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Energies, Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2016) – 96 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A multi-rotor system (MRS), in which multiple wind turbines are placed on one tower, is a promising concept for super-large wind turbines due to the cost and weight advantages. The coherence is shown to affect the fatigue damage drastically and differently to collective and differential loads, through dynamic simulations of a 14 MW MRS that consists of seven 2 MW turbines in different coherence conditions. The results indicate that the coherence should be defined carefully in the design of large-scale MRSs as it affects the fatigue strongly and complicatedly. View Paper here
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Open AccessArticle
High-Resolution Wave Energy Assessment in Shallow Water Accounting for Tides
Energies 2016, 9(9), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090761 - 20 Sep 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
The wave energy in a shallow water location is evaluated considering the influence of the local tide and wind on the wave propagation. The target is the coastal area just north of the Portuguese city of Peniche, where a wave energy converter operates [...] Read more.
The wave energy in a shallow water location is evaluated considering the influence of the local tide and wind on the wave propagation. The target is the coastal area just north of the Portuguese city of Peniche, where a wave energy converter operates on the sea bottom. A wave modelling system based on SWAN has been implemented and focused on this coastal environment in a multilevel computational scheme. The first three SWAN computational belonging to this wave prediction system were defined using the spherical coordinates. In the highest resolution computational domain, Cartesian coordinates have been considered, with a resolution of 25 m in both directions. An in-depth analysis of the main characteristics of the environmental matrix has been performed. This is based on the results of eight-year model system simulations (2005–2012). New simulations have been carried out in the last two computational domains with the most relevant wave and wind patterns, considering also the tide effect. The results show that the tide level, together with the wind intensity and direction, may influence to a significant degree the wave characteristics. This especially concerns the wave power in the location where the wave converter operates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modelling of Wave and Tidal Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Energy and Environmental Potentials of a Renewable Trigeneration System in a Residential Application
Energies 2016, 9(9), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090760 - 20 Sep 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2520
Abstract
Micro polygeneration utilizing renewable energy is a suitable approach to reduce energy consumption and carbon emission by offering high-efficiency performance, offsetting the need for centrally-generated grid electricity and avoiding transmission/distribution losses associated with it. This paper investigates the energy and environmental potential of [...] Read more.
Micro polygeneration utilizing renewable energy is a suitable approach to reduce energy consumption and carbon emission by offering high-efficiency performance, offsetting the need for centrally-generated grid electricity and avoiding transmission/distribution losses associated with it. This paper investigates the energy and environmental potential of a renewable trigeneration system in a residential application under Incheon (Korea) and Ottawa (Canada) weather conditions. The trigeneration system consists of a ground-to-air heat exchanger (GAHX), photovoltaic thermal (PVT) panels and an air-to-water heat pump (AWHP). The study is performed by simulations in TRNSYS (Version 17.02) environment. The performance of the trigeneration system is compared to a reference conventional system that utilizes a boiler for space and domestic hot water heating and a chiller for space cooling. Simulation results showed substantial annual primary energy savings from the renewable trigeneration system in comparison to the reference system—45% for Incheon and 42% for Ottawa. The CO2eq emission reduction from the renewable trigeneration system is also significant, standing at 43% for Incheon and 82% for Ottawa. Furthermore, trigeneration systems’ capability to generate electricity and thermal energy at the point of use is considered as an attractive option for inclusion in the future smart energy network applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Technologies for Small Scale Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Flow Rate Control Approach on Off-Design Analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle System
Energies 2016, 9(9), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090759 - 20 Sep 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
This study explored effects of off-design heat source temperature (TW,in) or flow rate (mW) on heat transfer characteristics and performance of an organic Rankine cycle system by controlling the flow rate of working fluid R245fa (i.e., the [...] Read more.
This study explored effects of off-design heat source temperature (TW,in) or flow rate (mW) on heat transfer characteristics and performance of an organic Rankine cycle system by controlling the flow rate of working fluid R245fa (i.e., the operation flow rate of R245fa was controlled to ensure that R245fa reached saturation liquid and vapor states at the outlets of the preheater and evaporator, respectively). The results showed that the operation flow rate of R245fa increased with TW,in or mW; higher TW,in or mW yielded better heat transfer performance of the designed preheater and required higher heat capacity of the evaporator; heat transfer characteristics of preheater and evaporator differed for off-design TW,in and mW; and net power output increased with TW,in or mW. The results further indicated that the control strategy should be different for various off-design conditions. Regarding maximum net power output, the flow rate control approach is optimal when TW,in or mW exceeds the design point, but the pressure control approach is better when TW,in or mW is lower than the design point. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Heat Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Numerical Research Activity on a Packed Bed TES System
Energies 2016, 9(9), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090758 - 20 Sep 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3120
Abstract
This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research activities on a packed bed sensible thermal energy storage (TES) system. The TES consists of a cylindrical steel tank filled with small alumina beads and crossed by air used as the heat transfer [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research activities on a packed bed sensible thermal energy storage (TES) system. The TES consists of a cylindrical steel tank filled with small alumina beads and crossed by air used as the heat transfer fluid. Experimental tests were carried out while varying some operating parameters such as the mass flow rate, the inlet–outlet temperature thresholds and the aspect ratio (length over diameter). Numerical simulations were carried out using a one-dimensional model, specifically developed in the Matlab-Simulink environment and a 2D axisymmetric model based on the ANSYS-Fluent platform. Both models are based on a two-equation transient approach to calculate fluid and solid phase temperatures. Thermodynamic properties were considered to be temperature-dependent and, in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, variable porosity of the bed in the radial direction, thermal losses and the effective conductivity of the alumina beads were also considered. The simulation results of both models were compared to the experimental ones, showing good agreement. The one-dimensional model has the advantage of predicting the axial temperature distribution with a very low computational cost, but it does not allow calculation of the correct energy stored when the temperature distribution is strongly influenced by the wall. To overcome this problem a 2D CFD model was used in this work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
DagTM: An Energy-Efficient Threads Grouping Mapping for Many-Core Systems Based on Data Affinity
Energies 2016, 9(9), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090754 - 20 Sep 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2205
Abstract
Many-core processors are becoming mainstream computing platforms nowadays. How to map the application threads to specific processing cores and exploit the abundant hardware parallelism of a many-core processor efficiently has become a pressing need. This work proposes a data affinity based threads grouping [...] Read more.
