its close relative Hymenoscyphus fraxineus was introduced into Europe from Asia and currently threatens ash (Fraxinus sp.) stands all across the continent [...] Read more.
Hymenoscyphus albidus is a native fungus in Europe where it behaves as a harmless decomposer of leaves of common ash. Its close relative Hymenoscyphus fraxineus was introduced into Europe from Asia and currently threatens ash (Fraxinus sp.) stands all across the continent causing ash dieback. H. fraxineus isolates from Europe were previously shown to harbor a mycovirus named Hymenoscyphus fraxineus Mitovirus 1 (HfMV1). In the present study, we describe a conspecific mycovirus that we detected in H. albidus. HfMV1 was consistently identified in H. albidus isolates (mean prevalence: 49.3%) which were collected in the sampling areas before the arrival of ash dieback. HfMV1 strains in both fungal hosts contain a single ORF of identical length (717 AA) for which a mean pairwise identity of 94.5% was revealed. The occurrence of a conspecific mitovirus in H. albidus and H. fraxineus is most likely the result of parallel virus evolution in the two fungal hosts. HfMV1 sequences from H. albidus showed a higher nucleotide diversity and a higher number of mutations compared to those from H. fraxineus, probably due to a bottleneck caused by the introduction of H. fraxineus in Europe. Our data also points to multiple interspecific virus transfers from H. albidus to H. fraxineus, which could have contributed to the intraspecific virus diversity found in H. fraxineus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Article
Sclerotinia minor Endornavirus 1, a Novel Pathogenicity Debilitation-Associated Mycovirus with a Wide Spectrum of Horizontal Transmissibility
Viruses 2018, 10(11), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10110589 - 27 Oct 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Sclerotinia minor is a phytopathogenic fungus causing sclerotinia blight on many economically important crops. Here, we have characterized the biological and molecular properties of a novel endornavirus, Sclerotinia minor endornavirus 1 (SmEV1), isolated from the hypovirulent strain LC22 of S. minor. The [...] Read more.
Sclerotinia minor is a phytopathogenic fungus causing sclerotinia blight on many economically important crops. Here, we have characterized the biological and molecular properties of a novel endornavirus, Sclerotinia minor endornavirus 1 (SmEV1), isolated from the hypovirulent strain LC22 of S. minor. The genome of SmEV1 is 12,626 bp long with a single, large open reading frame (ORF), coding for a putative protein of 4020 amino acids. The putative protein contains cysteine-rich region (CRR), viral methyltransferase (MTR), putative DEXDc, viral helicase (Hel), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains. The putative protein and the conserved domains are phylogenetically related to endornaviruses. SmEV1 does not contain a site-specific nick characteristic of most previously described endornaviruses. Hypovirulence and associated traits of strain LC22 and SmEV1 were readily cotransmitted horizontally via hyphal contact to isolates of different vegetative compatibility groups of S. minor. Additionally, SmEV1 in strain LC22 was found capable of being transmitted vertically through sclerotia. Furthermore, mycelium fragments of hypovirulent strain LC22 have a protective activity against attack by S. minor. Taken together, we concluded that SmEV1 is a novel hypovirulence-associated mycovirus with a wide spectrum of transmissibility, and has potential for biological control (virocontrol) of diseases caused by S. minor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Article
Novel Mitoviruses and a Unique Tymo-Like Virus in Hypovirulent and Virulent Strains of the Fusarium Head Blight Fungus, Fusarium boothii
Viruses 2018, 10(11), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10110584 - 26 Oct 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1982
Abstract
Hypovirulence of phytopathogenic fungi are often conferred by mycovirus(es) infections and for this reason many mycoviruses have been characterized, contributing to a better understanding of virus diversity. In this study, three strains of Fusarium head blight fungus (Fusarium boothii) were isolated [...] Read more.
