In this study, air pollution control (APC) residue is conducted with water washing process to reduce its chloride content. A novel electrical conductivily (EC) measurement method is proposed to monitor the dynamic change of chloride concentrations in leachate as well as the chloride content of the residue. The method equally applies to various washing processes with different washing time, liquid/solid ratio and washing frequency. The results show that washing effectively extracts chloride salts from APC residues, including those from circulating fluidized bed (CFB) municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The most appropriate liquid/solid ratio and washing time in the first washing are found to be around 4 L water per kg of APC residue and 30 min, respectively, and washing twice is required to obtain maximum dissolution. The pH value is the major controlling factor of the heavy metals speciation in leachate, while chloride concentration also affects the speciation of Cd. Water washing causes no perceptible transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from the APC residue to leachate. The chloride concentration is strongly related with electrical conductivity (EC), as well as with the concentrations of calcium, sodium and potassium of washing water. Their regression analyses specify that soluble chloride salts and EC could act as an indirect indicator to monitor the change of chloride concentration and remaining chloride content, thus, contributing to the selection of the optimal washing conditions.
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