Many-core processors are becoming mainstream computing platforms nowadays. How to map the application threads to specific processing cores and exploit the abundant hardware parallelism of a many-core processor efficiently has become a pressing need. This work proposes a data affinity based threads grouping mapping strategy Data Affinity Grouping based Thread Mapping (DagTM), which categorizes threads into different groups according to their data affinity and the hardware architecture feature of many-core processors. After that, the thread groups are mapped to the specific processing cores to be energy efficiently executed. More specifically, first, the intra-thread data locality is analyzed by computing the data reuse distance, and the inter-thread data affinity is quantified by affinity matrix. Second, the threads are categorized into different groups via affinity subtree spanning algorithm. Finally, the thread groups are assigned to different processing cores through static binding. DagTM is able to reduce conflicts of the shared memory access and additional data transmission, increase utilization of the computing resources, and reduce entire system energy consumption. Experimental results show that DagTM obtains a nearly 14% improvement in computing performance, and a nearly 10% reduction in energy consumption compared with the traditional thread mapping mechanism under the condition of not introducing additional runtime overhead. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Nano-Structured Gratings for Improved Light Absorption Efficiency in Solar Cells
Energies 2016, 9(9), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090756 - 19 Sep 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2956
Abstract
Due to the rising power demand and substantial interest in acquiring green energy from sunlight, there has been rapid development in the science and technology of photovoltaics (PV) in the last few decades. Furthermore, the synergy of the fields of metrology and fabrication [...] Read more.
Due to the rising power demand and substantial interest in acquiring green energy from sunlight, there has been rapid development in the science and technology of photovoltaics (PV) in the last few decades. Furthermore, the synergy of the fields of metrology and fabrication has paved the way to acquire improved light collecting ability for solar cells. Based on recent studies, the performance of solar cell can improve due to the application of subwavelength nano-structures which results in smaller reflection losses and better light manipulation and/or trapping at subwavelength scale. In this paper, we propose a numerical optimization technique to analyze the reflection losses on an optimized GaAs-based solar cell which is covered with nano-structured features from the same material. Using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, we have designed, modelled, and analyzed the performance of three different arrangements of periodic nano-structures with different pitches and heights. The simulated results confirmed that different geometries of nano-structures behave uniquely towards the impinging light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Structured Solar Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy and Environmental Efficiency for the N-Ammonia Removal Process in Wastewater Treatment Plants by Means of Reinforcement Learning
Energies 2016, 9(9), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090755 - 16 Sep 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3073
Abstract
Currently, energy and environmental efficiency are critical aspects in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In fact, WWTPs are significant energy consumers, especially in the active sludge process (ASP) for the N-ammonia removal. In this paper, we face the challenge of simultaneously improving the economic [...] Read more.
Currently, energy and environmental efficiency are critical aspects in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In fact, WWTPs are significant energy consumers, especially in the active sludge process (ASP) for the N-ammonia removal. In this paper, we face the challenge of simultaneously improving the economic and environmental performance by using a reinforcement learning approach. This approach improves the costs of the N-ammonia removal process in the extended WWTP Benchmark Simulation Model 1 (BSM1). It also performs better than a manual plant operator when disturbances affect the plant. Satisfactory experimental results show significant savings in a year of a working BSM1 plant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predictive Modeling of a Paradigm Mechanical Cooling Tower Model: II. Optimal Best-Estimate Results with Reduced Predicted Uncertainties
Energies 2016, 9(9), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090747 - 16 Sep 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1538
Abstract
This work uses the adjoint sensitivity model of the counter-flow cooling tower derived in the accompanying PART I to obtain the expressions and relative numerical rankings of the sensitivities, to all model parameters, of the following model responses: (i) outlet air temperature; (ii) [...] Read more.
This work uses the adjoint sensitivity model of the counter-flow cooling tower derived in the accompanying PART I to obtain the expressions and relative numerical rankings of the sensitivities, to all model parameters, of the following model responses: (i) outlet air temperature; (ii) outlet water temperature; (iii) outlet water mass flow rate; and (iv) air outlet relative humidity. These sensitivities are subsequently used within the “predictive modeling for coupled multi-physics systems” (PM_CMPS) methodology to obtain explicit formulas for the predicted optimal nominal values for the model responses and parameters, along with reduced predicted standard deviations for the predicted model parameters and responses. These explicit formulas embody the assimilation of experimental data and the “calibration” of the model’s parameters. The results presented in this work demonstrate that the PM_CMPS methodology reduces the predicted standard deviations to values that are smaller than either the computed or the experimentally measured ones, even for responses (e.g., the outlet water flow rate) for which no measurements are available. These improvements stem from the global characteristics of the PM_CMPS methodology, which combines all of the available information simultaneously in phase-space, as opposed to combining it sequentially, as in current data assimilation procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Predictive Modeling of Nuclear Energy Systems)
Open AccessArticle
Daylight Management in Mediterranean Cities: When Shortage Is Not the Issue
Energies 2016, 9(9), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090753 - 15 Sep 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2432
Abstract
Natural resources such as daylight and sunlight are highly appreciated in countries with prevailing overcast skies. Taking advantage of this scarce resource contributes to saving energy on artificial lighting. In contrast to northern, southern European cities are distinguished by a large number of [...] Read more.
