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Energies, Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2014) – 37 articles , Pages 7816-8581

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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Objective Combinatorial Optimization of Trigeneration Plants Based on Metaheuristics
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8554-8581; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128554 - 22 Dec 2014
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2876
Abstract
In this paper, a methodology for multi-objective optimization of trigeneration plants is presented. It is primarily applicable to the systems for buildings’ energy supply characterized by high load variations on daily, weekly and annual bases, as well as the components applicable for flexible [...] Read more.
In this paper, a methodology for multi-objective optimization of trigeneration plants is presented. It is primarily applicable to the systems for buildings’ energy supply characterized by high load variations on daily, weekly and annual bases, as well as the components applicable for flexible operation. The idea is that this approach should enable high accuracy and flexibility in mathematical modeling, while remaining efficient enough. The optimization problem is structurally decomposed into two new problems. The main problem of synthesis and design optimization is combinatorial and solved with different metaheuristic methods. For each examined combination of the synthesis and design variables, when calculating the values of the objective functions, the inner, mixed integer linear programming operation optimization problem is solved with the branch-and-cut method. The applicability of the exploited metaheuristic methods is demonstrated. This approach is compared with the alternative, superstructure-based approach. The potential for combining them is also examined. The methodology is applied for multi-objective optimization of a trigeneration plant that could be used for the energy supply of a real residential settlement in Niš, Serbia. Here, two objectives are considered: annual total costs and primary energy consumption. Results are obtained in the form of a Pareto chart using the epsilon-constraint method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Design Optimization of a Coaxial Surface-Mounted Permanent-Magnet Magnetic Gear
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8535-8553; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128535 - 22 Dec 2014
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4125
Abstract
This paper presents the analysis and design optimization of a coaxial surface-mounted permanent-magnet magnetic gear. The magnetic field distribution in the coaxial magnetic gear is calculated analytically in the polar coordinate system and then validated by the finite element method (FEM). The analytical [...] Read more.
This paper presents the analysis and design optimization of a coaxial surface-mounted permanent-magnet magnetic gear. The magnetic field distribution in the coaxial magnetic gear is calculated analytically in the polar coordinate system and then validated by the finite element method (FEM). The analytical field solution allows the prediction of the magnetic torque, which is formulated as a function of design parameters. The impacts of key design parameters on the torque capability are then studied and some significant observations are summarized. Furthermore, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed to optimize the studied magnetic gear. Given that the torque capability and material cost conflict with each other, both of them are set as the optimization objectives in this paper. Different weight factors may be chosen for the two objectives so that more attention can be placed on one or another. The results shows that the highest torque density of 157 kNm/m3 is achieved with the consideration focusing on the torque capability only, then the highest torque per permanent magnet (PM) consumption could be improved to 145 Nm/kg by taking the material cost into account. By synthesizing the torque capability and material cost, a 124 kNm/m3 of torque density and a 128 Nm/kg of torque per PM consumption could be achieved simultaneously by the optimal design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle
Wind Energy Study and Energy Cost of Wind Electricity Generation in Nigeria: Past and Recent Results and a Case Study for South West Nigeria
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8508-8534; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128508 - 22 Dec 2014
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4048
Abstract
The study assessed the wind energy potential of ten selected sites in the south western region of Nigeria and carried out a cost benefit analysis of wind power generation at those sites. Twenty four years’ (1987 to 2010) wind speed data at 10 [...] Read more.
The study assessed the wind energy potential of ten selected sites in the south western region of Nigeria and carried out a cost benefit analysis of wind power generation at those sites. Twenty four years’ (1987 to 2010) wind speed data at 10 m height obtained from the Nigerian meteorological agency were employed to classify the sites wind profiles for electricity generation. The energy cost analysis of generating wind electricity from the sites was also carried out. The outcome showed that sites in Lagos and Oyo States were adequately suited for large scale generation with average wind speeds ranged between 2.9 and 5.8 m/s. Those from other sites may be suitable for small scale generation or as wind farms, with several small turbines connected together, to generate large enough wind power. The turbine matching results shows that turbines cut-in and rated wind speeds of between 2.0 and 3.0 m/s, and between 10 and 12.0 m/s respectively will be very suited to all the sites, particularly those in locations outside Lagos and Oyo States. The energy cost analysis shows that generation cost can be as low as 0.02 €/kWh and as high as 5.03/kWh, depending on the turbine model employed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On-Site Radon Detection of Mining-induced Fractures from Overlying Strata to the Surface: A Case Study of the Baoshan Coal Mine in China
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8483-8507; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128483 - 22 Dec 2014
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3184
Abstract
Large-scale longwall mining of shallow coal seams may cause mining-induced fractures that can project completely through to the surface. This could lead to a series of mine safety and environmental issues, further deteriorating the already fragile ecological environment in the Western mining areas [...] Read more.
