Special Issue "Energy Time Series Forecasting"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. José C. Riquelme
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Languages and Computer Systems, University of Seville, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: machine learning; data mining; big data; smart grids
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Alicia Troncoso
Website
Guest Editor
Data Science & Big Data Lab, Pablo de Olavide University, ES-41013 Seville, Spain
Interests: time series; forecasting; data science and big data
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Francisco Martínez-Álvarez
Website
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue focuses on the forecasting of time series, with particular emphasis on energy related data. By energy, we understand any kind of energy, such as electrical, solar, microwave, wind, etc.

Time series and forecasting methods continue to improve due to the enhancements in computing power that allows for a closer examination of economic phenomenon. In this Special Issue, we intend to invite authors to submit their original research and review articles on exploring the issues and applications of energy time series and forecasting.

Topics of primary interest include, but are not limited to:

  • energy-related time series analysis;
  • energy-related time series model;
  • energy-related time series forecasting;
  • non-parametric time series approaches.

Prof. Dr. José C. Riquelme
Prof. Dr. Alicia Troncoso
Prof. Dr. Francisco Martínez-Álvarez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy
  • time series
  • forecasting

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Recent Advances in Energy Time Series Forecasting
Energies 2017, 10(6), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10060809 - 14 Jun 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
This editorial summarizes the performance of the special issue entitled Energy Time Series Forecasting, which was published in MDPI’s Energies journal. The special issue took place in 2016 and accepted a total of 21 papers from twelve different countries. Electrical, solar, or wind [...] Read more.
This editorial summarizes the performance of the special issue entitled Energy Time Series Forecasting, which was published in MDPI’s Energies journal. The special issue took place in 2016 and accepted a total of 21 papers from twelve different countries. Electrical, solar, or wind energy forecasting were the most analyzed topics, introducing brand new methods with very sound results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Deep Neural Network Based Demand Side Short Term Load Forecasting
Energies 2017, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10010003 - 22 Dec 2016
Cited by 96
Abstract
In the smart grid, one of the most important research areas is load forecasting; it spans from traditional time series analyses to recent machine learning approaches and mostly focuses on forecasting aggregated electricity consumption. However, the importance of demand side energy management, including [...] Read more.
In the smart grid, one of the most important research areas is load forecasting; it spans from traditional time series analyses to recent machine learning approaches and mostly focuses on forecasting aggregated electricity consumption. However, the importance of demand side energy management, including individual load forecasting, is becoming critical. In this paper, we propose deep neural network (DNN)-based load forecasting models and apply them to a demand side empirical load database. DNNs are trained in two different ways: a pre-training restricted Boltzmann machine and using the rectified linear unit without pre-training. DNN forecasting models are trained by individual customer’s electricity consumption data and regional meteorological elements. To verify the performance of DNNs, forecasting results are compared with a shallow neural network (SNN), a double seasonal Holt–Winters (DSHW) model and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and relative root mean square error (RRMSE) are used for verification. Our results show that DNNs exhibit accurate and robust predictions compared to other forecasting models, e.g., MAPE and RRMSE are reduced by up to 17% and 22% compared to SNN and 9% and 29% compared to DSHW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Forecasting Electricity Demand in Azerbaijan Using Cointegration Techniques
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9121045 - 13 Dec 2016
Cited by 18
Abstract
Policymakers in developing and transitional economies require sound models to: (i) understand the drivers of rapidly growing energy consumption and (ii) produce forecasts of future energy demand. This paper attempts to model electricity demand in Azerbaijan and provide future forecast scenarios—as far as [...] Read more.