Natural resources such as daylight and sunlight are highly appreciated in countries with prevailing overcast skies. Taking advantage of this scarce resource contributes to saving energy on artificial lighting. In contrast to northern, southern European cities are distinguished by a large number of days with direct sunlight caused by a propitious climate condition. While it is a positive issue in terms of energy availability, the abundance of it can be counterproductive if management measures are not taken. Apart from the thermal consequences, lighting penetration into buildings causes a great contrast between inside and outside. This is especially critical when the visual system does not have enough time to adapt, as happens at entrance areas. The aim of this study is to analyze the light contrast between these areas and the urban outside in sunny conditions. To attain this objective, light data from five entrance spaces and their contiguous streets were analyzed and measured. The results were divided into three zones in the visual scene, showing an increasing contrast from top to bottom of the visual field. It may be concluded that interventions applied to urban areas and building pavements can improve visual adaptation in the transition zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient City)
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Open AccessArticle
Will the Steam Coal Price Rebound under the New Economy Normalcy in China?
Energies 2016, 9(9), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090751 - 15 Sep 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
The steam coal price in China has been continuously decreasing since the second half of 2012. Constant low price of coal will accelerate the development of thermal power, cause more serious air pollution problems, and bring adverse influence to China’s energy reformation in [...] Read more.
The steam coal price in China has been continuously decreasing since the second half of 2012. Constant low price of coal will accelerate the development of thermal power, cause more serious air pollution problems, and bring adverse influence to China’s energy reformation in the future. Therefore, analyzing the factors underlying the phenomenon of the decreasing steam coal price is significant. In this study, we first qualitatively analyze five main factors, namely, economy, supply, demand, substitutes, and port stocks. On the basis of the relationships among these five factors, we obtain the causality diagram and the system flow diagram of coal price for further quantitative research. Then, we conduct an empirical analysis using the system dynamics (SD) method and determine the simulated price from 2012 to 2017. Finally, we discuss the running results and come to the conclusion that the steam coal price will continue to decrease under the combined actions of the five main factors and it will not rebound in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization and Monitoring of a Self-Constructible Photovoltaic-Based Refrigerator
Energies 2016, 9(9), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090749 - 15 Sep 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
At present, in the developing countries, the power grids do not reach every small town and, even when they do, they are not reliable. For this reason, preservation of food and medicines is a sensitive issue for a large number of people. This [...] Read more.
At present, in the developing countries, the power grids do not reach every small town and, even when they do, they are not reliable. For this reason, preservation of food and medicines is a sensitive issue for a large number of people. This work introduces the characterization of a new, self-constructible refrigerator, powered by photovoltaic (PV) energy, suitable for the preservation of food in rural villages, with a specific focus on Africa’s tropical-equatorial belt. A thermally-insulated envelope, equipped with thermal energy storage, has been designed to be built on-site, by using local materials, and assembled with technical components (direct current (DC) compressor, heat exchangers, photovoltaic module). The monitoring activity presented in this work was carried out on a first prototype of the system and enabled the validation of numerical simulations, aimed at assessing its appropriate operability under laboratory conditions. In particular, the work demonstrates that the basic module of the refrigerator, with a net capacity of 250 L and an ice storage of 12.5 kg, is able to maintain an internal temperature below 10 °C also in critical boundary conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analytical Modeling of Wind Farms: A New Approach for Power Prediction
Energies 2016, 9(9), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090741 - 15 Sep 2016
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 3638
Abstract
Wind farm power production is known to be strongly affected by turbine wake effects. The purpose of this study is to develop and test a new analytical model for the prediction of wind turbine wakes and the associated power losses in wind farms. [...] Read more.
Wind farm power production is known to be strongly affected by turbine wake effects. The purpose of this study is to develop and test a new analytical model for the prediction of wind turbine wakes and the associated power losses in wind farms. The new model is an extension of the one recently proposed by Bastankhah and Porté-Agel for the wake of stand-alone wind turbines. It satisfies the conservation of mass and momentum and assumes a self-similar Gaussian shape of the velocity deficit. The local wake growth rate is estimated based on the local streamwise turbulence intensity. Superposition of velocity deficits is used to model the interaction of the multiple wakes. Furthermore, the power production from the wind turbines is calculated using the power curve. The performance of the new analytical wind farm model is validated against power measurements and large-eddy simulation (LES) data from the Horns Rev wind farm for a wide range of wind directions, corresponding to a variety of full-wake and partial-wake conditions. A reasonable agreement is found between the proposed analytical model, LES data, and power measurements. Compared with a commonly used wind farm wake model, the new model shows a significant improvement in the prediction of wind farm power. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A New Methodology Based on Imbalanced Classification for Predicting Outliers in Electricity Demand Time Series
Energies 2016, 9(9), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090752 - 14 Sep 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
The occurrence of outliers in real-world phenomena is quite usual. If these anomalous data are not properly treated, unreliable models can be generated. Many approaches in the literature are focused on a posteriori detection of outliers. However, a new methodology to a priori [...] Read more.