Large-scale longwall mining of shallow coal seams may cause mining-induced fractures that can project completely through to the surface. This could lead to a series of mine safety and environmental issues, further deteriorating the already fragile ecological environment in the Western mining areas in China. Therefore, an accurate and effective understanding of the spatiotemporal evolution law of mining-induced fractures in overlying strata and its relationship to upper aquifers is critical. In this paper, the application of the geophysical-chemical properties of radon in mining engineering is explored as a potential solution to the shortcomings of existing surveying methods. A radioactive measurement method is proposed for the detection of the development of mining-induced fractures from overlying strata to the surface in the Baoshan Coal Mine (BCM). The on-site test indicated that the first weighting step is approximately 60 m, the average periodic weighting step is approximately 20 m, and the influence coverage of the advanced abutment pressure is approximately 30 m. The presented method could be used as an indirect technical support to increase the safety of coal mining by acting as a simple, fast, and reliable method of detecting mining-induced fractures in overlying strata. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Horizontal Air-Ground Heat Exchangers (HAGHE) for HVAC Systems
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8465-8482; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128465 - 22 Dec 2014
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3239
Abstract
In order to satisfy the requirements of Directive 2010/31/EU for Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB), innovative solutions were investigated for building HVAC systems. Horizontal air-ground heat exchangers (HAGHE) offer a significant contribution in reducing energy consumption for ventilation, using the thermal energy stored underground, [...] Read more.
In order to satisfy the requirements of Directive 2010/31/EU for Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB), innovative solutions were investigated for building HVAC systems. Horizontal air-ground heat exchangers (HAGHE) offer a significant contribution in reducing energy consumption for ventilation, using the thermal energy stored underground, in order to pre-heat or pre-cool the ventilation air, in winter and summer, respectively. This is particularly interesting in applications for industrial, commercial and education buildings where keeping the indoor air quality under control is extremely important. Experimental measurements show that, throughout the year, the outside air temperature fluctuations are mitigated at sufficient ground depth (about 3 m) because of the high thermal inertia of the soil, the ground temperature is relatively constant and instead higher than that of the outside air in winter and lower in summer. The study aims to numerically investigate the behavior of HAGHE by varying the air flow rate and soil conductivity in unsteady conditions by using annual weather data of South-East Italy. The analysis shows that, in warm climates, the HAGHE brings a real advantage for only a few hours daily in winter, while it shows significant benefits in the summer for the cooling of ventilation air up to several temperature degrees, already by a short pipe. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison Study on Two Model-Based Adaptive Algorithms for SOC Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8446-8464; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128446 - 17 Dec 2014
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 5022
Abstract
State of charge (SOC) estimation is essential to battery management systems in electric vehicles (EVs) to ensure the safe operations of batteries and providing drivers with the remaining range of the EVs. A number of estimation algorithms have been developed to get an [...] Read more.
State of charge (SOC) estimation is essential to battery management systems in electric vehicles (EVs) to ensure the safe operations of batteries and providing drivers with the remaining range of the EVs. A number of estimation algorithms have been developed to get an accurate SOC value because the SOC cannot be directly measured with sensors and is closely related to various factors, such as ambient temperature, current rate and battery aging. In this paper, two model-based adaptive algorithms, including the adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF) and adaptive slide mode observer (ASMO) are applied and compared in terms of convergence behavior, tracking accuracy, computational cost and estimation robustness against parameter uncertainties of the battery model in SOC estimation. Two typical driving cycles, including the Dynamic Stress Test (DST) and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) are applied to evaluate the performance of the two algorithms. Comparison results show that the AUKF has merits in convergence ability and tracking accuracy with an accurate battery model, while the ASMO has lower computational cost and better estimation robustness against parameter uncertainties of the battery model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Power Plant Options for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8427-8445; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128427 - 17 Dec 2014
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3675
Abstract
Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) extract heat from underground hot dry rock (HDR) by first fracturing the HDR and then circulating a geofluid (typically water) into it and bringing the heated geofluid to a power plant to generate electricity. This study focuses on analysis, [...] Read more.
Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) extract heat from underground hot dry rock (HDR) by first fracturing the HDR and then circulating a geofluid (typically water) into it and bringing the heated geofluid to a power plant to generate electricity. This study focuses on analysis, examination, and comparison of leading geothermal power plant configurations with a geofluid temperature from 200 to 800 °C, and also analyzes the embodied energy of EGS surface power plants. The power generation analysis is focused on flash type cycles for using subcritical geofluid (<374 °C) and expansion type cycles for using supercritical geofluid (>374 °C). Key findings of this study include: (i) double-flash plants have 24.3%–29.0% higher geofluid effectiveness than single-flash ones, and 3%–10% lower specific embodied energy; (ii) the expansion type plants have geofluid effectiveness > 750 kJ/kg, significantly higher than flash type plants (geofluid effectiveness < 300 kJ/kg) and the specific embodied energy is lower; (iii) to increase the turbine outlet vapor fraction from 0.75 to 0.90, we include superheating by geofluid but that reduces the geofluid effectiveness by 28.3%; (iv) for geofluid temperatures above 650 °C, double-expansion plants have a 2% higher geofluid effectiveness and 5%–8% lower specific embodied energy than single-expansion ones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Kinetic Modeling of Ethanol Batch Fermentation by Escherichia Coli FBWHR Using Hot-Water Sugar Maple Wood Extract Hydrolyzate as Substrate
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8411-8426; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128411 - 16 Dec 2014
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3592
Abstract
A recombinant strain of Escherichia coli FBWHR was used for ethanol fermentation from hot-water sugar maple wood extract hydrolyzate in batch experiments. Kinetic studies of cell growth, sugar utilization and ethanol production were investigated at different initial total sugar concentrations of wood extract [...] Read more.