Hypovirulence of phytopathogenic fungi are often conferred by mycovirus(es) infections and for this reason many mycoviruses have been characterized, contributing to a better understanding of virus diversity. In this study, three strains of Fusarium head blight fungus (Fusarium boothii) were isolated from Ethiopian wheats as dsRNA-carrying strains: hypovirulent Ep-BL13 (>10, 3 and 2.5 kbp dsRNAs), and virulent Ep-BL14 and Ep-N28 (3 kbp dsRNA each) strains. The 3 kbp-dsRNAs shared 98% nucleotide identity and have single ORFs encoding a replicase when applied to mitochondrial codon usage. Phylogenetic analysis revealed these were strains of a new species termed Fusarium boothii mitovirus 1 in the genus Mitovirus. The largest and smallest dsRNAs in Ep-BL13 appeared to possess single ORFs and the smaller was originated from the larger by removal of its most middle part. The large dsRNA encoded a replicase sharing the highest amino acid identity (35%) with that of Botrytis virus F, the sole member of the family Gammaflexiviridae. Given that the phylogenetic placement, large genome size, simple genomic and unusual 3′-terminal RNA structures were far different from members in the order Tymovirales, the virus termed Fusarium boothii large flexivirus 1 may form a novel genus and family under the order. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Article
Identification and Molecular Characterization of a Novel Partitivirus from Trichoderma atroviride NFCF394
Viruses 2018, 10(11), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10110578 - 23 Oct 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
An increasing number of novel mycoviruses have been described in fungi. Here, we report the molecular characteristics of a novel bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus from the fungus Trichoderma atroviride NFCF394. We designated this mycovirus as Trichoderma atroviride partitivirus 1 (TaPV1). Electron micrographs [...] Read more.
An increasing number of novel mycoviruses have been described in fungi. Here, we report the molecular characteristics of a novel bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus from the fungus Trichoderma atroviride NFCF394. We designated this mycovirus as Trichoderma atroviride partitivirus 1 (TaPV1). Electron micrographs of negatively stained, purified viral particles showed an isometric structure approximately of 30 nm in diameter. The larger segment (dsRNA1) of the TaPV1 genome comprised 2023 bp and contained a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding 614 amino acid (AA) residues of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The smaller segment (dsRNA2) consisted of 2012 bp with a single ORF encoding 577 AA residues of capsid protein (CP). The phylogenetic analysis, based on deduced amino acid sequences of RdRp and CP, indicated that TaPV1 is a new member of the genus Alphapartitivirus in the family Partitiviridae. Virus-cured isogenic strains did not show significant changes in colony morphology. In addition, no changes in the enzymatic activities of β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase were observed in virus-cured strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an Alphapartitivirus in T. atroviride. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Article
Saccharomyces paradoxus K66 Killer System Evidences Expanded Assortment of Helper and Satellite Viruses
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100564 - 16 Oct 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
The Saccharomycetaceae yeast family recently became recognized for expanding of the repertoire of different dsRNA-based viruses, highlighting the need for understanding of their cross-dependence. We isolated the Saccharomyces paradoxus AML-15-66 killer strain from spontaneous fermentation of serviceberries and identified helper and satellite viruses [...] Read more.
The Saccharomycetaceae yeast family recently became recognized for expanding of the repertoire of different dsRNA-based viruses, highlighting the need for understanding of their cross-dependence. We isolated the Saccharomyces paradoxus AML-15-66 killer strain from spontaneous fermentation of serviceberries and identified helper and satellite viruses of the family Totiviridae, which are responsible for the killing phenotype. The corresponding full dsRNA genomes of viruses have been cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis of SpV-LA-66 identified it to be most similar to S. paradoxus LA-28 type viruses, while SpV-M66 was mostly similar to the SpV-M21 virus. Sequence and functional analysis revealed significant differences between the K66 and the K28 toxins. The structural organization of the K66 protein resembled those of the K1/K2 type toxins. The AML-15-66 strain possesses the most expressed killing property towards the K28 toxin-producing strain. A genetic screen performed on S. cerevisiae YKO library strains revealed 125 gene products important for the functioning of the S. paradoxus K66 toxin, with 85% of the discovered modulators shared with S. cerevisiae K2 or K1 toxins. Investigation of the K66 protein binding to cells and different polysaccharides implies the β-1,6 glucans to be the primary receptors of S. paradoxus K66 toxin. For the first time, we demonstrated the coherent habitation of different types of helper and satellite viruses in a wild-type S. paradoxus strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Article
The Effect of Aspergillus Thermomutatus Chrysovirus 1 on the Biology of Three Aspergillus Species
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100539 - 02 Oct 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
This study determined the effects of Aspergillus thermomutatus chrysovirus 1 (AthCV1), isolated from Aspergillus thermomutatus, on A. fumigatus, A. nidulans and A. niger. Protoplasts of virus-free isolates of A. fumigatus, A. nidulans and A. niger were transfected with purified [...] Read more.