The occurrence of outliers in real-world phenomena is quite usual. If these anomalous data are not properly treated, unreliable models can be generated. Many approaches in the literature are focused on a posteriori detection of outliers. However, a new methodology to a priori predict the occurrence of such data is proposed here. Thus, the main goal of this work is to predict the occurrence of outliers in time series, by using, for the first time, imbalanced classification techniques. In this sense, the problem of forecasting outlying data has been transformed into a binary classification problem, in which the positive class represents the occurrence of outliers. Given that the number of outliers is much lower than the number of common values, the resultant classification problem is imbalanced. To create training and test sets, robust statistical methods have been used to detect outliers in both sets. Once the outliers have been detected, the instances of the dataset are labeled accordingly. Namely, if any of the samples composing the next instance are detected as an outlier, the label is set to one. As a study case, the methodology has been tested on electricity demand time series in the Spanish electricity market, in which most of the outliers were properly forecast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Problems with Biogas Implementation in Developing Countries from the Perspective of Labor Requirements
Energies 2016, 9(9), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090750 - 14 Sep 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2555
Abstract
Most households in rural developing countries depend on firewood from public forests or agricultural bio-wastes for cooking. Public forests, though, are declining due to an increasing population and inefficient use of wood. Use of agricultural wastes on the other hand involves loss of [...] Read more.
Most households in rural developing countries depend on firewood from public forests or agricultural bio-wastes for cooking. Public forests, though, are declining due to an increasing population and inefficient use of wood. Use of agricultural wastes on the other hand involves loss of soil nutrients since these resources are used as a substitute for inorganic fertilizers. Biogas energy can be an alternative in providing clean energy for cooking as well as improving soil fertility with the slurry. However, the labor spent on producing biogas can limit its use as a source of energy and fertilizers. Therefore, this study aims to determine the labor requirement of different mono and co-digestion biogas energy systems. The assessment is made by using simple models involving different schemes of resources collection and transportation based on reported relevant literature. The analysis shows that biogas production can be labor intensive when transportation of feedstock, water, and slurry is involved. Transporting these resources over a one kilometer (km) distance requires about ten times the amount of time spent on firewood collection and transportation. The largest part of the time for biogas production activities is spent on water collection and transportation. Low labor biogas production is possible only if all the resources are available nearby (not transported). One of the advantages of the biogas energy system is to use the slurry for soil enrichment. However, this can only be realized when the slurry is converted to compost or directly applied on nearby lands. In general, biogas production involving resources (feedstock, water and slurry) transportation is not a viable alternative to save the time spent on the traditional use of firewood. However, a community biogas system involving resource system integration is an option to provide clean energy with acceptable labor requirements of production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Opportunities from Lignocellulosic Biomass for a Biorefinery Case Study
Energies 2016, 9(9), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090748 - 14 Sep 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2158
Abstract
This work presents some energy considerations concerning a biorefinery case study that has been carried out by the CRB/CIRIAF of the University of Perugia. The biorefinery is the case study of the BIT3G project, a national funded research project, and it uses the [...] Read more.
This work presents some energy considerations concerning a biorefinery case study that has been carried out by the CRB/CIRIAF of the University of Perugia. The biorefinery is the case study of the BIT3G project, a national funded research project, and it uses the lignocellulosic biomass that is available in the territory as input materials for biochemical purposes, such as cardoon and carthamus. The whole plant is composed of several sections: the cardoon and carthamus seed milling, the oil refinement facilities, and the production section of some high quality biochemicals, i.e., bio-oils and fatty acids. The main goal of the research is to demonstrate energy autonomy of the latter section of the biorefinery, while only recovering energy from the residues resulting from the collection of the biomass. To this aim, this work presents the quantification of the energy requirements to be supplied to the considered biorefinery section, the mass flow, and the energy and chemical characterization of the biomass. Afterwards, some sustainability strategies have been qualitatively investigated in order to identify the best one to be used in this case study; the combined heat and power (CHP) technology. Two scenarios have been defined and presented: the first with 6 MWt thermal input and 1.2 MWe electrical power as an output and the second with 9 MWt thermal input and 1.8 MWe electrical power as an output. The first scenario showed that 11,000 tons of residual biomass could ensure the annual production of about 34,000 MWht, equal to about the 72% of the requirements, and about 9600 MWhe, equal to approximately 60% of the electricity demand. The second scenario showed that 18,000 tons of the residual biomass could ensure the total annual production of about 56,000 MWht, corresponding to more than 100% of the requirements, and about 14,400 MWhe, equal to approximately 90% of the electricity demand. In addition, the CO2 emissions from the energy valorization section have been quantified and the possibility of re-using the CO2 flow in order to produce methane is described. Full article
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Maintenance Maneuver Automation for an Adapted Cylindrical Shape TEC
Energies 2016, 9(9), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090746 - 14 Sep 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2331
Abstract
Several manufacturers have developed devices with which to harness tidal/current power in areas where the depth does not exceed 40 m. These are the so-called first generation Tidal Energy Converters (TEC), and they are usually fixed to the seabed by gravity. When carrying [...] Read more.
