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Energies, Volume 16, Issue 10 (May-2 2023) – 288 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Islands face limitations in producing and transporting energy due to their geographical constraints. To address this issue, the ROBINSON project, funded by the EU, aims to create a flexible, self-sufficient, and environmentally friendly energy system that can be used on isolated islands. The feasibility of renewable electrification and heating system decarbonization of Eigerøy in Norway is described in this article. A mixed-integer linear programming framework was used for modelling. The optimization method was designed to be versatile and adaptable to suit individual scenarios, with a flexible and modular formulation that can accommodate boundary conditions specific to each case. In addition, the possibility of green hydrogen production based on the excess electricity from each scenario was evaluated. View this paper
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30 pages, 9153 KiB  
Article
Scenario-Based Uncertainty Modeling for Power Management in Islanded Microgrid Using the Mixed-Integer Distributed Ant Colony Optimization
by Maen Z. Kreishan and Ahmed F. Zobaa
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4257; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104257 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1185
Abstract
Reliable droop-controlled islanded microgrids are necessary to expand coverage and maximize renewables potential. Nonetheless, due to uncertainties surrounding renewable generation and load forecast, substantial power mismatch is expected at off-peak hours. Existing energy management systems such as storage and demand response are not [...] Read more.
Reliable droop-controlled islanded microgrids are necessary to expand coverage and maximize renewables potential. Nonetheless, due to uncertainties surrounding renewable generation and load forecast, substantial power mismatch is expected at off-peak hours. Existing energy management systems such as storage and demand response are not equipped to handle a large power mismatch. Hence, utilizing dump loads to consume excess power is a promising solution to keep frequency and voltage within permissible limits during low-load hours. Considering the uncertainty in wind generation and demand forecast during off-peak hours, the dump load allocation problem was modeled within a scenario-based stochastic framework. The multi-objective optimization with uncertainty was formulated to minimize total microgrid cost, maximum voltage error, frequency deviation, and total energy loss. The mixed-integer distributed ant colony optimization was utilized in a massive parallelization framework for the first time in microgrids to solve the decomposed deterministic problem of the most probable scenarios. Moreover, a flexible and robust load-flow method called general backward/forward sweep was used to obtain the load-flow solution. The optimization problem was applied to the IEEE 69-bus and 118-bus systems. Furthermore, a cost benefit analysis was provided to highlight the proposed method’s advantage over battery-based power management solutions. Lastly, the obtained results further demonstrate the fundamental role of dump load as power management solution while minimizing costs and energy losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids)
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18 pages, 4308 KiB  
Article
Eigen-Sensitivity-Based Sliding Mode Control for LFO Damping in DFIG-Integrated Power Systems
by Rui Zhang, Hao Zhang, Jianqiao Ye, Jiaqing Wang, Qing Liu and Shenghu Li
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4256; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104256 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
Low-frequency oscillation (LFO) of the synchronous generators in power systems by wind power is boring. To improve the robustness of the damping control scheme, this paper applies the sliding mode control (SMC) at the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), with the parameter of [...] Read more.
Low-frequency oscillation (LFO) of the synchronous generators in power systems by wind power is boring. To improve the robustness of the damping control scheme, this paper applies the sliding mode control (SMC) at the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), with the parameter of the SMC optimized by the eigen-sensitivity. The originalities lie in, (1) the states strongly associated with the critical modes are newly applied to design the sliding surface, (2) the closed-loop model of the power system with the improved equivalent control is derived to analyze the damping effect on the critical modes and the undesirable effect on the noncritical modes, (3) the gain in the improved equivalent control is optimized to damp the critical and noncritical modes, and (4) the eigenvector sensitivity is improved to derive the second-order eigen- sensitivity to solve the nonlinear optimization. Numerical results show that the proposed model damps the critical modes effectively for different wind speeds, while the undesirable effect on the noncritical modes is avoided. Full article
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14 pages, 4406 KiB  
Article
Research on Downhole Gas Separation Method Based on a PDMS Separation Membrane
by Xueliang Pei, Lei Zhang, Yongqian Ma, Hengtong Zhang, Xinxin Zhao and Yonghai Gao
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4255; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104255 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 955
Abstract
Safe and efficient deep drilling is a fundamental requirement for the development of oil and gas resources. In this regard, the application of membrane separation technology for drilling fluid gas separation and monitoring is highly significant. In this study, several commonly used permeable [...] Read more.