A recombinant strain of Escherichia coli FBWHR was used for ethanol fermentation from hot-water sugar maple wood extract hydrolyzate in batch experiments. Kinetic studies of cell growth, sugar utilization and ethanol production were investigated at different initial total sugar concentrations of wood extract hydrolyzate. The highest ethanol concentration of 24.05 g/L was obtained using an initial total sugar concentration of 70.30 g/L. Unstructured models were developed to describe cell growth, sugar utilization and ethanol production and validated by comparing the predictions of model and experimental data. The results from this study could be expected to provide insights into the process performance, optimize the process and aid in the design of processes for large-scale production of ethanol fermentation from woody biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Challenges in Cellulosic Ethanol)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Sizing and Control of Battery Energy Storage System for Peak Load Shaving
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8396-8410; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128396 - 15 Dec 2014
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 3743
Abstract
Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) can be utilized to shave the peak load in power systems and thus defer the need to upgrade the power grid. Based on a rolling load forecasting method, along with the peak load reduction requirements in reality, at [...] Read more.
Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) can be utilized to shave the peak load in power systems and thus defer the need to upgrade the power grid. Based on a rolling load forecasting method, along with the peak load reduction requirements in reality, at the planning level, we propose a BESS capacity planning model for peak and load shaving problem. At the operational level, we consider the optimal control policy towards charging and discharging power with two different optimization objectives: one is to diminish the difference between the peak load and the valley load, the other is to minimize the daily load variance. Particularly, the constraint of charging and discharging cycles, which is an important issue in practice, is taken into consideration. Finally, based on real load data, we provide simulation results that validate the proposed optimization models and control strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Technology Can Improve the Efficiency of Excavator-Based Cable Harvesting for Potential Biomass Extraction—A Woody Productivity Resource and Cost Analysis for Ireland
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8374-8395; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128374 - 15 Dec 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3525
Abstract
Two cable logging systems were reviewed to compare the efficiency of potential biomass extraction from remote forest sites in Ireland based on productive machine hour (PMH) and unit cost of operation (€/m3). Three operational scenarios (SC) were analysed where SC I [...] Read more.
Two cable logging systems were reviewed to compare the efficiency of potential biomass extraction from remote forest sites in Ireland based on productive machine hour (PMH) and unit cost of operation (€/m3). Three operational scenarios (SC) were analysed where SC I was a three man crew operation (choker setter, the carriage operator and unhooking chokers). SC II was a variation of this with a two man crew operation. SC III was operating radio controlled chokers there was a two man crew (choker setter and carriage operator). The study aims to assess how operations in Ireland perform against previous known cable studies to determine whether the cost of timber extraction on remote forest sites inaccessible for mechanised felling, has a future given the increased demand for wood fibre in Ireland, both from the sawmilling industries and the wood for energy sector. The volume per PMH was recorded at 17.97 for SC I, 15.09 for SC II and 20.58 m3 for SC III. The difference in productivity versus SC III remote controlled chokers is 5.49 m3/PMH for SC II crew and 2.61 m3/PMH for SC I. The decrease in total volume extracted from SCs I and II versus SC III was recorded at 15.69 m3 (15%) and 32.97 m3 (36%) product respectively. In value terms, the unit cost (€/m3) varied from 6.29 (SC I) to 6.43 (SC II) to 4.57 (SC III). When looking at the production unit costs of normal wood energy supply chains in Ireland, the figures are similar ranging from 3.17 €/m3 to 8.01 €/m3. The value of the end product of course will always determine which market the eventually goes to but given that cable log wood fibre has been unthinned and unmaintained then the biomass sector may be an ever increasing demand point in the search for increased woody biomass given that the unit costs can be competitive with other wood energy supply chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Resource Efficiency for the Biobased Industries)
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Open AccessArticle
Using the Direct Search Method for Optimal Dispatch of Distributed Generation in a Medium-Voltage Microgrid
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8355-8373; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128355 - 12 Dec 2014
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3407
Abstract
This paper proposes a simple and efficient approach for the optimal dispatch in a medium-voltage microgrid (MG) with various types of distributed generation (DG). The fuel costs generated by these DGs are determined using quadratic and linear functions dependent on the types of [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a simple and efficient approach for the optimal dispatch in a medium-voltage microgrid (MG) with various types of distributed generation (DG). The fuel costs generated by these DGs are determined using quadratic and linear functions dependent on the types of DGs. Instead of using the traditional Lagrange multiplier method for power system economic dispatch, the proposed direct search method (DSM) approach is able to handle several inequality constraints without introducing any multipliers and furthermore it can solve the non-derivative problems or the fuel cost functions being much more complicated. Accordingly, the DSM is proposed for determining the optimal dispatch of MGs with various types of DG to minimize generation costs under grid-tied and autonomous operations. Results demonstrate that the proposed DSM is a highly suitable and simple approach to determining the optimal dispatch in medium-voltage MGs with various types of DG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids)
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Open AccessArticle
Atmospheric Dispersion of Radioactivity from Nuclear Power Plant Accidents: Global Assessment and Case Study for the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8338-8354; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128338 - 12 Dec 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 7572
Abstract
We estimate the contamination risks from the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides released by severe nuclear power plant accidents using the ECHAM/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) atmospheric chemistry (EMAC) atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model at high resolution (50 km). We present an overview of global [...] Read more.