Several manufacturers have developed devices with which to harness tidal/current power in areas where the depth does not exceed 40 m. These are the so-called first generation Tidal Energy Converters (TEC), and they are usually fixed to the seabed by gravity. When carrying out maintenance tasks on these devices it is, therefore, necessary to remove the nacelles from their bases and raise them to the surface of the sea. They must subsequently be placed back on their bases. These tasks require special high performance ships, signifying high maintenance costs. The automation of emersion and immersion maneuvers will undoubtedly lead to lower costs, given that ships with less demanding requirements will be required for the aforementioned maintenance tasks. This research presents a simple two degrees of freedom dynamic model that can be used to control a first generation TEC that has been conceived of to harness energy from marine currents. The control of the system is carried out by means of a water ballast system located inside the nacelle of the main power unit and is used as an actuator to produce buoying vertical forces. A nonlinear control law based on a decoupling term for the closed loop depth and/or orientation control is also proposed in order to ensure adequate behavior when the TEC performs emersion and immersion maneuvers with only hydrostatic buoyancy forces. The control scheme is composed of an inner loop consisting of a linear and decoupled input/output relationship and the vector of friction and compressibility terms and an outer loop that operates with the tracking error vector in order to ensure the asymptotically exponential stability of the TEC posture. Finally, the effectiveness of the dynamic model and the controller approach is demonstrated by means of numerical simulations when the TEC is carrying out an emersion maneuver for the development of general maintenance tasks and an emersion maneuver for blade-cleaning maintenance tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modelling of Wave and Tidal Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of a New Quick-Charging Strategy for Electric Vehicles in Highway Charging Stations
Energies 2016, 9(9), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090744 - 14 Sep 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3402
Abstract
To solve the problem, because of which conventional quick-charging strategies (CQCS) cannot meet the requirements of quick-charging for multiple types of electric vehicles (EV) on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive, this paper proposed a new quick-charging strategy (NQCS) for EVs: on the [...] Read more.
To solve the problem, because of which conventional quick-charging strategies (CQCS) cannot meet the requirements of quick-charging for multiple types of electric vehicles (EV) on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive, this paper proposed a new quick-charging strategy (NQCS) for EVs: on the premise of not affecting those EVs being charged, the remaining power of the quick-charging pile with multiple power output interfaces is used to provide a synchronous charging service for EVs waiting in the queue. To verify the effectiveness of this strategy, a power distribution model of charging pile and a queuing model of charging station (CS) were constructed. In addition, based on an actual highway service area where vehicle inflow is excessive during the simulation period (0:00–24:00), charging situations of CQCS and NQCS were respectively simulated in a charging station (CS), with different number of chargers, by basic queuing algorithm and an improved queuing algorithm. The simulation results showed that when the relative EV inflow is excessive, compared to CQCS, NQCS not only can reduce user waiting time, charging time, and stay time, but also can improve the utilisation rate of charging infrastructure and service capacity of CS and reduce the queue length of CS. At the same time, NQCS can reduce the impact on the power grid. In addition, in NQCS, the on-demand power distribution method is more efficient than the average power distribution method. Therefore, NQCS is more suitable for quick-charging for multiple types of EVs on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on Applicability of Distributed Energy Generation, Storage and Consumption within Small Scale Facilities
Energies 2016, 9(9), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090745 - 13 Sep 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2469
Abstract
Distributed generation and storage of energy, conceived as one of the prominent applications of the Smart Grid, has become one of the most popular ways for generation and usage of electricity. Not only does it offer environmental advantages and a more decentralized way [...] Read more.
Distributed generation and storage of energy, conceived as one of the prominent applications of the Smart Grid, has become one of the most popular ways for generation and usage of electricity. Not only does it offer environmental advantages and a more decentralized way to produce energy, but it also enables former consumers to become producers (thus turning them into prosumers). Alternatively, regular power production and consumption is still widely used in most of the world. Unfortunately, accurate business models representations and descriptive use cases for small scale facilitates, either involved in distributed energy or not, have not been provided in a descriptive enough manner. What is more, the possibilities that electricity trade and its storage and consumption activities offer for small users to obtain profits are yet to be addressed and offered to the research community in a thorough manner, so that small consumers will use them to their advantage. This paper puts forward a study on four different business models for small scale facilities and offers an economical study on how they can be deployed as a way to offer profitability for end users and new companies, while at the same time showing the required technological background to have them implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Technologies for Small Scale Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Leaching Behavior of Circulating Fluidised Bed MSWI Air Pollution Control Residue in Washing Process
Energies 2016, 9(9), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090743 - 13 Sep 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2196
Abstract
In this study, air pollution control (APC) residue is conducted with water washing process to reduce its chloride content. A novel electrical conductivily (EC) measurement method is proposed to monitor the dynamic change of chloride concentrations in leachate as well as the chloride [...] Read more.
In this study, air pollution control (APC) residue is conducted with water washing process to reduce its chloride content. A novel electrical conductivily (EC) measurement method is proposed to monitor the dynamic change of chloride concentrations in leachate as well as the chloride content of the residue. The method equally applies to various washing processes with different washing time, liquid/solid ratio and washing frequency. The results show that washing effectively extracts chloride salts from APC residues, including those from circulating fluidized bed (CFB) municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The most appropriate liquid/solid ratio and washing time in the first washing are found to be around 4 L water per kg of APC residue and 30 min, respectively, and washing twice is required to obtain maximum dissolution. The pH value is the major controlling factor of the heavy metals speciation in leachate, while chloride concentration also affects the speciation of Cd. Water washing causes no perceptible transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from the APC residue to leachate. The chloride concentration is strongly related with electrical conductivity (EC), as well as with the concentrations of calcium, sodium and potassium of washing water. Their regression analyses specify that soluble chloride salts and EC could act as an indirect indicator to monitor the change of chloride concentration and remaining chloride content, thus, contributing to the selection of the optimal washing conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy and Waste Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Coherence Effects on the Power and Tower Loads of a 7 × 2 MW Multi-Rotor Wind Turbine System
Energies 2016, 9(9), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090742 - 13 Sep 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
A multi-rotor system (MRS), in which multiple wind turbines are placed on one tower, is a promising concept for super-large wind turbines at over 10 MW due to the cost and weight advantages. The coherence effects on an MRS were investigated in this [...] Read more.