Safe and efficient deep drilling is a fundamental requirement for the development of oil and gas resources. In this regard, the application of membrane separation technology for drilling fluid gas separation and monitoring is highly significant. In this study, several commonly used permeable membrane materials were analyzed, and a PDMS separation membrane was preliminarily selected as a suitable material for downhole gas separation. We designed an experimental setup to investigate the separation performance of PDMS membranes. The effects of the separation pressure difference, operating temperature, and membrane thickness on the performance of PDMS membranes were analyzed, and the microstructure changes in the PDMS membrane under high temperature and pressure were observed using a scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results showed that PDMS membranes with a thickness of 150–200 μm can work stably and maintain good strength and permeability at a separation pressure difference of 1.1 MPa and a temperature of 150 °C. The SEM observations revealed that the PDMS separation membrane had a smooth surface and uniform microstructure after continuous operations for 15 h under the temperature and pressure conditions, without any cracks, demonstrating high temperature and pressure resistance. These research results provide an important reference for the application of PDMS separation membranes in downhole gas separation technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Oil and Gas Well Engineering Science and Technology)
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22 pages, 878 KiB  
Article
Coordinated Control Design for Ethical Maneuvering of Autonomous Vehicles
by Balázs Németh
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4254; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104254 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
This paper proposes a coordinated control design method, with which the autonomous vehicle is able to perform ethical maneuvers. The starting point of the provided method is a thorough analysis on the ethical concepts for autonomous vehicle control design methods. Using the results [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a coordinated control design method, with which the autonomous vehicle is able to perform ethical maneuvers. The starting point of the provided method is a thorough analysis on the ethical concepts for autonomous vehicle control design methods. Using the results of the analysis, an own concept is provided based on some principles of Protestant ethics. The concept focuses on improving trust in vehicle control through clear rules and predictable vehicle motion, and it is in line with the state-of-the-art ethical vehicle control methods. Moreover, an optimal Model Predictive Control (MPC) design method is formed, in which the provided ethical concept is incorporated. The outputs of the optimal control are steering angle and velocity profile, with which the ethical maneuvering can be achieved. The contribution of the paper is a coordinated control design method, which is able to involve ethical principles. Moreover, the application of Protestant ethics in this context is also a novel achievement in the paper. The effectiveness of the method through different simulation scenarios is illustrated. Full article
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26 pages, 2911 KiB  
Review
A Comparative Review of Capacity Measurement in Energy Storage Devices
by Ashleigh Townsend and Rupert Gouws
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4253; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104253 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1144
Abstract
Energy storage devices are fast becoming a necessity when considering a renewable energy harvesting system. This improves the intermittency of the source as well as significantly increasing the harvesting capacity of the system. However, most energy storage devices have a large limitation with [...] Read more.
Energy storage devices are fast becoming a necessity when considering a renewable energy harvesting system. This improves the intermittency of the source as well as significantly increasing the harvesting capacity of the system. However, most energy storage devices have a large limitation with regards to their usable life—this aspect is especially relevant to batteries. The degradation of batteries (and energy storage devices) plays a large role in determining their feasibility and the degradation is determined through capacity estimations—due to the inability/difficulty of directly measuring instantaneous capacity. This article aims to research the various methods used to estimate the capacity as well as the applications of these measurements aimed at reducing the degradation of the energy storage device. Through this research, the advantages and disadvantages of the measurements and their applications will be revealed, which will then highlight an area in which these estimations or their applications can be improved. The novelty of this paper lies in the graphical representation of the capacity measurement techniques, and how they relate to each other, as well as the relations and differences between their applications, highlighting the limitations in how the measurements are used. Full article
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16 pages, 12120 KiB  
Article
A Frequency Support Approach for Hybrid Energy Systems Considering Energy Storage
by Dahu Li, Hongyu Zhou, Yuan Chen, Yue Zhou, Yuze Rao and Wei Yao
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4252; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104252 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 984
Abstract
In hybrid energy systems, the intermittent and fluctuating nature of new energy sources poses major challenges for the regulation and control of power systems. To mitigate these challenges, energy storage devices have gained attention for their ability to rapidly charge and discharge. Collaborating [...] Read more.
In hybrid energy systems, the intermittent and fluctuating nature of new energy sources poses major challenges for the regulation and control of power systems. To mitigate these challenges, energy storage devices have gained attention for their ability to rapidly charge and discharge. Collaborating with wind power (WP), energy storage (ES) can participate in the frequency control of regional power grids. This approach has garnered extensive interest from scholars worldwide. This paper proposes a two-region load frequency control model that accounts for thermal power, hydropower, ES, and WP. To address complex, nonlinear optimization problems, the dingo optimization algorithm (DOA) is employed to quickly obtain optimal power dispatching commands under different power disturbances. The DOA algorithm’s effectiveness is verified through the simulation of the two-region model. Furthermore, to further validate the proposed method’s optimization effect, the DOA algorithm’s optimization results are compared with those of the genetic algorithm (GA) and proportion method (PROP). Simulation results show that the optimization effect of DOA is more significant than the other methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multi-Energy Systems and Smart Grids)
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14 pages, 2329 KiB  
Article
Optimization of PI Controller Parameters by GWO Algorithm for Five-Phase Asynchronous Motor
by Malika Fodil, Ali Djerioui, Mohamed Ladjal, Abdelhakim Saim, Fouad Berrabah, Hemza Mekki, Samir Zeghlache, Azeddine Houari and Mohamed Fouad Benkhoris
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4251; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104251 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Operation at low speed and high torque can lead to the generation of strong ripples in the speed, which can deteriorate the system. To reduce the speed oscillations when operating a five-phase asynchronous motor at low speed, in this article, we propose a [...] Read more.