Policymakers in developing and transitional economies require sound models to: (i) understand the drivers of rapidly growing energy consumption and (ii) produce forecasts of future energy demand. This paper attempts to model electricity demand in Azerbaijan and provide future forecast scenarios—as far as we are aware this is the first such attempt for Azerbaijan using a comprehensive modelling framework. Electricity consumption increased and decreased considerably in Azerbaijan from 1995 to 2013 (the period used for the empirical analysis)—it increased on average by about 4% per annum from 1995 to 2006 but decreased by about 4½% per annum from 2006 to 2010 and increased thereafter. It is therefore vital that Azerbaijani planners and policymakers understand what drives electricity demand and be able to forecast how it will grow in order to plan for future power production. However, modeling electricity demand for such a country has many challenges. Azerbaijan is rich in energy resources, consequently GDP is heavily influenced by oil prices; hence, real non-oil GDP is employed as the activity driver in this research (unlike almost all previous aggregate energy demand studies). Moreover, electricity prices are administered rather than market driven. Therefore, different cointegration and error correction techniques are employed to estimate a number of per capita electricity demand models for Azerbaijan, which are used to produce forecast scenarios for up to 2025. The resulting estimated models (in terms of coefficients, etc.) and forecasts of electricity demand for Azerbaijan in 2025 prove to be very similar; with the Business as Usual forecast ranging from about of 19½ to 21 TWh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Forecasting the State of Health of Electric Vehicle Batteries to Evaluate the Viability of Car Sharing Practices
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9121025 - 03 Dec 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
Car-sharing practices are introducing electric vehicles (EVs) into their fleet. However, the literature suggests that at this point shared EV systems are failing to reach satisfactory commercial viability. A potential reason for this is the effect of higher vehicle usage, which is characteristic [...] Read more.
Car-sharing practices are introducing electric vehicles (EVs) into their fleet. However, the literature suggests that at this point shared EV systems are failing to reach satisfactory commercial viability. A potential reason for this is the effect of higher vehicle usage, which is characteristic of car sharing, and the implications on the battery’s state of health (SoH). In this paper, we forecast the SoH of two identical EVs being used in different car-sharing practices. For this purpose, we use real life transaction data from charging stations and different EV sensors. The results indicate that insight into users’ driving and charging behavior can provide a valuable point of reference for car-sharing system designers. In particular, the forecasting results show that the moment when an EV battery reaches its theoretical end of life can differ in as much as a quarter of the time when vehicles are shared under different conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Ensemble Learning Approach for Probabilistic Forecasting of Solar Power Generation
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9121017 - 01 Dec 2016
Cited by 23
Abstract
Probabilistic forecasting accounts for the uncertainty in prediction that arises from inaccurate input data due to measurement errors, as well as the inherent inaccuracy of a prediction model. Because of the variable nature of renewable power generation depending on weather conditions, probabilistic forecasting [...] Read more.
Probabilistic forecasting accounts for the uncertainty in prediction that arises from inaccurate input data due to measurement errors, as well as the inherent inaccuracy of a prediction model. Because of the variable nature of renewable power generation depending on weather conditions, probabilistic forecasting is well suited to it. For a grid-tied solar farm, it is increasingly important to forecast the solar power generation several hours ahead. In this study, we propose three different methods for ensemble probabilistic forecasting, derived from seven individual machine learning models, to generate 24-h ahead solar power forecasts. We have shown that while all of the individual machine learning models are more accurate than the traditional benchmark models, like autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), the ensemble models offer even more accurate results than any individual machine learning model alone does. Furthermore, it is observed that running separate models on the data belonging to the same hour of the day vastly improves the accuracy of the results. Getting more accurate forecasts will help the stakeholders come up with better decisions in resource planning and control when large-scale solar farms are integrated into the power grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Financing Innovations for the Renewable Energy Transition in Europe
Energies 2016, 9(12), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9120990 - 25 Nov 2016
Cited by 13
Abstract
Renewable energy sources are vital to achieving Europe’s 2030 energy transition goals. Technological innovation, driven by public expenditures on research and development, is a major driver for this change. Thus, an extensive dataset on these expenditures of the European Member States and the [...] Read more.