A multi-rotor system (MRS), in which multiple wind turbines are placed on one tower, is a promising concept for super-large wind turbines at over 10 MW due to the cost and weight advantages. The coherence effects on an MRS were investigated in this study. Although a wide range of coherences were measured so far, a decay constant of C = 12 is recommended in the IEC61400-1 standard. Dynamic simulations were performed for a 14-MW MRS, which consists of seven 2-MW turbines and includes wind models with three different coherences. Although the results show that a larger coherence increases the output power and the collective loads due to tower base fore-aft bending, it reduces the differential loads due to tower-base torque and tower-top nodding. The most significant case is the fatigue damage due to tower base fore-aft bending, which was more than doubled between the decay constants of C = 6 and C = 12. The present results indicate that the coherence should be defined carefully in the design of large-scale MRSs because its effect on them is not straightforward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle
Drivability-Related Discrete-Time Model Predictive Control of Mode Transition in Pre-Transmission Parallel Hybrid Powertrains
Energies 2016, 9(9), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090740 - 13 Sep 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2757
Abstract
During the mode transition from the pure electric propulsion mode to the hybrid propulsion mode, clutch-based pre-transmission parallel hybrid electric vehicles are subject to drivability issues. These issues originate from the fact that in the clutch-based pre-transmission parallel hybrid powertrain (CPPHP) configuration, the [...] Read more.
During the mode transition from the pure electric propulsion mode to the hybrid propulsion mode, clutch-based pre-transmission parallel hybrid electric vehicles are subject to drivability issues. These issues originate from the fact that in the clutch-based pre-transmission parallel hybrid powertrain (CPPHP) configuration, the clutch connects the engine and the motor. Without a carefully designed mode transition control that coordinates the engine torque, clutch torque and motor torque, torque sluggishness and surges occur during the mode transition, and residual torque oscillation occurs after the mode transition. In this paper, a discrete-time model predictive control (DMPC)-based controller is proposed to address these drivability-related issues. Modeling improvements and novel drivability-related indices and constraints are all taken into consideration in the design of the discrete-time model predictive controller. Furthermore, by using discrete-time Laguerre functions and introducing the equilibrium state and the ranking of constraints, an explicit solution of the discrete-time model predictive controller is obtained. The calculation results demonstrate that the proposed controller can ensure a smooth and rapidly decaying torque difference during the mode transition, alleviating the residual torque oscillation after the mode transition and guaranteeing that the mode transition is completed within an acceptable duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Management for Hybrids and Vehicle Drivetrains)
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Hybrid Fuzzy-Proportional Plus Crisp-Integral Current Control Algorithm for Shunt Active Power Filter Operation
Energies 2016, 9(9), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090737 - 13 Sep 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
An adaptive hybrid fuzzy-proportional plus crisp-integral current control algorithm (CCA) for regulating supply current and enhancing the operation of a shunt active power filter (SAPF) is presented. It introduces a unique integration of fuzzy-proportional (Fuzzy-P) and crisp-integral (Crisp-I) current controllers. The Fuzzy-P current [...] Read more.
An adaptive hybrid fuzzy-proportional plus crisp-integral current control algorithm (CCA) for regulating supply current and enhancing the operation of a shunt active power filter (SAPF) is presented. It introduces a unique integration of fuzzy-proportional (Fuzzy-P) and crisp-integral (Crisp-I) current controllers. The Fuzzy-P current controller is developed to perform gain tuning procedure and proportional control action. This controller inherits the simplest configuration; it is constructed using a single-input single-output fuzzy rule configuration. Thus, an execution of few fuzzy rules is sufficient for the controller’s operation. Furthermore, the fuzzy rule is developed using the relationship of currents only. Hence, it simplifies the controller development. Meanwhile, the Crisp-I current controller is developed to perform integral control action using a controllable gain value; to improve the steady-state control mechanism. The gain value is modified and controlled using the Fuzzy-P current controller’s output variable. Therefore, the gain value will continuously be adjusted at every sample period (or throughout the SAPF operation). The effectiveness of the proposed CCA in regulating supply current is validated in both simulation and experimental work. All results have proven that the SAPF using the proposed CCA is capable to regulate supply current during steady-state and dynamic-state operations. At the same time, the SAPF is able to enhance its operation in compensating harmonic currents and reactive power. Furthermore, the implementation of the proposed CCA has resulted more stable dc-link voltage waveform. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Rural Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Generation Systems on Power Quality
Energies 2016, 9(9), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090739 - 12 Sep 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2388
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) generation systems have been increasingly used to generate electricity from renewable sources, attracting a growing interest. Recently, grid connected PV micro-generation facilities in individual homes have increased due to governmental policies as well as greater attention by industry. As low voltage [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) generation systems have been increasingly used to generate electricity from renewable sources, attracting a growing interest. Recently, grid connected PV micro-generation facilities in individual homes have increased due to governmental policies as well as greater attention by industry. As low voltage (LV) distribution systems were built to make energy flow in one direction, the power feed-in of PV generation in rural low-voltage grids can influence power quality (PQ) as well as facility operation and reliability. This paper presents results on PQ analysis of a real PV generation facility connected to a rural low-voltage grid. Voltage fluctuations and voltage harmonic contents were observed. Statistical analysis shows a negative impact on PQ produced by this PV facility and also that only a small fraction of the energy available during a sunny day is converted, provoking losses of revenue and forcing the converter to work in an undesirable operating mode. We discuss the disturbances imposed upon the grid and their outcome regarding technical and economic viability of the PV system, as well as possible solutions. A low-voltage grid strengthening has been suggested and implemented. After that a new PQ analysis shows an improvement in the impact upon PQ, making this facility economically viable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Renewable Generation)
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Open AccessArticle
Deformation Study of Lean Methane-Air Premixed Spherically Expanding Flames under a Negative Direct Current Electric Field
Energies 2016, 9(9), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090738 - 12 Sep 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
This paper compares numerical simulations with experiments to study the deformation of lean premixed spherically expanding flames under a negative direct current (DC) electric field. The experiments, including the flame deformation and the ionic distribution on the flame surface were investigated in a [...] Read more.