Operation at low speed and high torque can lead to the generation of strong ripples in the speed, which can deteriorate the system. To reduce the speed oscillations when operating a five-phase asynchronous motor at low speed, in this article, we propose a control method based on Gray Wolf optimization (GWO) algorithms to adjust the parameters of proportional–integral (PI) controllers. Proportional–integral controllers are commonly used in control systems to regulate the speed and current of a motor. The controller parameters, such as the integral gain and proportional gain, can be adjusted to improve the control performance. Specifically, reducing the integral gain can help reduce the oscillations at low speeds. The proportional–integral controller is insensitive to parametric variations; however, when we employ a GWO optimization strategy based on PI controller parameters, and when we choose gains wisely, the system becomes more reliable. The obtained results show that the hybrid control of the five-phase induction motor (IM) offers high performance in the permanent and transient states. In addition, with this proposed strategy controller, disturbances do not affect motor performance. Full article
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40 pages, 6676 KiB  
Review
Modeling Thermal Radiation in Combustion Environments: Progress and Challenges
by Sandip Mazumder and Somesh P. Roy
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4250; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104250 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2072
Abstract
Modeling thermal radiation in combustion environments can be extremely challenging for two main reasons. First, the radiative transfer equation (RTE), which is the cornerstone of modeling radiation in such environments, is a five-dimensional integro-differential equation. Second, the absorption and scattering coefficients of molecular [...] Read more.
Modeling thermal radiation in combustion environments can be extremely challenging for two main reasons. First, the radiative transfer equation (RTE), which is the cornerstone of modeling radiation in such environments, is a five-dimensional integro-differential equation. Second, the absorption and scattering coefficients of molecular gases and particulates prevalent in combustion environments oscillate strongly with the wavenumber (or wavelength), i.e., the medium is strongly nongray, requiring the solution of the RTE for a large number of wavenumbers. This article reviews the progress that has been made in this area to date with an emphasis on the work performed over the past three decades. Progress in both deterministic and stochastic (Monte Carlo) solutions of the RTE is reviewed, in addition to the review of the treatment of the spectral properties of gases, soot, and fuel droplets that dominate combustion environments, i.e., spectral or nongray models. The application of the various state-of-the-art nongray models and RTE solution methods to flames (particularly turbulent), fires, combustors, and other combustion systems are summarized along with a critical discussion of the pros and cons of the models and methods. Finally, the challenges that remain in modeling thermal radiation in combustion systems are highlighted and future outlooks are shared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section J1: Heat and Mass Transfer)
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24 pages, 5743 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting Based on Feature Analysis and Error Correction
by Zifa Liu, Xinyi Li and Haiyan Zhao
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4249; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104249 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1288
Abstract
Accurate wind power forecasting is an important factor in ensuring the stable operation of a power system. In this paper, we propose a wind power forecasting method based on feature analysis and error correction in order to further improve its accuracy. Firstly, the [...] Read more.
Accurate wind power forecasting is an important factor in ensuring the stable operation of a power system. In this paper, we propose a wind power forecasting method based on feature analysis and error correction in order to further improve its accuracy. Firstly, the correlation analysis is carried out on the features using the maximal information coefficient (MIC), and the main features are selected as the model input items. Then, the two primary factors affecting wind power forecasting—the wind speed and wind direction provided by numerical weather prediction (NWP)—are analyzed, and the data are divided and clustered from the above two perspectives. Next, the bidirectional long short-term memory network (BiLSTM) is used to predict the power of each group of sub data. Finally, the error is forecasted by a light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM) in order to correct the prediction results. The calculation example shows that the proposed method achieves the expected purpose and improves the accuracy of forecasting effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A3: Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy)
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18 pages, 2172 KiB  
Review
The Role of Internet of Things on Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure and Consumer Experience
by Nnaemeka V. Emodi, Udochukwu B. Akuru, Michael O. Dioha, Patrick Adoba, Remeredzai J. Kuhudzai and Olusola Bamisile
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4248; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104248 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3044
Abstract
The drive for net-zero emission and global decarbonization spurred the need for a worldwide transition towards cleaner energy options. The fossil-fuel-dominated global transportation system is a target for these initiatives, accounting for 37% of recent carbon emissions. This has accelerated the adoption of [...] Read more.
The drive for net-zero emission and global decarbonization spurred the need for a worldwide transition towards cleaner energy options. The fossil-fuel-dominated global transportation system is a target for these initiatives, accounting for 37% of recent carbon emissions. This has accelerated the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) into the global market to cut down carbon emissions and improve efficiency in the transportation sector. In the face of this growth, limitations in EV charging infrastructure still loom large amongst EV consumers. Resolving this bottleneck requires systematic approaches to ensure seamless operation and integration into the existing transport systems. This study examines the critical role of IoT in addressing the challenges of EV public charging through reviewing the literature to understand the inter-relation and highlighting its attendant impact on consumer experience. Findings show that while IoT serves as a strong tool to foster public interest through favorable public policy, its novel and innovative nature faces developmental challenges based on existing government policies that could hinder the interest of potential investors. Therefore, governments should consider evaluating existing policies and practices to ascertain their suitability for IoT adoption in EVs, ensuring that they do not constitute unintentional barriers. Full article
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21 pages, 4831 KiB  
Article
In Situ Measurement of Wall Thermal Properties: Parametric Investigation of the Heat Flow Meter Methods through Virtual Experiments Data
by Andrea Alongi, Luca Sala, Adriana Angelotti and Livio Mazzarella
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4247; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104247 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Energy retrofit of existing buildings is based on the assessment of the starting performance of the envelope. The procedure for the in situ measurement of thermal conductance is described in the ISO 9869-1:2014, which provides two techniques for data processing: the average method [...] Read more.