We estimate the contamination risks from the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides released by severe nuclear power plant accidents using the ECHAM/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) atmospheric chemistry (EMAC) atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model at high resolution (50 km). We present an overview of global risks and also a case study of nuclear power plants that are currently under construction, planned and proposed in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, a region prone to earthquakes. We implemented continuous emissions from each location, making the simplifying assumption that all potential accidents release the same amount of radioactivity. We simulated atmospheric transport and decay, focusing on 137Cs and 131I as proxies for particulate and gaseous radionuclides, respectively. We present risk maps for potential surface layer concentrations, deposition and doses to humans from the inhalation exposure of 131I. The estimated risks exhibit seasonal variability, with the highest surface level concentrations of gaseous radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere during winter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nuclear Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Consumption of a Battery Electric Vehicle with Infinitely Variable Transmission
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8317-8337; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128317 - 12 Dec 2014
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 5177
Abstract
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) represent a possible sustainable solution for personal urban transportation. Presently, the most limiting characteristic of BEVs is their short range, mainly because of battery technology limitations. A proper design and control of the drivetrain, aimed at reducing the power [...] Read more.
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) represent a possible sustainable solution for personal urban transportation. Presently, the most limiting characteristic of BEVs is their short range, mainly because of battery technology limitations. A proper design and control of the drivetrain, aimed at reducing the power losses and thus increasing BEV range, can contribute to make the electrification of urban transportation a convenient choice. This paper presents a simulation-based comparison of the energy efficiency performance of six drivetrain architectures for BEVs. Although many different drivetrain and transmission architectures have been proposed for BEVs, no literature was found regarding BEVs equipped with infinitely variable transmissions (IVTs). The analyzed drivetrain configurations are: single- (1G) and two-speed (2G) gear drives, half toroidal (HT) and full toroidal (FT) continuously variable transmissions (CVTs), and infinitely variable transmissions (IVTs) with two different types of internal power flow (IVT-I and IVT-II). An off-line procedure for determining the most efficient control action for each drivetrain configuration is proposed, which allows selecting the optimal speed ratio for each operating condition. The energy consumption of the BEVs is simulated along the UDC (Urban Driving Cycle) and Japanese 10-15 driving cycle, with a backward facing approach. In order to achieve the lowest energy consumption, a trade-off between high transmission efficiency and flexibility in terms of allowed speed ratios is required. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Part-Load Performance of aWet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8294-8316; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128294 - 11 Dec 2014
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4369
Abstract
Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine [...] Read more.
Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT) fueled by woodchips and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbogenerator. An exergy analysis is performed to identify the sources of inefficiencies, the optimal design variables, and the most suitable working fluid for the organic Rankine process. This step enables to parametrize the part-load model of the plant and to estimate its performance at different power outputs. The novel plant has a nominal power of 250 kW and a thermal efficiency of 43%. The major irreversibilities take place in the burner, recuperator, compressor and in the condenser. Toluene is the optimal working fluid for the organic Rankine engine. The part-load investigation indicates that the plant can operate at high efficiencies over a wide range of power outputs (50%–100%), with a peak thermal efficiency of 45% at around 80% load. While the ORC turbogenerator is responsible for the efficiency drop at low capacities, the off-design performance is governed by the efficiency characteristics of the compressor and turbine serving the gas turbine unit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC))
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Open AccessArticle
Fatigue Load Estimation through a Simple Stochastic Model
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8279-8293; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128279 - 11 Dec 2014
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3327
Abstract
We propose a procedure to estimate the fatigue loads on wind turbines, based on a recent framework used for reconstructing data series of stochastic properties measured at wind turbines. Through a standard fatigue analysis, we show that it is possible to accurately estimate [...] Read more.
We propose a procedure to estimate the fatigue loads on wind turbines, based on a recent framework used for reconstructing data series of stochastic properties measured at wind turbines. Through a standard fatigue analysis, we show that it is possible to accurately estimate fatigue loads in any wind turbine within one wind park, using only the load measurements at one single turbine and the set of wind speed measurements. Our framework consists of deriving a stochastic differential equation that describes the evolution of the torque at one wind turbine driven by the wind speed. The stochastic equation is derived directly from the measurements and is afterwards used for predicting the fatigue loads for neighboring turbines. Such a framework could be used to mitigate the financial efforts usually necessary for placing measurement devices in all wind turbines within one wind farm. Finally, we also discuss the limitations and possible improvements of the proposed procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling of the Electrical and Thermal Behaviors of an Ultracapacitor
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8264-8278; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128264 - 10 Dec 2014
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3649
Abstract
This paper reports a modeling methodology to predict the electrical and thermal behaviors of a 2.7 V/650 F ultracapacitor (UC) cell from LS Mtron Ltd. (Anyang, Korea). The UC cell is subject to the charge/discharge cycling with constant-current between 1.35 V and 2.7 [...] Read more.