This paper compares numerical simulations with experiments to study the deformation of lean premixed spherically expanding flames under a negative direct current (DC) electric field. The experiments, including the flame deformation and the ionic distribution on the flame surface were investigated in a mesh to mesh electric field. Besides, a numerical model of adding an electric body force to the positive ions on the flame surface was also established to perform a relevant simulation. Results show that the spherical flame will acquire an elliptical shape with a marked flame stretch in the horizontal direction and a slight inhibition in the vertical direction under a negative DC electric field. Meanwhile, a non-uniform ionic distribution on the flame surface was also detected by the Langmuir probe. The simulation results from the numerical model show good agreement with experimental data. According to the velocity field analysis in simulation, it was found the particular motion of positive ions and neutral molecules on the flame surface should be responsible for the special flame deformation. When a negative DC electric field was applied, the majority of positive ions and colliding neutral molecules will form an ionic flow along the flame surface by a superposition of the electric field force and the aerodynamic drag. The ionic flow was not uniform and mainly formed on the upper and lower sides, so it will lead to a non-uniform ionic distribution along the flame surface. What’s more, this ionic flow will also induce two vortexes both inside and outside of the flame surface due to viscosity effects. The external vortexes could produce an entraining effect on the premixed gas and take away the heat from the flame surface by forced convection, and then suppress the flame propagation in the vertical direction, while, the inner vortexes would scroll the burned zones and induce an inward flow at the horizontal center, which could be the reason for the pitted structure at the horizontal center when a high voltage was applied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simplification of a Mechanistic Model of Biomass Combustion for On-Line Computations
Energies 2016, 9(9), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090735 - 10 Sep 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2419
Abstract
Increasing utilization of intermittent energy resources requires flexibility from energy boilers which can be achieved with advanced control methods employing dynamic process models. The performance of the model-based control methods depends on the ability of the underlying model to describe combustion phenomena under [...] Read more.
Increasing utilization of intermittent energy resources requires flexibility from energy boilers which can be achieved with advanced control methods employing dynamic process models. The performance of the model-based control methods depends on the ability of the underlying model to describe combustion phenomena under varying power demand. This paper presents an approach to the simplification of a mechanistic model developed for combustion phenomena investigation. The aim of the approach is to simplify the dynamic model of biomass combustion for applications requiring fast computational times while retaining the ability of the model to describe the underlying combustion phenomena. The approach for that comprises three phases. In the first phase, the main mechanisms of heat and mass transfer and limiting factors of the reactions are identified in each zone. In the second phase, each of the partial differential equations from the full scale model are reduced to a number of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) defining the overall balances of the zones. In the last phase, mathematical equations are formulated based on the mass and energy balances formed in the previous step. The simplified model for online computations was successfully built and validated against industrial data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomass for Energy Technology)
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Open AccessArticle
Axial Dynamic Stiffness of Tubular Piles in Viscoelastic Soil
Energies 2016, 9(9), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090734 - 10 Sep 2016
Viewed by 3264
Abstract
Large offshore wind turbines are founded on jacket structures. In this study, an elastic full-space jacket structure foundation in an elastic and viscoelastic medium is investigated by using boundary integral equations. The jacket structure foundation is modeled as a hollow, long circular cylinder [...] Read more.
Large offshore wind turbines are founded on jacket structures. In this study, an elastic full-space jacket structure foundation in an elastic and viscoelastic medium is investigated by using boundary integral equations. The jacket structure foundation is modeled as a hollow, long circular cylinder when the dynamic vertical excitation is applied. The smooth surface along the entire interface is considered. The Betti reciprocal theorem along with Somigliana’s identity and Green’s function are employed to drive the dynamic stiffness of jacket structures. Modes of the resonance and anti-resonance are presented in series of Bessel’s function. Important responses, such as dynamic stiffness and phase angle, are compared for different values of the loss factor as the material damping, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio in a viscoelastic soil. Results are verified with known results reported in the literature. It is observed that the dynamic stiffness fluctuates with the loss factor, and the turning point is independent of the loss factor while the turning point increases with load frequency. It is seen that the non-dimensional dynamic stiffness is dependent on Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, whilst the phase angle is independent of the properties of the soil. It is shown that the non-dimensional dynamic stiffness changes linearly with high-frequency load. The conclusion from the results of this study is that the material properties of soil are significant parameters in the dynamic stiffness of jacket structures, and the presented approach can unfold the behavior of soil and give an approachable physical meaning for wave propagation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle
Does Your Domestic Photovoltaic Energy System Survive Grid Outages?
