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Energies 2014, 7(12), 7936-7954;

State of the Art and Future Trends in Grid Codes Applicable to Isolated Electrical Systems

Department of Electrical Engineering, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, Technical University of Madrid, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006, Spain
Smart Grids and Energy Storage Area, Energy and Environment Division, Tecnalia R&I, C/Geldo, Edificio 700, Derio 48160, Spain
Department of Electrical Engineering, Energy Center, University of Chile, Av. Tupper 2007, Santiago 8370451, Chile
This paper was previously presented at the 1st International e-Conference on Energies, 2013, c014; doi:10.3390/ece-1-c014, available online:
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2014 / Revised: 15 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 27 November 2014
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Isolated electrical systems lack electrical interconnection to other networks and are usually placed in geographically isolated areas—mainly islands or locations in developing countries. Until recently, only diesel generators were able to assure a safe and reliable supply in exchange for very high costs for fuel transportation and system operation. Transmission system operators (TSOs) are increasingly seeking to replace traditional energy models based on large groups of conventional generation units with mixed solutions where diesel groups are held as backup generation and important advantages are provided by renewable energy sources. The grid codes determine the technical requirements to be fulfilled by the generators connected in any electrical network, but regulations applied to isolated grids are more demanding. In technical literature it is rather easy to find and compare grid codes for interconnected electrical systems. However, the existing literature is incomplete and sparse regarding isolated grids. This paper aims to review the current state of isolated systems and grid codes applicable to them, specifying points of comparison and defining the guidelines to be followed by the upcoming regulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: grid codes; isolated electrical grid; grid disturbances grid codes; isolated electrical grid; grid disturbances

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Merino, J.; Mendoza-Araya, P.; Veganzones, C. State of the Art and Future Trends in Grid Codes Applicable to Isolated Electrical Systems. Energies 2014, 7, 7936-7954.

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