This paper reports a modeling methodology to predict the electrical and thermal behaviors of a 2.7 V/650 F ultracapacitor (UC) cell from LS Mtron Ltd. (Anyang, Korea). The UC cell is subject to the charge/discharge cycling with constant-current between 1.35 V and 2.7 V. The charge/discharge current values examined are 50, 100, 150, and 200 A. A three resistor-capacitor (RC) parallel branch model is employed to calculate the electrical behavior of the UC. The modeling results for the variations of the UC cell voltage as a function of time for various charge/discharge currents are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. A three-dimensional thermal model is presented to predict the thermal behavior of the UC. Both of the irreversible and reversible heat generations inside the UC cell are considered. The validation of the three-dimensional thermal model is provided through the comparison of the modeling results with the experimental infrared (IR) image at various charge/discharge currents. A zero-dimensional thermal model is proposed to reduce the significant computational burden required for the three-dimensional thermal model. The zero-dimensional thermal model appears to generate the numerical results accurate enough to resolve the thermal management issues related to the UC for automotive applications without relying on significant computing resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Energy Storage—Battery and Capacitor)
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Open AccessArticle
International Diffusion of Renewable Energy Innovations: Lessons from the Lead Markets for Wind Power in China, Germany and USA
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8236-8263; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128236 - 10 Dec 2014
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4921
Abstract
The international diffusion of environmental innovations is getting increasing attention as an opportunity to improve competitiveness. Especially in the energy sector, countries use policy support to this end. A recent goal in this context is the formation of “lead markets”, which represents the [...] Read more.
The international diffusion of environmental innovations is getting increasing attention as an opportunity to improve competitiveness. Especially in the energy sector, countries use policy support to this end. A recent goal in this context is the formation of “lead markets”, which represents the idea that countries can build up first-mover advantages that will increase their competitiveness. Taking the lead in international diffusion of a particular innovation benefits a country’s industry through creating increasing returns of technological development and stimulating exports to expanding international markets. Interaction between national and international forces affecting renewable energy innovation and its diffusion has received fairly little attention so far. Here, we investigate the formation of lead markets for wind power technologies in China, Germany and the USA to see whether policy support of renewable energy innovation is capable of improving competitiveness. An extension of the current lead market framework is developed to include supply side factors and technology policy issues. The comparative analysis of lead market potential for wind power indicates a high level of internationalization of the industry with countries holding lead positions in specific parts the supply chain. Competitive advantages were built upon policy support but tended to shift among countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Transitions and Economic Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Advanced Energy Harvesting from Macroalgae—Innovative Integration of Drying, Gasification and Combined Cycle
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8217-8235; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128217 - 10 Dec 2014
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 4274
Abstract
State-of-the-art integrated macroalgae utilization processes, consisting of drying, gasification, and combined cycle, are proposed and their performance with respect to energy efficiency are evaluated. To achieve high exergy efficiency, the integration is performed through two main principles: exergy recovery and process integration. Initially, [...] Read more.
State-of-the-art integrated macroalgae utilization processes, consisting of drying, gasification, and combined cycle, are proposed and their performance with respect to energy efficiency are evaluated. To achieve high exergy efficiency, the integration is performed through two main principles: exergy recovery and process integration. Initially, the energy involved in one process is recirculated intensively through exergy elevation and effective heat coupling. Furthermore, the unrecoverable energy from one process will be utilized in the other processes through process integration. As the result, the total exergy destruction from the whole integrated processes can be minimized significantly leading to significant improvement in energy efficiency. The first analysis relates to the performance of integrated drying process, especially the influence of target moisture content to energy consumption. Furthermore, the influences of gasification fluidization velocity to the total generated power and power generation efficiency are also calculated. As the results of study, the proposed integrated-processes proved a very high energy efficiency. A positive energy harvesting with the total power generation efficiency of about 40% could be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Based Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Performance Evaluation of Two Thermal Energy Storage Tank Design Concepts for Use with a Solid Particle Receiver-Based Solar Power Tower
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8201-8216; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128201 - 09 Dec 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3968
Abstract
This paper presents the results of an extensive study of two thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The goal of the research is to make solar energy cost-competitive with other forms of electricity. A small-scale TES system was first built. The inner to outer [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of an extensive study of two thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The goal of the research is to make solar energy cost-competitive with other forms of electricity. A small-scale TES system was first built. The inner to outer layers were made of firebrick (FB), autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) and reinforced concrete brick (CB). The experiments were conducted at temperatures of up to 1000 °C for sustained periods of time. AAC was found to be prone to cracking at temperatures exceeding 900 °C; as a result, AAC was eliminated from the second TES system. The second, larger-scale TES system was subsequently built of multiple layers of readily available materials, namely, insulating firebrick (IFB), perlite concrete (PC), expansion joint (EJ), and CB. All of the surfaces were instrumented with thermocouples to estimate the heat loss from the system. The temperature was maintained at approximately 800 °C to approximate steady state conditions closely. The steady state heat loss was determined to be approximately 4.4% for a day. The results indicate that high-temperature TES systems can be constructed of readily available materials while meeting the heat loss requirements for a falling particle receiver system, thereby contributing to reducing the overall cost of concentrating solar power systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8178-8200; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128178 - 09 Dec 2014
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3465
Abstract
More and more wave energy converter (WEC) concepts are reaching prototypelevel. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease thelevelized cost of energy (LCOE) is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structuraland maintenance (inspection) costs, [...] Read more.