Renewable energy sources are vital to achieving Europe’s 2030 energy transition goals. Technological innovation, driven by public expenditures on research and development, is a major driver for this change. Thus, an extensive dataset on these expenditures of the European Member States and the European Commission, dating back to the early 1970s, was created. This paper creates predictive scenarios of public investment in renewable energy research and development in Europe based on this historical dataset and current trends. Funding from both, European Member States and the European Commission, between today and 2030 are used in the analysis. The impact on the cumulative knowledge stock is also estimated. Two projection scenarios are presented: (1) business as usual; and (2) an advanced scenario, based on the assumption that the Mission Innovation initiative causes public expenditures to increase in the coming years. Both scenarios are compared to the European 2030 climate and energy framework target sets. Results indicate that Member States in Europe currently tend to fund renewables more than the European Commission, but funding from both sources is expected to increase in the future. Furthermore, the European Commission distributes its funding more equally across the various renewable energy sources than Member States. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Forecasting Electricity Market Risk Using Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD)—Based Multiscale Methodology
Energies 2016, 9(11), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110931 - 09 Nov 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
The electricity market has experienced an increasing level of deregulation and reform over the years. There is an increasing level of electricity price fluctuation, uncertainty, and risk exposure in the marketplace. Traditional risk measurement models based on the homogeneous and efficient market assumption [...] Read more.
The electricity market has experienced an increasing level of deregulation and reform over the years. There is an increasing level of electricity price fluctuation, uncertainty, and risk exposure in the marketplace. Traditional risk measurement models based on the homogeneous and efficient market assumption no longer suffice, facing the increasing level of accuracy and reliability requirements. In this paper, we propose a new Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD)-based Value at Risk (VaR) model to estimate the downside risk measure in the electricity market. The proposed model investigates and models the inherent multiscale market risk structure. The EMD model is introduced to decompose the electricity time series into several Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) with distinct multiscale characteristics. The Exponential Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) model is used to model the individual risk factors across different scales. Experimental results using different models in the Australian electricity markets show that EMD-EWMA models based on Student’s t distribution achieves the best performance, and outperforms the benchmark EWMA model significantly in terms of model reliability and predictive accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
A Long-Term Wind Speed Ensemble Forecasting System with Weather Adapted Correction
Energies 2016, 9(11), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110894 - 31 Oct 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Wind forecasting is critical in the wind power industry, yet forecasting errors often exist. In order to effectively correct the forecasting error, this study develops a weather adapted bias correction scheme on the basis of an average bias-correction method, which considers the deviation [...] Read more.
Wind forecasting is critical in the wind power industry, yet forecasting errors often exist. In order to effectively correct the forecasting error, this study develops a weather adapted bias correction scheme on the basis of an average bias-correction method, which considers the deviation of estimated biases associated with the difference in weather type within each unit of the statistical sample. This method is tested by an ensemble forecasting system based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. This system provides high resolution wind speed deterministic forecasts using 40 members generated by initial perturbations and multi-physical schemes. The forecasting system outputs 28–52 h predictions with a temporal resolution of 15 min, and is evaluated against collocated anemometer towers observations at six wind fields located on the east coast of China. Results show that the information contained in weather types produces an improvement in the forecast bias correction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Neural Network Ensemble Based Approach for 2D-Interval Prediction of Solar Photovoltaic Power
Energies 2016, 9(10), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9100829 - 17 Oct 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
Solar energy generated from PhotoVoltaic (PV) systems is one of the most promising types of renewable energy. However, it is highly variable as it depends on the solar irradiance and other meteorological factors. This variability creates difficulties for the large-scale integration of PV [...] Read more.