Energy retrofit of existing buildings is based on the assessment of the starting performance of the envelope. The procedure for the in situ measurement of thermal conductance is described in the ISO 9869-1:2014, which provides two techniques for data processing: the average method (AM) and the dynamic method (DM). This work studies their effectiveness using virtual data from numerical simulations based on a finite difference model applied to different wall kinds, considering winter and summer boundary conditions alternatively (Italian Milan-Linate TMY). The estimated thermal conductances are compared to the reference theoretical values. The main purposes are: (i) defining the shortest test duration that provides acceptable results; (ii) assess the reliability of the criteria provided by the standard to evaluate the measurement quality; (iii) evaluate the sensitivity of both methods to variables such as wall properties, boundary conditions and others more specific to the DM (namely, the number of time constants and linear equations). The AM always provides acceptable estimates in winter (−3.1% ÷ 10% error), with better outcomes when indoor heat flux is considered, except for the highly insulated wall, but is not effective in summer, despite the fulfillment of the acceptance criteria for the highly insulated wall. The DM provides improvements in both seasons (0.05% ÷ 8.6% absolute values of error), for most virtual samples, and requires shorter sampling periods, even below the 3 days limit suggested by the standard. The test on the confidence interval indicated by the ISO 9869-1:2014 is not reliable and measurements are sensitive to the number of linear equations, that is left to the user’s discretion without strict indications. This work suggests a possible approach for overcoming this issue, which requires deeper future investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Building Energy Performance Simulation)
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26 pages, 42862 KiB  
Article
The Efficiency Improvement of the Device Based on the Example of a High Building Facade Washer in the Area of Industry 4.0
by Witold Żołna, Przemysław Jura, Marian Banaś and Krzysztof Szczotka
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4246; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104246 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 817
Abstract
The publication analyzes aspects of energy efficiency of various types and several technological concepts of facade washing devices. The conducted analyses and tests answered the most essential question of this stage: which, from the technical point of view of solving the problem of [...] Read more.
The publication analyzes aspects of energy efficiency of various types and several technological concepts of facade washing devices. The conducted analyses and tests answered the most essential question of this stage: which, from the technical point of view of solving the problem of stabilizing the track of the washing machine, gives the highest guarantee of effective stabilization of this track in unfavorable wind conditions. The literature analysis showed several solutions to the problem of track stabilization of facade washing machines on the market, of which suction cups stabilize the machine device, a system not attached to the wall of the building, and fans or propellers have been commercialized. However, it pointed out that there are no universal solutions. Detailed analysis of solutions under many criteria led to finding the solution with the fewest defects at this stage of analysis and potentially the greatest chance of success. Thanks to the results of work and research on the effectiveness of technology, it was possible to implement a number of solutions leading to the improvement of work efficiency, safety, and the development of Industry 4.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Energy Efficiency and Environmental Issues)
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26 pages, 2085 KiB  
Article
A CRITIC–TOPSIS Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Optimum Site Selection for Solar PV Farm
by Imad Hassan, Ibrahim Alhamrouni and Nurul Hanis Azhan
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4245; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104245 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
This research work proposes a new hybrid framework to assess suitable sites and technical potentials for large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems by integrating two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques. The evaluation of sites for PV plants was performed using the MCDM method, taking into [...] Read more.
This research work proposes a new hybrid framework to assess suitable sites and technical potentials for large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems by integrating two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques. The evaluation of sites for PV plants was performed using the MCDM method, taking into account a wide range of variables, including climate, technical, geographical, and economic variables, with factor weights determined using the CRITIC technique. Five Saudi Arabian cities with abundant solar radiation served as illustrations of this study’s framework. For classification, the TOPSIS method was employed to rank the five alternatives. The results show that Riyadh is ranked first with a performance score of 72%, followed by Jeddah with a performance score of 65%, and the remaining three cities, namely, Al Ahsa, Dammam, and Abha scored less than 50%. Lastly, the reliability and robustness of the results obtained were examined using sensitivity analysis. The findings of this study can be used to pinpoint possible places that could be used to build solar power plants and to promote the expansion of generating facilities and electrical grids. Full article
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16 pages, 3229 KiB  
Article
An MPPT Strategy for Wind Turbines Combining Feedback Linearization and Model Predictive Control
by Ping Jiang, Tianyi Zhang, Jinpeng Geng, Peiguang Wang and Lei Fu
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4244; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104244 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
This paper proposes a model predictive controller (MPC) design based on the optimal tip-speed ratio method for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (D-PMSG)-based wind energy conversion system (WECS). To eliminate system nonlinearity and time-varying characteristics, a [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a model predictive controller (MPC) design based on the optimal tip-speed ratio method for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (D-PMSG)-based wind energy conversion system (WECS). To eliminate system nonlinearity and time-varying characteristics, a control variable was added at the wind turbine and the system model was feedback-linearized to create a linear time-invariant system, reducing the computational burden of the MPC and improving system performance. MATLAB/Simulink simulations were performed and the results show that the linearized system has high fidelity. Compared to traditional MPC that use an operating point to linearize the system, it has better adaptability to turbulent wind speeds, improving the stability and rapidity of the system. Full article