More and more wave energy converter (WEC) concepts are reaching prototypelevel. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease thelevelized cost of energy (LCOE) is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structuraland maintenance (inspection) costs, as well as on the harvested power from the waves.The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output,but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize thestructural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem and the intentto maximize the investor’s benefits by maximizing the difference between income (e.g., fromselling electricity) and the expected expenses (e.g., structural building costs or failure costs).Furthermore, different development levels, like prototype or commercial devices, may havedifferent main objectives and will be located at different locations, as well as receive varioussubsidies. These points should be accounted for when performing structural optimizationsof WECs. An illustrative example on the gravity-based foundation of the Wavestar deviceis performed showing how structural design can be optimized taking target reliability levelsand different structural failure modes due to extreme loads into account. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical and Theoretical Investigations Concerning the Continuous-Surface-Curvature Effect in Compressor Blades
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8150-8177; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128150 - 09 Dec 2014
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2848
Abstract
Though the importance of curvature continuity on compressor blade performances has been realized, there are two major questions that need to be solved, i.e., the respective effects of curvature continuity at the leading-edge blend point and the main surface, and the contradiction [...] Read more.
Though the importance of curvature continuity on compressor blade performances has been realized, there are two major questions that need to be solved, i.e., the respective effects of curvature continuity at the leading-edge blend point and the main surface, and the contradiction between the traditional theory and experimental observations in the effect of those novel leading-edge shapes with smaller curvature discontinuity and sharper nose. In this paper, an optimization method to design continuous-curvature blade profiles which deviate little from datum blades is proposed, and numerical and theoretical analysis is carried out to investigate the continuous-curvature effect on blade performances. The results show that the curvature continuity at the leading-edge blend point helps to eliminate the separation bubble, thus improving the blade performance. The main-surface curvature continuity is also beneficial, although its effects are much smaller than those of the blend-point curvature continuity. Furthermore, it is observed that there exist two factors controlling the leading-edge spike, i.e., the curvature discontinuity at the blend point which dominates at small incidences, and the nose curvature which dominates at large incidences. To the authors’ knowledge, such mechanisms have not been reported before, and they can help to solve the sharp-leading-edge paradox. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Canola Oil Biodiesel Fuel Blends on Combustion, Performance, and Emissions Reduction in a Common Rail Diesel Engine
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8132-8149; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128132 - 05 Dec 2014
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 5816
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the effects of canola oil biodiesel (BD) to improve combustion and exhaust emissions in a common rail direct injection (DI) diesel engine using BD fuel blended with diesel. Experiments were conducted with BD blend amounts of 10%, 20%, [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the effects of canola oil biodiesel (BD) to improve combustion and exhaust emissions in a common rail direct injection (DI) diesel engine using BD fuel blended with diesel. Experiments were conducted with BD blend amounts of 10%, 20%, and 30% on a volume basis under various engine speeds. As the BD blend ratio increased, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) decreased slightly at the low engine speed of 1500 rpm, while they increased at the middle engine speed of 2500 rpm. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increased at all engine speeds while the carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) emissions were considerably reduced. On the other hand, the nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions only increased slightly. When increasing the BD blend ratio at an engine speed of 2000 rpm with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, the combustion pressure and IMEP tended to decrease. The CO and PM emissions decreased in proportion to the BD blend ratio. Also, the NOx emissions decreased considerably as the EGR rate increased whereas the BD blend ratio only slightly influenced the NOx emissions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ground Return Current Behaviour in High Voltage Alternating Current Insulated Cables
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8116-8131; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128116 - 03 Dec 2014
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2726
Abstract
The knowledge of ground return current in fault occurrence plays a key role in the dimensioning of the earthing grid of substations and of cable sealing end compounds, in the computation of rise of earth potential at substation sites and in electromagnetic interference [...] Read more.