Solar energy generated from PhotoVoltaic (PV) systems is one of the most promising types of renewable energy. However, it is highly variable as it depends on the solar irradiance and other meteorological factors. This variability creates difficulties for the large-scale integration of PV power in the electricity grid and requires accurate forecasting of the electricity generated by PV systems. In this paper we consider 2D-interval forecasts, where the goal is to predict summary statistics for the distribution of the PV power values in a future time interval. 2D-interval forecasts have been recently introduced, and they are more suitable than point forecasts for applications where the predicted variable has a high variability. We propose a method called NNE2D that combines variable selection based on mutual information and an ensemble of neural networks, to compute 2D-interval forecasts, where the two interval boundaries are expressed in terms of percentiles. NNE2D was evaluated for univariate prediction of Australian solar PV power data for two years. The results show that it is a promising method, outperforming persistence baselines and other methods used for comparison in terms of accuracy and coverage probability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Dependency-Aware Clustering of Time Series and Its Application on Energy Markets
Energies 2016, 9(10), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9100809 - 11 Oct 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a novel approach for clustering time series, which combines three well-known aspects: a permutation-based coding of the time series, several distance measurements for discrete distributions and hierarchical clustering using different linkages. The proposed method classifies a set of [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a novel approach for clustering time series, which combines three well-known aspects: a permutation-based coding of the time series, several distance measurements for discrete distributions and hierarchical clustering using different linkages. The proposed method classifies a set of time series into homogeneous groups, according to the degree of dependency among them. That is, time series with a high level of dependency will lie in the same cluster. Moreover, taking into account the nature of the codifying process, the method allows us to detect linear and nonlinear dependences. To illustrate the procedure, a set of fourteen electricity price series coming from different wholesale electricity markets worldwide was analyzed. We show that the classification results are consistent with the characteristics of the electricity markets in the study and with their degree of integration. Besides, we outline the necessity of removing the seasonal component of the price series before the analysis and the capability of the method to detect changes in the dependence level along time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Approach to Obtain Synthetic Wind Power Forecasts for Integration Studies
Energies 2016, 9(10), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9100800 - 03 Oct 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
When performing wind integration studies, synthetic wind power forecasts are key elements. Historically, data from operational forecasting systems have been used sparsely, likely due to the high costs involved. Purely statistical methods for simulating wind power forecasts are more common,but have problems mimicking [...] Read more.
When performing wind integration studies, synthetic wind power forecasts are key elements. Historically, data from operational forecasting systems have been used sparsely, likely due to the high costs involved. Purely statistical methods for simulating wind power forecasts are more common,but have problems mimicking all relevant aspects of actual forecasts. Consequently, a new approach to obtain wind power forecasts for integration studies is proposed, relying on long time series of freely and globally available reforecasts. In order to produce synthetic forecasts with similar properties as operational ditto, some processing (noise addition and error reduction) is necessary. Validations with measurements from Belgium and Sweden show that the method is adequate; and distributions, correlations, autocorrelations and power spectral densities of forecast errors correspond well. Furthermore, abrupt changes when forecasts are updated and the existence of level and phase errors are reproduced. The influence from terrain complexity on error magnitude is promising, but more data is necessary for a proper validation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
A Permutation Importance-Based Feature Selection Method for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting Using Random Forest
Energies 2016, 9(10), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9100767 - 22 Sep 2016
Cited by 28
Abstract
The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF) depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF)-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and [...] Read more.
The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF) depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF)-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and the time information of prediction points to form the original feature set. Subsequently, the original feature set was used to train an RF as the original model. After the training process, the prediction error of the original model on the test set was recorded and the permutation importance (PI) value of each feature was obtained. Then, an improved sequential backward search method was used to select the optimal forecasting feature subset based on the PI value of each feature. Finally, the optimal forecasting feature subset was used to train a new RF model as the final prediction model. Experiments showed that the prediction accuracy of RF trained by the optimal forecasting feature subset was higher than that of the original model and comparative models based on support vector regression and artificial neural network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid Method Based on Singular Spectrum Analysis, Firefly Algorithm, and BP Neural Network for Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting
Energies 2016, 9(10), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9100757 - 22 Sep 2016
Cited by 26
Abstract
With increasing importance being attached to big data mining, analysis, and forecasting in the field of wind energy, how to select an optimization model to improve the forecasting accuracy of the wind speed time series is not only an extremely challenging problem, but [...] Read more.