This study determined the effects of Aspergillus thermomutatus chrysovirus 1 (AthCV1), isolated from Aspergillus thermomutatus, on A. fumigatus, A. nidulans and A. niger. Protoplasts of virus-free isolates of A. fumigatus, A. nidulans and A. niger were transfected with purified AthCV1 particles and the phenotype, growth and sporulation of the isogenic AthCV1-free and AthCV1-infected lines assessed at 20 °C and 37 °C and gene expression data collected at 37 °C. AthCV1-free and AthCV1-infected A. fumigatus produced only conidia at both temperatures but more than ten-fold reduced compared to the AthCV1-infected line. Conidiation was also significantly reduced in infected lines of A. nidulans and A. niger at 37 °C. AthCV1-infected lines of A. thermomutatus and A. nidulans produced large numbers of ascospores at both temperatures, whereas the AthCV1-free line of the former did not produce ascospores. AthCV1-infected lines of all species developed sectoring phenotypes with sclerotia produced in aconidial sectors of A. niger at 37 °C. AthCV1 was detected in 18% of sclerotia produced by AthCV1-infected A. niger and 31% of ascospores from AthCV1-infected A. nidulans. Transcriptome analysis of the naturally AthCV1-infected A. thermomutatus and the three AthCV1-transfected Aspergillus species showed altered gene expression as a result of AthCV1-infection. The results demonstrate that AthCV1 can infect a range of Aspergillus species resulting in reduced sporulation, a potentially useful attribute for a biological control agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Communication
Molecular Characterization and Geographic Distribution of a Mymonavirus in the Population of Botrytis cinerea
Viruses 2018, 10(8), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080432 - 15 Aug 2018
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
Here, we characterized a negative single-stranded (−ss)RNA mycovirus, Botrytis cinerea mymonavirus 1 (BcMyV1), isolated from the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. The genome of BcMyV1 is 7863 nt in length, possessing three open reading frames (ORF1–3). The ORF1 encodes a large polypeptide containing [...] Read more.
Here, we characterized a negative single-stranded (−ss)RNA mycovirus, Botrytis cinerea mymonavirus 1 (BcMyV1), isolated from the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. The genome of BcMyV1 is 7863 nt in length, possessing three open reading frames (ORF1–3). The ORF1 encodes a large polypeptide containing a conserved mononegaviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain showing homology to the protein L of mymonaviruses, whereas the possible functions of the remaining two ORFs are still unknown. The internal cDNA sequence (10-7829) of BcMyV1 was 97.9% identical to the full-length cDNA sequence of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative stranded RNA virus 7 (SsNSRV7), a virus-like contig obtained from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum metatranscriptomes, indicating BcMyV1 should be a strain of SsNSRV7. Phylogenetic analysis based on RdRp domains showed that BcMyV1 was clustered with the viruses in the family Mymonaviridae, suggesting it is a member of Mymonaviridae. BcMyV1 may be widely distributed in regions where B. cinerea occurs in China and even over the world, although it infected only 0.8% of tested B. cinerea strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Article
Two Novel Hypovirulence-Associated Mycoviruses in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Botrytis cinerea: Molecular Characterization and Suppression of Infection Cushion Formation
Viruses 2018, 10(5), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050254 - 13 May 2018
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2631
Abstract
Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus causing disease on many important agricultural crops. Two novel mycoviruses, namely Botrytis cinerea hypovirus 1 (BcHV1) and Botrytis cinerea fusarivirus 1 (BcFV1), were fully sequenced. The genome of BcHV1 is 10,214 nt long excluding a poly-A tail [...] Read more.
Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus causing disease on many important agricultural crops. Two novel mycoviruses, namely Botrytis cinerea hypovirus 1 (BcHV1) and Botrytis cinerea fusarivirus 1 (BcFV1), were fully sequenced. The genome of BcHV1 is 10,214 nt long excluding a poly-A tail and possesses one large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein possessing several conserved domains including RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), showing homology to hypovirus-encoded polyproteins. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that BcHV1 may belong to the proposed genus Betahypovirus in the viral family Hypoviridae. The genome of BcFV1 is 8411 nt in length excluding the poly A tail and theoretically processes two major ORFs, namely ORF1 and ORF2. The larger ORF1 encoded polypeptide contains protein domains of an RdRp and a viral helicase, whereas the function of smaller ORF2 remains unknown. The BcFV1 was phylogenetically clustered with other fusariviruses forming an independent branch, indicating BcFV1 was a member in Fusariviridae. Both BcHV1 and BcFV1 were capable of being transmitted horizontally through hyphal anastomosis. Infection by BcHV1 alone caused attenuated virulence without affecting mycelial growth, significantly inhibited infection cushion (IC) formation, and altered expression of several IC-formation-associated genes. However, wound inoculation could fully rescue the virulence phenotype of the BcHV1 infected isolate. These results indicate the BcHV1-associated hypovirulence is caused by the viral influence on IC-formation-associated pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Communication
Multiplex Detection of Aspergillus fumigatus Mycoviruses
Viruses 2018, 10(5), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10050247 - 08 May 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2404
Abstract
Mycoviruses are viruses that naturally infect and replicate in fungi. They are widespread in all major fungal groups including plant and animal pathogenic fungi. Several dsRNA mycoviruses have been reported in Aspergillus fumigatus. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is a version [...] Read more.