The knowledge of ground return current in fault occurrence plays a key role in the dimensioning of the earthing grid of substations and of cable sealing end compounds, in the computation of rise of earth potential at substation sites and in electromagnetic interference (EMI) on neighbouring parallel metallic conductors (pipes, handrails, etc.). Moreover, the ground return current evaluation is also important in steady-state regime since this stray current can be responsible for EMI and also for alternating current (AC) corrosion. In fault situations and under some assumptions, the ground return current value at a substation site can be computed by means of k-factors. The paper shows that these simplified and approximated approaches have a lot of limitations and only multiconductor analysis can show the ground return current behaviour along the cable (not only the two end values) both in steady-state regime and in short circuit occurrence (e.g., phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase-to-ground). Multiconductor cell analysis (MCA) considers the cable system in its real asymmetry without simplified and approximated hypotheses. The sensitivity of ground return current on circuit parameters (cross-bonding box resistances, substation earthing resistances, soil resistivity) is presented in the paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Control Strategy for Microgrid Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8095-8115; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128095 - 02 Dec 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3668
Abstract
Ultracapacitors (UCs), with their features of high power density and high current charge-discharge, have become the best choice for dynamic power compensation to improve the stability of microgrids and are increasingly being applied in microgrids. This paper presents the control of an energy [...] Read more.
Ultracapacitors (UCs), with their features of high power density and high current charge-discharge, have become the best choice for dynamic power compensation to improve the stability of microgrids and are increasingly being applied in microgrids. This paper presents the control of an energy storage system (ESS) based on ultracapacitors in the context of grid-connected microgrids. The ESS is composed of DC/AC and DC/DC converters tied by a dc link. An improved dynamic model for the ESS is proposed. Based on the proposed model a Proportional-Integral-Resonant (PIR) DC link voltage controller is proposed to maintain the DC link voltage through the charging-discharging control of ultracapacitors, capable of working properly under all operating conditions. An extra double frequency component is injected into the UC current by a R controller to dynamically compensate for DC instantaneous power and double frequency AC instantaneous power due to unbalanced grid conditions and disturbances. This feature maintains the DC link voltage constant under unbalanced conditions and increases the degrees of freedom of the DC/AC converter and thus facilitates the application of UCs in microgrids. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Energy Storage—Battery and Capacitor)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Data-Driven Fast Capacity Estimation of Spent Electric Vehicle Lithium-ion Batteries
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8076-8094; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128076 - 01 Dec 2014
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3804
Abstract
Fast capacity estimation is a key enabling technique for second-life of lithium-ion batteries due to the hard work involved in determining the capacity of a large number of used electric vehicle (EV) batteries. This paper tries to make three contributions to the existing [...] Read more.
Fast capacity estimation is a key enabling technique for second-life of lithium-ion batteries due to the hard work involved in determining the capacity of a large number of used electric vehicle (EV) batteries. This paper tries to make three contributions to the existing literature through a robust and advanced algorithm: (1) a three layer back propagation artificial neural network (BP ANN) model is developed to estimate the battery capacity. The model employs internal resistance expressing the battery’s kinetics as the model input, which can realize fast capacity estimation; (2) an estimation error model is established to investigate the relationship between the robustness coefficient and regression coefficient. It is revealed that commonly used ANN capacity estimation algorithm is flawed in providing robustness of parameter measurement uncertainties; (3) the law of large numbers is used as the basis for a proposed robust estimation approach, which optimally balances the relationship between estimation accuracy and disturbance rejection. An optimal range of the threshold for robustness coefficient is also discussed and proposed. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy and the robustness of the BP ANN model together with the proposed identification approach, which can provide an important basis for large scale applications of second-life of batteries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Different Rotor Teeth Shapes on the Performance of Flux Switching Permanent Magnet Machines Used for Electric Vehicles
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8056-8075; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128056 - 01 Dec 2014
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4617
Abstract
This paper investigated a 12-slot/11-pole flux switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machine used for electric vehicles (EVs). Five novel rotor teeth shapes are proposed and researched to reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple of the FSPM machine. These rotor teeth shapes are notched [...] Read more.
This paper investigated a 12-slot/11-pole flux switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machine used for electric vehicles (EVs). Five novel rotor teeth shapes are proposed and researched to reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple of the FSPM machine. These rotor teeth shapes are notched teeth, stepped teeth, eccentric teeth, combination of notched and stepped teeth, and combination of notched and eccentric teeth. They are applied on the rotor and optimized, respectively. The influences of different rotor teeth shapes on cogging torque, torque ripple and electromagnetic torque are analyzed by the 2-D finite-element method (FEM). Then, the performance of FSPMs with different rotor teeth shapes are compared and evaluated comprehensively from the points of view of cogging torque, torque ripple, electromagnetic torque, flux linkage, back electromotive force (EMF), and so on. The results show that the presented rotor teeth shapes, especially the combination of stepped and notched teeth, can greatly reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple with only slight changes in the average electromagnetic torque. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PID Controller Design for UPS Three-Phase Inverters Considering Magnetic Coupling
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8036-8055; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128036 - 28 Nov 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5360
Abstract
In three-phase inverters used in uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs), three-limb inductors and three-limb transformers are commonly used in consideration of cost and size. However, magnetic coupling exists between the three phases of the inverter, which can result in complex models. When instantaneous feedback [...] Read more.