With increasing importance being attached to big data mining, analysis, and forecasting in the field of wind energy, how to select an optimization model to improve the forecasting accuracy of the wind speed time series is not only an extremely challenging problem, but also a problem of concern for economic forecasting. The artificial intelligence model is widely used in forecasting and data processing, but the individual back-propagation artificial neural network cannot always satisfy the time series forecasting needs. Thus, a hybrid forecasting approach has been proposed in this study, which consists of data preprocessing, parameter optimization and a neural network for advancing the accuracy of short-term wind speed forecasting. According to the case study, in which the data are collected from Peng Lai, a city located in China, the simulation results indicate that the hybrid forecasting method yields better predictions compared to the individual BP, which indicates that the hybrid method exhibits stronger forecasting ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Will the Steam Coal Price Rebound under the New Economy Normalcy in China?
Energies 2016, 9(9), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090751 - 15 Sep 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
The steam coal price in China has been continuously decreasing since the second half of 2012. Constant low price of coal will accelerate the development of thermal power, cause more serious air pollution problems, and bring adverse influence to China’s energy reformation in [...] Read more.
The steam coal price in China has been continuously decreasing since the second half of 2012. Constant low price of coal will accelerate the development of thermal power, cause more serious air pollution problems, and bring adverse influence to China’s energy reformation in the future. Therefore, analyzing the factors underlying the phenomenon of the decreasing steam coal price is significant. In this study, we first qualitatively analyze five main factors, namely, economy, supply, demand, substitutes, and port stocks. On the basis of the relationships among these five factors, we obtain the causality diagram and the system flow diagram of coal price for further quantitative research. Then, we conduct an empirical analysis using the system dynamics (SD) method and determine the simulated price from 2012 to 2017. Finally, we discuss the running results and come to the conclusion that the steam coal price will continue to decrease under the combined actions of the five main factors and it will not rebound in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Methodology Based on Imbalanced Classification for Predicting Outliers in Electricity Demand Time Series
Energies 2016, 9(9), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090752 - 14 Sep 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
The occurrence of outliers in real-world phenomena is quite usual. If these anomalous data are not properly treated, unreliable models can be generated. Many approaches in the literature are focused on a posteriori detection of outliers. However, a new methodology to a priori [...] Read more.
The occurrence of outliers in real-world phenomena is quite usual. If these anomalous data are not properly treated, unreliable models can be generated. Many approaches in the literature are focused on a posteriori detection of outliers. However, a new methodology to a priori predict the occurrence of such data is proposed here. Thus, the main goal of this work is to predict the occurrence of outliers in time series, by using, for the first time, imbalanced classification techniques. In this sense, the problem of forecasting outlying data has been transformed into a binary classification problem, in which the positive class represents the occurrence of outliers. Given that the number of outliers is much lower than the number of common values, the resultant classification problem is imbalanced. To create training and test sets, robust statistical methods have been used to detect outliers in both sets. Once the outliers have been detected, the instances of the dataset are labeled accordingly. Namely, if any of the samples composing the next instance are detected as an outlier, the label is set to one. As a study case, the methodology has been tested on electricity demand time series in the Spanish electricity market, in which most of the outliers were properly forecast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Year Ahead Demand Forecast of City Natural Gas Using Seasonal Time Series Methods
Energies 2016, 9(9), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090727 - 08 Sep 2016
Cited by 34
Abstract
Consumption of natural gas, a major clean energy source, increases as energy demand increases. We studied specifically the Turkish natural gas market. Turkey’s natural gas consumption increased as well in parallel with the world‘s over the last decade. This consumption growth in Turkey [...] Read more.