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14 pages, 2321 KiB  
Article
Joint Prediction of the State of Charge and the State of Health of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on the PSO-XGBoost Algorithm
by Jiakun An, Wei Guo, Tingyan Lv, Ziheng Zhao, Chunguang He and Hongshan Zhao
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4243; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104243 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in power grids as a common form of energy storage in power stations. The state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) reflect the capacity and lifetime variation in the Li-ion batteries, and they are important state [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in power grids as a common form of energy storage in power stations. The state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) reflect the capacity and lifetime variation in the Li-ion batteries, and they are important state parameters of Li-ion batteries. Therefore, the establishment of accurate SOC and SOH prediction models is an essential prerequisite for the correct assessment of the status of lithium batteries, the improvement of the operational accuracy of energy-storage stations, and the development of maintenance plans for energy-storage stations. This paper first analyzes the correlation between SOC and SOH, and then proposes a joint SOC and SOH prediction model using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to optimize the extreme gradient boosting algorithm (XGBoost), which takes into account the dynamic correlation between SOC and SOH dynamics, thus enabling more accurate SOC and SOH prediction. Finally, the prediction model is validated using the Oxford battery aging dataset. The correlation between SOC and SOH is verified by comparing the joint prediction results with the SOC individual prediction results. Then, the prediction results of the PSO-XGBoost model, the traditional XGBoost model, and the long short-term memory neural network are compared to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the PSO-XGBoost model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Application Technology of Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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20 pages, 4148 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Drying Process of Ceramic Sanitary Ware at Low Temperature
by Ricardo S. Gomez, Kelly C. Gomes, José M. A. M. Gurgel, Laís B. Alves, Hortência L. F. Magalhães, Raíssa A. Queiroga, Gustavo C. P. Sousa, Aline S. Oliveira, Anderson F. Vilela, Bruna T. A. Silva, Danielle B. T. Vasconcelos, Glauco R. F. Brito and Antonio G. B. Lima
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4242; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104242 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
Drying is one of the stages with the highest energy consumption in the manufacturing process of ceramic materials and aims to reduce the product’s moisture to levels necessary for safe firing stage, reducing the chances of defect formation. For sanitary ware, there is [...] Read more.
Drying is one of the stages with the highest energy consumption in the manufacturing process of ceramic materials and aims to reduce the product’s moisture to levels necessary for safe firing stage, reducing the chances of defect formation. For sanitary ware, there is an additional energy cost in the pre-drying stage, which takes place immediately after removing the parts from the molds, and is carried out in an environment with lower temperatures (ranging from 30 to 40 °C). This work aims to experimentally study the drying process of sanitary ware at low temperatures, with particular reference to sanitary toilets with industrial dimensions. Four drying experiments were carried out in an oven with different operating conditions (temperature and relative humidity). The results indicate that an increase in temperature and reduction in relative humidity provoke a faster drying rate. For some physical situations, it is more interesting to dedicate efforts to reducing the relative humidity of the drying air instead of seeking solutions to raise its temperature. Furthermore, a correlation between the linear retraction and moisture content was observed; the greater the moisture loss, the greater the sample shrinkage. Full article
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19 pages, 632 KiB  
Article
Capacity Market and Investments in Power Generations: Risk-Averse Decision-Making of Power Producer
by Naoki Makimoto and Ryuta Takashima
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4241; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104241 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
The penetration of power generations from renewable energy sources into the power market has a significant impact on the capacity factor of existing power generations. This is because power producers cannot recover a capital cost of power generations with high operating cost possibly [...] Read more.
The penetration of power generations from renewable energy sources into the power market has a significant impact on the capacity factor of existing power generations. This is because power producers cannot recover a capital cost of power generations with high operating cost possibly due to underinvestment. One solution to address this problem includes a capacity mechanism; that is, the capacities of the power generations can be sold through a market or a bilateral contract. Many schemes of the capacity mechanism have been used worldwide. In this study, we examine an investment in a power plant in both the electricity and capacity markets. The effect of investment opportunity on uncertainty and risk aversion is analyzed by a real options approach that is one of analytical methods for investment decisions under uncertainty. The investment timing for the standard energy-only market is compared with that for the capacity market. When the risk averse for the power producer is relatively small, the income in the energy-only market is obtained whereas, when the risk averse is relatively high, the income is gained in both the electricity and capacity markets for the sake of enough profit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forecasting and Risk Management Techniques for Electricity Markets II)
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23 pages, 9423 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Power Quality in Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems: An Experimental Study
by Abdellah Benabdelkader, Azeddine Draou, Abdulrahman AlKassem, Toufik Toumi, Mouloud Denai, Othmane Abdelkhalek and Marwa Ben Slimene
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4240; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104240 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
The main aim of the research work presented in this paper consists of proposing an effective control scheme for a grid-connected single-phase photovoltaic (PV) system to enhance not only the power quality at the point of common coupling (PCC) but also to operate [...] Read more.