Energies 2016, 9(9), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090736 - 09 Sep 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2509
Abstract
Domestic renewable energy systems, including photovoltaic energy generation, as well as local storage, are becoming increasingly popular and economically feasible, but do come with a wide range of options. Hence, it can be difficult to match their specification to specific customer’s needs. Next [...] Read more.
Domestic renewable energy systems, including photovoltaic energy generation, as well as local storage, are becoming increasingly popular and economically feasible, but do come with a wide range of options. Hence, it can be difficult to match their specification to specific customer’s needs. Next to the usage-specific demand profiles and location-specific production profiles, local energy storage through the use of batteries is becoming increasingly important, since it allows one to balance variations in production and demand, either locally or via the grid. Moreover, local storage can also help to ensure a continuous energy supply in the presence of grid outages, at least for a while. Hybrid Petri net (HPN) models allow one to analyze the effect of different battery management strategies on the continuity of such energy systems in the case of grid outages. The current paper focuses on one of these strategies, the so-called smart strategy, that reserves a certain percentage of the battery capacity to be only used in case of grid outages. Additionally, we introduce a new strategy that makes better use of the reserved backup capacity, by reducing the demand in the presence of a grid outage through a prioritization mechanism. This new strategy, called power-save, only allows the essential (high-priority) demand to draw from the battery during power outages. We show that this new strategy outperforms previously-proposed strategies through a careful analysis of a number of scenarios and for a selection of survivability measures, such as minimum survivability per day, number of survivable hours per day, minimum survivability per year and various survivability quantiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decentralized Management of Energy Streams in Smart Grids)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Magnetic Field Shielding Method by Metallic Sheets in Wireless Power Transfer System
Energies 2016, 9(9), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090733 - 09 Sep 2016
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3598
Abstract
To meet the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs) such as the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines, thin metallic sheets are often used to shield magnetic field leakage in high power applications of wireless power [...] Read more.
To meet the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs) such as the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines, thin metallic sheets are often used to shield magnetic field leakage in high power applications of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems based on magnetic field coupling. However, the metals in the vicinity of the WPT coils cause the decrease of self and mutual inductances and increase of effective series resistance; as such, the electric performance including transmission power and the efficiency of the system is affected. With the research objective of further investigating excellent shielding effectiveness associated with system performance, the utilization of the optimal magnetic field shielding method by metallic sheets in magnetic field coupling WPT is carried out in this paper. The circuit and 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models are combined to predict the magnetic field distribution and electrical performance. Simulation and experiment results show that the method is very effective by obtaining the largest possible coupling coefficient of the WPT coils within the allowable range and then reducing the value nearest to and no smaller than the critical coupling coefficient via geometric unbroken metallic sheets. The optimal magnetic field shielding method which considers the system efficiency, transmission power, transmission distance, and system size is also achieved using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results can benefit WPT by helping to achieve efficient energy transfer and safe use in metal shielded equipment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Riding-through Technique for Seamless Transition between Islanded and Grid-Connected Modes of Droop-Controlled Inverters
Energies 2016, 9(9), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090732 - 09 Sep 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2763
Abstract
This paper presents a seamless transition method for a droop-controlled inverter. The droop control is suitable to make the inverter work as a voltage source in both islanded and grid-connected modes, however, the transfer between theses modes can result in a big inrush [...] Read more.
This paper presents a seamless transition method for a droop-controlled inverter. The droop control is suitable to make the inverter work as a voltage source in both islanded and grid-connected modes, however, the transfer between theses modes can result in a big inrush current that may damage the system. The proposed method allows the droop-controlled inverter to improve the transient response when transferring between modes, by detecting the inrush current, activating a current control loop during transients, and then transferring back to droop-controlled mode smoothly by using a virtual inductance loop. In addition, a local phase-locked-loop (PLL) is proposed to align the inverter voltage with the grid in order to reduce the transient current during the transition. Therefore, the droop-controlled inverter is able to operate in both grid-connected and islanded modes, providing as well a smooth transition between them, requiring neither synchronization signals nor grid-side information. The control algorithm and design procedure are presented. Experimental results from a laboratory prototype validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids 2016)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Generator Stroke Length on Energy Production for a Direct Drive Wave Energy Converter
Energies 2016, 9(9), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090730 - 09 Sep 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3199
Abstract
The Lysekil wave energy converter (WEC), developed by the wave energy research group of Uppsala University, has evolved through a variety of mechanical designs since the first prototype was installed in 2006. The hundreds of engineering decisions made throughout the design processes have [...] Read more.
The Lysekil wave energy converter (WEC), developed by the wave energy research group of Uppsala University, has evolved through a variety of mechanical designs since the first prototype was installed in 2006. The hundreds of engineering decisions made throughout the design processes have been based on a combination of theory, know-how from previous experiments, and educated guesses. One key parameter in the design of the WECs linear generator is the stroke length. A long stroke requires a taller WEC with associated economical and mechanical challenges, but a short stroke limits the power production. The 2-m stroke of the current WECs has been an educated guess for the Swedish wave climate, though the consequences of this choice on energy absorption have not been studied. When the WEC technology is considered for international waters, with larger waves and challenges of energy absorption and survivability, the subject of stroke length becomes even more relevant. This paper studies the impact of generator stroke length on energy absorption for three sites off the coasts of Sweden, Chile and Scotland. 2-m, 4-m, and unlimited stroke are considered. Power matrices for the studied WEC prototype are presented for each of the studied stroke lengths. Presented results quantify the losses incurred by a limited stroke. The results indicate that a 2-m stroke length is likely to be a good choice for Sweden, but 4-m is likely to be necessary in more energetic international waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modelling of Wave and Tidal Energy)
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