Consumption of natural gas, a major clean energy source, increases as energy demand increases. We studied specifically the Turkish natural gas market. Turkey’s natural gas consumption increased as well in parallel with the world‘s over the last decade. This consumption growth in Turkey has led to the formation of a market structure for the natural gas industry. This significant increase requires additional investments since a rise in consumption capacity is expected. One of the reasons for the consumption increase is the user-based natural gas consumption influence. This effect yields imbalances in demand forecasts and if the error rates are out of bounds, penalties may occur. In this paper, three univariate statistical methods, which have not been previously investigated for mid-term year-ahead monthly natural gas forecasting, are used to forecast natural gas demand in Turkey’s Sakarya province. Residential and low-consumption commercial data is used, which may contain seasonality. The goal of this paper is minimizing more or less gas tractions on mid-term consumption while improving the accuracy of demand forecasting. In forecasting models, seasonality and single variable impacts reinforce forecasts. This paper studies time series decomposition, Holt-Winters exponential smoothing and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) methods. Here, 2011–2014 monthly data were prepared and divided into two series. The first series is 2011–2013 monthly data used for finding seasonal effects and model requirements. The second series is 2014 monthly data used for forecasting. For the ARIMA method, a stationary series was prepared and transformation process prior to forecasting was done. Forecasting results confirmed that as the computation complexity of the model increases, forecasting accuracy increases with lower error rates. Also, forecasting errors and the coefficients of determination values give more consistent results. Consequently, when there is only consumption data in hand, all methods provide satisfying results and the differences between each method is very low. If a statistical software tool is not used, time series decomposition, the most primitive method, or Winters exponential smoothing requiring little mathematical knowledge for natural gas demand forecasting can be used with spreadsheet software. A statistical software tool containing ARIMA will obtain the best results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
An Application of Non-Linear Autoregressive Neural Networks to Predict Energy Consumption in Public Buildings
Energies 2016, 9(9), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9090684 - 26 Aug 2016
Cited by 57
Abstract
This paper addresses the problem of energy consumption prediction using neural networks over a set of public buildings. Since energy consumption in the public sector comprises a substantial share of overall consumption, the prediction of such consumption represents a decisive issue in the [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the problem of energy consumption prediction using neural networks over a set of public buildings. Since energy consumption in the public sector comprises a substantial share of overall consumption, the prediction of such consumption represents a decisive issue in the achievement of energy savings. In our experiments, we use the data provided by an energy consumption monitoring system in a compound of faculties and research centers at the University of Granada, and provide a methodology to predict future energy consumption using nonlinear autoregressive (NAR) and the nonlinear autoregressive neural network with exogenous inputs (NARX), respectively. Results reveal that NAR and NARX neural networks are both suitable for performing energy consumption prediction, but also that exogenous data may help to improve the accuracy of predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study of Hybrid Models Based on a Series of Optimization Algorithms and Their Application in Energy System Forecasting
Energies 2016, 9(8), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9080640 - 16 Aug 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
Big data mining, analysis, and forecasting play vital roles in modern economic and industrial fields, especially in the energy system. Inaccurate forecasting may cause wastes of scarce energy or electricity shortages. However, forecasting in the energy system has proven to be a challenging [...] Read more.
Big data mining, analysis, and forecasting play vital roles in modern economic and industrial fields, especially in the energy system. Inaccurate forecasting may cause wastes of scarce energy or electricity shortages. However, forecasting in the energy system has proven to be a challenging task due to various unstable factors, such as high fluctuations, autocorrelation and stochastic volatility. To forecast time series data by using hybrid models is a feasible alternative of conventional single forecasting modelling approaches. This paper develops a group of hybrid models to solve the problems above by eliminating the noise in the original data sequence and optimizing the parameters in a back propagation neural network. One of contributions of this paper is to integrate the existing algorithms and models, which jointly show advances over the present state of the art. The results of comparative studies demonstrate that the hybrid models proposed not only satisfactorily approximate the actual value but also can be an effective tool in the planning and dispatching of smart grids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Electricity Price Forecasting by Averaging Dynamic Factor Models
Energies 2016, 9(8), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9080600 - 28 Jul 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
In the context of the liberalization of electricity markets, forecasting prices is essential. With this aim, research has evolved to model the particularities of electricity prices. In particular, dynamic factor models have been quite successful in the task, both in the short and [...] Read more.