The main aim of the research work presented in this paper consists of proposing an effective control scheme for a grid-connected single-phase photovoltaic (PV) system to enhance not only the power quality at the point of common coupling (PCC) but also to operate with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller. Moreover, an orthogonal signal generator (OSG) module for effective grid synchronization, a current reference generation controller, and a PWM generating block have also been designed and included in this paper. The proposed control strategy allows the MPPT controller to switch to faulty mode and maintains the voltage according to network requirements using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)-based control whenever a fault occurs at the PCC. The performance of the analyzed control strategy, which is based on the static compensation of the DC-link voltage fluctuations in a grid-connected inverter powered by PV, is further explored through simulations in MATLAB, and the results are included in this paper. Moreover, the control scheme is implemented experimentally using a dSPACE DS 1104 control board and then assessed on a small laboratory-scale single-phase PV system that is subjected to some fault scenarios. The simulation and experimental results have shown improved power quality and robustness against grid fluctuations, resulting in better dynamic performance. Full article
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18 pages, 2792 KiB  
Article
Optimization and Analysis of an Integrated Liquefaction Process for Hydrogen and Natural Gas Utilizing Mixed Refrigerant Pre-Cooling
by Fengyuan Yan, Jinliang Geng, Guangxin Rong, Heng Sun, Lei Zhang and Jinxu Li
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4239; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104239 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Liquefying hydrogen is an efficient way to store and transport hydrogen. However, the hydrogen liquefaction process is energy intensive. Therefore, an integrated liquefaction process of hydrogen and natural gas utilizing the mixed refrigerant cycle and the hydrogen Claude cycle is proposed. The process [...] Read more.
Liquefying hydrogen is an efficient way to store and transport hydrogen. However, the hydrogen liquefaction process is energy intensive. Therefore, an integrated liquefaction process of hydrogen and natural gas utilizing the mixed refrigerant cycle and the hydrogen Claude cycle is proposed. The process not only couples a steam methane reforming process to produce hydrogen and a carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle to assist in pre-cooling, but also employs a solar energy absorption refrigeration system to enhance energy efficiency. The proposed process is simulated and optimized using HYSYS and the particle swarm optimization algorithm, and energy, exergy, and economic analyses are performed. The energy analysis shows that the specific energy consumption of the proposed process is 5.2201 kWh/kg, a reduction of 10.67% compared to the base case. The exergy loss and exergy efficiency are 64,904 kW and 62.21%, which are 13.63% and 6.63% lower than the base case, respectively. The economic analysis shows that the total annualized cost of the process is USD 28.6 million per year. The proposed integrated liquefaction process not only realizes the high efficiency of energy utilization but also follows the development trend of integrated energy systems. Full article
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24 pages, 3495 KiB  
Article
Design and Optimization of Microbial Fuel Cells and Evaluation of a New Air-Breathing Cathode Based on Carbon Felt Modified with a Hydrogel—Ion Jelly®
by Rui N. L. Carvalho, Luisa L. Monteiro, Silvia A. Sousa, Sudarsu V. Ramanaiah, Jorge H. Leitão, Cristina M. Cordas and Luis P. Fonseca
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4238; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104238 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1818
Abstract
The increased demand for alternative sustainable energy sources has boosted research in the field of fuel cells (FC). Among these, microbial fuel cells (MFC), based on microbial anodes and different types of cathodes, have been the subject of renewed interest due to their [...] Read more.
The increased demand for alternative sustainable energy sources has boosted research in the field of fuel cells (FC). Among these, microbial fuel cells (MFC), based on microbial anodes and different types of cathodes, have been the subject of renewed interest due to their ability to simultaneously perform wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation. Several different MFCs have been proposed in this work using different conditions and configurations, namely cathode materials, membranes, external resistances, and microbial composition, among other factors. This work reports the design and optimization of MFC performance and evaluates a hydrogel (Ion Jelly®) modified air-breathing cathode, with and without an immobilized laccase enzyme. This MFC configuration was also compared with other MFC configuration performances, namely abiotic and biocathodes, concerning wastewater treatment and electricity generation. Similar efficiencies in COD reduction, voltage (375 mV), PD (48 mW/m2), CD (130 mA/m2), and OCP (534 mV) were obtained. The results point out the important role of Ion Jelly® in improving the MFC air-breathing cathode performance as it has the advantage that its electroconductivity properties can be designed before modifying the cathode electrodes. The biofilm on MFC anodic electrodes presented a lower microbial diversity than the wastewater treatment effluent used as inocula, and inclusively Geobacteracea was also identified due to the high microbial selective niches constituted by MFC systems. Full article
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15 pages, 1196 KiB  
Article
Deterministic and Probabilistic Prediction of Wind Power Based on a Hybrid Intelligent Model
by Jiawei Zhang, Rongquan Zhang, Yanfeng Zhao, Jing Qiu, Siqi Bu, Yuxiang Zhu and Gangqiang Li
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4237; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104237 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
Uncertainty in wind power is often unacceptably large and can easily affect the proper operation, quality of generation, and economics of the power system. In order to mitigate the potential negative impact of wind power uncertainty on the power system, accurate wind power [...] Read more.
Uncertainty in wind power is often unacceptably large and can easily affect the proper operation, quality of generation, and economics of the power system. In order to mitigate the potential negative impact of wind power uncertainty on the power system, accurate wind power forecasting is an essential technical tool of great value to ensure safe, stable, and efficient power generation. Therefore, in this paper, a hybrid intelligent model based on isolated forest, wavelet transform, categorical boosting, and quantile regression is proposed for deterministic and probabilistic wind power prediction. First, isolated forest is used to pre-process the original wind power data and detect anomalous data points in the power sequence. Then, the pre-processed original power sequence is decomposed into sub-frequency signals with better profiles by wavelet transform, and the nonlinear features of each sub-frequency are extracted by categorical boosting. Finally, a quantile-regression-based wind power probabilistic predictor is developed to evaluate uncertainty with different confidence levels. Moreover, the proposed hybrid intelligent model is extensively validated on real wind power data. Numerical results show that the proposed model achieves competitive performance compared to benchmark methods. Full article
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13 pages, 1070 KiB  
Review
Review: Factors Affecting the Performance of Ground Electrodes under High Impulse Currents
by Normiza Mohamad Nor
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4236; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104236 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
Most studies have observed that the impedance values of ground electrodes under high impulse conditions (Zimp) are lower than the resistance values under steady-state conditions (RDC). It has been suggested that this is due to the ionisation process in [...] Read more.