Mycoviruses are viruses that naturally infect and replicate in fungi. They are widespread in all major fungal groups including plant and animal pathogenic fungi. Several dsRNA mycoviruses have been reported in Aspergillus fumigatus. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is a version of PCR that enables amplification of different targets simultaneously. This technique has been widely used for detection and differentiation of viruses especially plant viruses such as those which infect tobacco, potato and garlic. For rapid detection, multiplex RT-PCR was developed to screen new isolates for the presence of A. fumigatus mycoviruses. Aspergillus fumigatus chrysovirus (AfuCV), Aspergillus fumigatus partitivirus (AfuPV-1), and Aspergillus fumigatus tetramycovirus-1 (AfuTmV-1) dsRNAs were amplified in separate reactions using a mixture of multiplex primer pairs. It was demonstrated that in the presence of a single infection, primer pair mixtures only amplify the corresponding single virus infection. Mixed infections using dual or triple combinations of dsRNA viruses were also amplified simultaneously using multiplex RT-PCR. Up until now, methods for the rapid detection of Aspergillus mycoviruses have been restricted to small scale dsRNA extraction approaches which are laborious and for large numbers of samples not as sensitive as RT-PCR. The multiplex RT-PCR assay developed here will be useful for studies on determining the incidence of A. fumigatus mycoviruses. This is the first report on multiplex detection of A. fumigatus mycoviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Article
Mycoviruses as Triggers and Targets of RNA Silencing in White Mold Fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040214 - 22 Apr 2018
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3369
Abstract
This study aimed to demonstrate the existence of antiviral RNA silencing mechanisms in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by infecting wild-type and RNA-silencing-deficient strains of the fungus with an RNA virus and a DNA virus. Key silencing-related genes were disrupted to dissect the RNA silencing pathway. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to demonstrate the existence of antiviral RNA silencing mechanisms in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by infecting wild-type and RNA-silencing-deficient strains of the fungus with an RNA virus and a DNA virus. Key silencing-related genes were disrupted to dissect the RNA silencing pathway. Specifically, dicer genes (dcl-1, dcl-2, and both dcl-1/dcl-2) were displaced by selective marker(s). Disruption mutants were then compared for changes in phenotype, virulence, and susceptibility to virus infections. Wild-type and mutant strains were transfected with a single-stranded RNA virus, SsHV2-L, and copies of a single-stranded DNA mycovirus, SsHADV-1, as a synthetic virus constructed in this study. Disruption of dcl-1 or dcl-2 resulted in no changes in phenotype compared to wild-type S. sclerotiorum; however, the double dicer mutant strain exhibited significantly slower growth. Furthermore, the Δdcl-1/dcl-2 double mutant, which was slow growing without virus infection, exhibited much more severe debilitation following virus infections including phenotypic changes such as slower growth, reduced pigmentation, and delayed sclerotial formation. These phenotypic changes were absent in the single mutants, Δdcl-1 and Δdcl-2. Complementation of a single dicer in the double disruption mutant reversed viral susceptibility to the wild-type state. Virus-derived small RNAs were accumulated from virus-infected wild-type strains with strand bias towards the negative sense. The findings of these studies indicate that S. sclerotiorum has robust RNA silencing mechanisms that process both DNA and RNA mycoviruses and that, when both dicers are silenced, invasive nucleic acids can greatly debilitate the virulence of this fungus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Review

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Review
Chrysoviruses in Magnaporthe oryzae
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120697 - 08 Dec 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungus that causes rice blast, is the most destructive pathogen of rice worldwide. A number of M. oryzae mycoviruses have been identified. These include Magnaporthe oryzae. viruses 1, 2, and 3 (MoV1, MoV2, and MoV3) belonging to the genus, [...] Read more.
Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungus that causes rice blast, is the most destructive pathogen of rice worldwide. A number of M. oryzae mycoviruses have been identified. These include Magnaporthe oryzae. viruses 1, 2, and 3 (MoV1, MoV2, and MoV3) belonging to the genus, Victorivirus, in the family, Totiviridae; Magnaporthe oryzae. partitivirus 1 (MoPV1) in the family, Partitiviridae; Magnaporthe oryzae. chrysovirus 1 strains A and B (MoCV1-A and MoCV1-B) belonging to cluster II of the family, Chrysoviridae; a mycovirus related to plant viruses of the family, Tombusviridae (Magnaporthe oryzae. virus A); and a (+)ssRNA mycovirus closely related to the ourmia-like viruses (Magnaporthe oryzae. ourmia-like virus 1). Among these, MoCV1-A and MoCV1-B were the first reported mycoviruses that cause hypovirulence traits in their host fungus, such as impaired growth, altered colony morphology, and reduced pigmentation. Recently we reported that, although MoCV1-A infection generally confers hypovirulence to fungi, it is also a driving force behind the development of physiological diversity, including pathogenic races. Another example of modulated pathogenicity caused by mycovirus infection is that of Alternaria alternata chrysovirus 1 (AaCV1), which is closely related to MoCV1-A. AaCV1 exhibits two contrasting effects: Impaired growth of the host fungus while rendering the host hypervirulent to the plant, through increased production of the host-specific AK-toxin. It is inferred that these mycoviruses might be epigenetic factors that cause changes in the pathogenicity of phytopathogenic fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Review
Description, Distribution, and Relevance of Viruses of the Forest Pathogen Gremmeniella abietina
Viruses 2018, 10(11), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10110654 - 20 Nov 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1489
Abstract
The European race of the ascomycetous species Gremmeniella abietina (Lagerberg) Morelet includes causal agents of shoot blight and stem canker of several conifers in Europe and North America, which are known to host a diverse virome. GaRV6 is the latest and sixth mycovirus [...] Read more.
The European race of the ascomycetous species Gremmeniella abietina (Lagerberg) Morelet includes causal agents of shoot blight and stem canker of several conifers in Europe and North America, which are known to host a diverse virome. GaRV6 is the latest and sixth mycovirus species reported within G. abietina. Before its description, one victorivirus and one gammapartitivirus species were described in biotype A, two mitoviruses in both biotypes A and B and a betaendornavirus in biotype B. Possible phenotypic changes produced by mycoviruses on G. abietina mycelial growth have been reported in Spanish mitovirus-free and GaRV6-hosting G. abietina isolates, which had higher growth rates at the optimal temperature of 15 °C, but no other major differences have been observed between partitivirus-like dsRNA and dsRNA-free isolates. In this review, we reappraise the diversity of viruses found in G. abietina so far, and their relevance in clarifying the taxonomy of G. abietina. We also provide evidence for the presence of two new viruses belonging to the families Fusariviridae and Endornaviridae in Spanish isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Review
Capsid Structure of dsRNA Fungal Viruses
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090481 - 07 Sep 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2873
Abstract
Most fungal, double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses lack an extracellular life cycle stage and are transmitted by cytoplasmic interchange. dsRNA mycovirus capsids are based on a 120-subunit T = 1 capsid, with a dimer as the asymmetric unit. These capsids, which remain structurally undisturbed [...] Read more.
Most fungal, double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses lack an extracellular life cycle stage and are transmitted by cytoplasmic interchange. dsRNA mycovirus capsids are based on a 120-subunit T = 1 capsid, with a dimer as the asymmetric unit. These capsids, which remain structurally undisturbed throughout the viral cycle, nevertheless, are dynamic particles involved in the organization of the viral genome and the viral polymerase necessary for RNA synthesis. The atomic structure of the T = 1 capsids of four mycoviruses was resolved: the L-A virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScV-L-A), Penicillium chrysogenum virus (PcV), Penicillium stoloniferum virus F (PsV-F), and Rosellinia necatrix quadrivirus 1 (RnQV1). These capsids show structural variations of the same framework, with 60 asymmetric or symmetric homodimers for ScV-L-A and PsV-F, respectively, monomers with a duplicated similar domain for PcV, and heterodimers of two different proteins for RnQV1. Mycovirus capsid proteins (CP) share a conserved α-helical domain, although the latter may carry different peptides inserted at preferential hotspots. Insertions in the CP outer surface are likely associated with enzymatic activities. Within the capsid, fungal dsRNA viruses show a low degree of genome compaction compared to reoviruses, and contain one to two copies of the RNA-polymerase complex per virion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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