In the context of the liberalization of electricity markets, forecasting prices is essential. With this aim, research has evolved to model the particularities of electricity prices. In particular, dynamic factor models have been quite successful in the task, both in the short and long run. However, specifying a single model for the unobserved factors is difficult, and it cannot be guaranteed that such a model exists. In this paper, model averaging is employed to overcome this difficulty, with the expectation that electricity prices would be better forecast by a combination of models for the factors than by a single model. Although our procedure is applicable in other markets, it is illustrated with an application to forecasting spot prices of the Iberian Market, MIBEL (The Iberian Electricity Market). Three combinations of forecasts are successful in providing improved results for alternative forecasting horizons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
A Least Squares Support Vector Machine Optimized by Cloud-Based Evolutionary Algorithm for Wind Power Generation Prediction
Energies 2016, 9(8), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9080585 - 28 Jul 2016
Cited by 17
Abstract
Accurate wind power generation prediction, which has positive implications for making full use of wind energy, seems still a critical issue and a huge challenge. In this paper, a novel hybrid approach has been proposed for wind power generation forecasting in the light [...] Read more.
Accurate wind power generation prediction, which has positive implications for making full use of wind energy, seems still a critical issue and a huge challenge. In this paper, a novel hybrid approach has been proposed for wind power generation forecasting in the light of Cloud-Based Evolutionary Algorithm (CBEA) and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM). In order to improve the forecasting precision, a two-way comparison approach is conducted to preprocess the original wind power generation data. The pertinent parameters of LSSVM are optimized by using CBEA to verify the learning and generalization abilities of the LSSVM model. The experimental results indicate that the forecasting performance of the proposed model is better than the single LSSVM model and all of the other models for comparison. Moreover, the paired-sample t-test is employed to cast light on the applicability of the developed model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Battery Grouping with Time Series Clustering Based on Affinity Propagation
Energies 2016, 9(7), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9070561 - 19 Jul 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
Battery grouping is a technology widely used to improve the performance of battery packs. In this paper, we propose a time series clustering based battery grouping method. The proposed method utilizes the whole battery charge/discharge sequence for battery grouping. The time sequences are [...] Read more.
Battery grouping is a technology widely used to improve the performance of battery packs. In this paper, we propose a time series clustering based battery grouping method. The proposed method utilizes the whole battery charge/discharge sequence for battery grouping. The time sequences are first denoised with a wavelet denoising technique. The similarity matrix is then computed with the dynamic time warping distance, and finally the time series are clustered with the affinity propagation algorithm according to the calculated similarity matrices. The silhouette index is utilized for assessing the performance of the proposed battery grouping method. Test results show that the proposed battery grouping method is effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Wind Power Generation Forecasting Using Least Squares Support Vector Machine Combined with Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition, Principal Component Analysis and a Bat Algorithm
Energies 2016, 9(4), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9040261 - 01 Apr 2016
Cited by 36
Abstract
Regarding the non-stationary and stochastic nature of wind power, wind power generation forecasting plays an essential role in improving the stability and security of the power system when large-scale wind farms are integrated into the whole power grid. Accurate wind power forecasting can [...] Read more.
Regarding the non-stationary and stochastic nature of wind power, wind power generation forecasting plays an essential role in improving the stability and security of the power system when large-scale wind farms are integrated into the whole power grid. Accurate wind power forecasting can make an enormous contribution to the alleviation of the negative impacts on the power system. This study proposes a hybrid wind power generation forecasting model to enhance prediction performance. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was applied to decompose the original wind power generation series into different sub-series with various frequencies. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reduce the number of inputs without lowering the forecasting accuracy through identifying the variables deemed as significant that maintain most of the comprehensive variability present in the data set. A least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) model with the pertinent parameters being optimized by bat algorithm (BA) was established to forecast those sub-series extracted from EEMD. The forecasting performances of diverse models were compared, and the findings indicated that there was no accuracy loss when only PCA-selected inputs were utilized. Moreover, the simulation results and grey relational analysis reveal, overall, that the proposed model outperforms the other single or hybrid models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Time Series Forecasting)
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