Most studies have observed that the impedance values of ground electrodes under high impulse conditions (Zimp) are lower than the resistance values under steady-state conditions (RDC). It has been suggested that this is due to the ionisation process in soil, where streamers will propagate away from the electrodes, causing an increase in the ionisation zone, thus reducing the Zimp values. The percentage difference between Zimp and RDC is found to be dependent on several factors. This paper aims to review and present the findings of previously published work on the percentage difference between Zimp and RDC in relation to various factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic High Voltage Engineering)
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25 pages, 3979 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Investigation of a Coupled Parabolic Trough Collector–Phase Change Material Tank for Solar Cooling Process in Arid Climates
by Abdelhamid Ajbar, Bilal Lamrani and Emad Ali
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4235; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104235 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
The use of solar energy for cooling processes is advantageous for reducing the energy consumption of conventional air-conditioning systems and protecting the environment. In the present work, a solar-powered cooling system with parabolic trough collectors (PTC) and a phase change material (PCM) tank [...] Read more.
The use of solar energy for cooling processes is advantageous for reducing the energy consumption of conventional air-conditioning systems and protecting the environment. In the present work, a solar-powered cooling system with parabolic trough collectors (PTC) and a phase change material (PCM) tank is numerically investigated in the arid climates of Saudi Arabia. The system contains a 160-kW double-effect absorption chiller powered by solar-heated pressurized water as a heat transfer fluid (HTF) and a shell and tube PCM as a thermal battery. The novelty of this paper is to investigate the feasibility and the potential of using a PTC solar field coupled to a PCM tank for cooling purposes in arid climates. The numerical method is adopted in this work, and a dynamic model is developed based on the lumped approach; it is validated using data from the literature. The functioning of the coupled system is investigated in both sunshine hours (charging period) and off-sunshine hours (discharging period). The PTC area in this work varies from 200 m2 to 260 m2 and the cooling capacity of the chiller ranges from 120 kW to 200 kW. Obtained results showed that the 160-kW chiller is fully driven by the 240 m2-solar PTC during the charging period and about 23% of solar thermal energy is stored in the PCM tank. It was demonstrated that increasing the PTC area from 220 m2 to 260 m2 leads to a reduction in the PCM charging time by up to 45%. In addition, it was found that an increase in the cooling loads from 120 kW to 200 kW induces a decrease in the stored thermal energy in the PCM tank from 450 kWh to 45 kWh. During the discharging period, the PCM tank can continue the cooling process with a stable delivered cooling power of 160 kW and an HTF temperature between 118 °C and 150 °C. The PCM tank used in the studied absorption chiller leads to a reduction of up to 30% in cooling energy consumption during off-sunshine hours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section D: Energy Storage and Application)
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16 pages, 2455 KiB  
Review
3D-Printable Concrete for Energy-Efficient Buildings
by Manideep Samudrala, Syed Mujeeb, Bhagyashri A. Lanjewar, Ravijanya Chippagiri, Muralidhar Kamath and Rahul V. Ralegaonkar
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4234; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104234 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1954
Abstract
Rapid construction with an energy-efficient approach is a major challenge in the present construction industry. Cement, a carbon-intensive material, is mainly used in the construction industry and hence increases the sector’s carbon footprint on the environment. The current review focuses on the study [...] Read more.
Rapid construction with an energy-efficient approach is a major challenge in the present construction industry. Cement, a carbon-intensive material, is mainly used in the construction industry and hence increases the sector’s carbon footprint on the environment. The current review focuses on the study of 3D concrete printing (3DCP), in which cement is partially replaced with industrial byproducts such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), fly ash, and silica fume. Walling material is primarily targeted in 3DCP. There is a need to include energy efficiency to achieve a thermally comfortable environment. The life cycle assessment (LCA) of concrete is studied to discover the potential conflicts affecting the environment. The sand-to-binder ratio is pivotal in determining the performance of concrete. The content of the supplements is decided based on this factor. The rheological, physical, and mechanical properties of 3DCP are studied further and analysed. GGBS demonstrates better performance in the compressive and flexure strength of concrete. The usage of fly ash and silica fume has reduced the thermal conductivity of the material, whereas GGBS has increased it. An LCA study shows that 3DCP can be made sustainable with the use of these supplementary cementitious materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Research Trends of Energy Efficient Buildings)
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14 pages, 8456 KiB  
Article
The Growth and Evolution of Biomass Soot in Partial Oxidation-Assisted Hot Gas Filtration
by Lin Tian, Zixuan Jin and Wenran Gao
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4233; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104233 - 21 May 2023
Viewed by 1157
Abstract
At present, partial oxidation is applied in the filtration processes of biomass hot gas to aid in solving the blockage problems caused by tar and dust condensates. However, in the resulting high-temperature and oxygen-limited environment, the risk of tar polymerization forming soot is [...] Read more.