In three-phase inverters used in uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs), three-limb inductors and three-limb transformers are commonly used in consideration of cost and size. However, magnetic coupling exists between the three phases of the inverter, which can result in complex models. When instantaneous feedback control strategies are introduced to achieve high quality output waveforms, the transient analysis of the closed-loop inverters becomes difficult. In this paper, the phenomenon of magnetic coupling in three-phase inverters due to three-limb inductors and three-limb transformers is analyzed. A decoupled dynamic model is derived based on the instantaneous symmetrical components transformation, which comprises three decoupled equivalent circuits of instantaneous symmetrical components. Analyses based on this model indicate that magnetic coupling may have a significant impact on the performance of three-phase inverters under unbalanced load conditions and transient responses. For three-phase inverters in UPSs with Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) closed-loop control strategies, the interactive influence between instantaneous closed-loop regulation and magnetic coupling is researched. Finally, a method of reliability analysis and PID controller design for inverters with magnetic coupling is derived. Simulation and experiment results validate the model and conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Power and Energy Systems for Transportation Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Design of Compact Condenser in an Organic Rankine Cycle System for the Low Grade Waste Heat Recovery
Energies 2014, 7(12), 8008-8035; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7128008 - 28 Nov 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3755
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to present a thermodynamic cycle for the production of electrical power in the 2–5 kW range, suitable for all types of thermally propelled vehicles. The sensible heat recovered from the exhaust gases feeds the energy recovery system, [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to present a thermodynamic cycle for the production of electrical power in the 2–5 kW range, suitable for all types of thermally propelled vehicles. The sensible heat recovered from the exhaust gases feeds the energy recovery system, which is able to produce sufficient power to sustain the air conditioning system or other auxiliaries. The working fluids R134a and R245fa have been used in the ORC system, and the systems are simulated by CAMEL-ProTM software. The cycles are generated starting from the same heat source: the exhaust gas of a typical 2.0 L Diesel engine (or from a small size turbine engine). The design of the condenser has been performed to obtain a very compact component, evaluating the heat exchanger tube and fins type design. Through empirical formulas, the area of heat exchange, the heat required to exchange and the pressure drop in the element have been calculated. A commercial software package is used to build the model of the condenser, then a thermal and mechanical analysis and a CFD analysis are realized to estimate the heat exchange. Finally the evaluations, the possible future studies and possible improvements of the system are shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC))
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Open AccessArticle
Corner Separation Control by Boundary Layer Suction Applied to a Highly Loaded Axial Compressor Cascade
Energies 2014, 7(12), 7994-8007; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7127994 - 27 Nov 2014
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 4305
Abstract
Control of corner separation has attracted much interest due to its improvement of performance and energy utilization in turbomachinery. Numerical studies have been performed under both design and off-design flow conditions to investigate the effects of boundary layer suction (BLS) on corner separation [...] Read more.
Control of corner separation has attracted much interest due to its improvement of performance and energy utilization in turbomachinery. Numerical studies have been performed under both design and off-design flow conditions to investigate the effects of boundary layer suction (BLS) on corner separation in a highly loaded compressor cascade. Two new BLS slot configurations are proposed and a total of five suction slot configurations were studied and compared. Averaged static pressure rise, exit loss coefficient, passage blockage and flow turning angle have been given and compared systematically over a range of operation incidence angles. Distributions of significant loss removal, blade loading, exit deviation and total pressure loss at 3 degree and 7 degree incidence have also been studied. Under the same suction mass flows of 0.7% of the inlet mass flows, the pitchwise suction slot on the endwall shows a better optimal performance over the whole operation incidence among single suction slots. By using of the new proposed compound slot configuration with one spanwise slot on the blade suction side and one pitchwise slot on the endwall, the maximum reduction of total pressure loss at 7 degree incidence can be 39.4%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
U.S. Energy Transitions 1780–2010
Energies 2014, 7(12), 7955-7993; https://doi.org/10.3390/en7127955 - 27 Nov 2014
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5586
Abstract
Economic and social factors compel large-scale changes in energy systems. An ongoing transition in the United States is driven by environmental concerns, changing patterns of energy end-use, constraints on petroleum supply. Analysis of prior transitions shows that energy intensity in the U.S. from [...] Read more.
Economic and social factors compel large-scale changes in energy systems. An ongoing transition in the United States is driven by environmental concerns, changing patterns of energy end-use, constraints on petroleum supply. Analysis of prior transitions shows that energy intensity in the U.S. from 1820 to 2010 features a declining trend when traditional energy is included, in contrast to the “inverted U-curve” seen when only commercial energy is considered. This analysis quantifies use of human and animal muscle power, wind and water power, biomass, harvested ice, fossil fuels, and nuclear power, with some consumption series extending back to 1780. The analysis reaffirms the importance of innovation in energy conversion technologies in energy transitions. An increase in energy intensity in the early 20th century is explained by diminishing returns to pre-electric manufacturing systems, which produced a transformation in manufacturing. In comparison to similar studies for other countries, the U.S. has generally higher energy intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Transitions and Economic Change)
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