At present, partial oxidation is applied in the filtration processes of biomass hot gas to aid in solving the blockage problems caused by tar and dust condensates. However, in the resulting high-temperature and oxygen-limited environment, the risk of tar polymerization forming soot is created during the purification processes. Thus, this work established a hardware-in-the-loop simulation model using the Lagrangian method coupled with the chemical reactions on the particle surface. The model was then used to simulate the entire evolution process of soot, including its formation, growth, and interception. The simulation results confirmed that under partial oxidation conditions, the increase in tar’s conversion rate promotes the formation of soot. Further analysis indicated that the high-temperature field formed as a result of oxidation and the increase in the naphthalene/oxygen ratio are the main reasons for the soot formation. On the other hand, the growth process of soot was inhibited by partial oxidation, which is mainly reflected in the relatively smaller increasing magnitude of soot particle mass and the decrease in the soot formation rate. Although the formation and growth of biomass soot cannot be completely avoided, the growth process is beneficial to interception and the soot escape rate can be minimized by varying the premixed oxygen content. On this basis, the potential of the partial oxidation-assisted hot gas filtration method can be further investigated and analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Gasification Process in Renewable Energy Systems)
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18 pages, 2158 KiB  
Article
Capacity Degradation and Aging Mechanisms Evolution of Lithium-Ion Batteries under Different Operation Conditions
by Guoqing Luo, Yongzhi Zhang and Aihua Tang
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4232; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104232 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2632
Abstract
Since lithium-ion batteries are rarely utilized in their full state-of-charge (SOC) range (0–100%); therefore, in practice, understanding the performance degradation with different SOC swing ranges is critical for optimizing battery usage. We modeled battery aging under different depths of discharge (DODs), SOC swing [...] Read more.
Since lithium-ion batteries are rarely utilized in their full state-of-charge (SOC) range (0–100%); therefore, in practice, understanding the performance degradation with different SOC swing ranges is critical for optimizing battery usage. We modeled battery aging under different depths of discharge (DODs), SOC swing ranges and temperatures by coupling four aging mechanisms, including the solid–electrolyte interface (SEI) layer growth, lithium (li) plating, particle cracking, and loss of active material (LAM) with a P2D model. Additionally, the mechanisms causing accelerated capacity to drop near a battery’s end of life (EOL) were investigated systematically. The results indicated that when the battery operated with a high SOC range, the capacity was more prone to accelerated degradation near the EOL. Among the four degradation mechanisms, li plating was mainly sensitive to the operation temperature and SOC swing ranges, while the SEI growth was mainly sensitive to temperature. Furthermore, there was an inhibitory interaction between li plating and SEI growth, as well as positive feedback between LAM and particle cracking during battery aging. Additionally, we discovered that the extremely low local porosity around the anode separator could cause the ‘knee point’ of capacity degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Energy Storage Technologies and Applications (AESAs))
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15 pages, 1318 KiB  
Article
The Role of Distributed Energy Resources and Associated Business Models in the Decentralised Energy Transition: A Review
by Karlson Hargroves, Benjamin James, Joshua Lane and Peter Newman
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4231; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104231 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 12192
Abstract
The shift from large-scale centralised energy systems to smaller scale decentralised systems based on Distributed Energy Resources (DER) is likely to cause a sector-wide replacement of current electricity management practices and business models—creating a new energy paradigm. If handled well, such a transition [...] Read more.
The shift from large-scale centralised energy systems to smaller scale decentralised systems based on Distributed Energy Resources (DER) is likely to cause a sector-wide replacement of current electricity management practices and business models—creating a new energy paradigm. If handled well, such a transition will not be inherently disruptive; however, it can cause major disruption if long-held views and assumptions are not rapidly reconsidered and renewed, and new supporting structures are not swiftly put in place—hence, if disruption is experienced it will be due to a lack of strategic responses rather than the nature of the technology. This paper clarifies the nature of DERs and outlines key issues and opportunities associated with a range of associated service configurations and business models. The paper outlines key factors affecting the viability of such approaches and identifies leverage points for accelerating uptake. The paper concludes by considering how shifting landscape factors and related opportunities in the coming decades will shape the transition to a decentralised energy system. This paper contains findings from research performed at the Renewable, Affordable, Clean Energy Cooperative Research Centre (RACE CRC) in Australia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Distributed Energy Systems and Resources)
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26 pages, 4511 KiB  
Article
Management of Environmental Life Cycle Impact Assessment of a Photovoltaic Power Plant on the Atmosphere, Water, and Soil Environment
by Patryk Leda, Adam Idzikowski, Izabela Piasecka, Patrycja Bałdowska-Witos, Tomasz Cierlicki and Marcin Zawada
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4230; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104230 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
Photovoltaic power plants are considered to be environmentally friendly solutions to the production of electricity. Solar energy conversion does not release toxic compounds into the environment. However, the construction of solar power plant components (photovoltaic modules, sup-porting structure, inverter station, electrical installation) is [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic power plants are considered to be environmentally friendly solutions to the production of electricity. Solar energy conversion does not release toxic compounds into the environment. However, the construction of solar power plant components (photovoltaic modules, sup-porting structure, inverter station, electrical installation) is extremely consumptive of energy and materials. Massive volumes of minerals, fossil fuels, and electricity are consumed during the manufacturing process. Efficient management of energy and environmental resources seems to be critical for national policy. It is crucial to admit that the post-consumer management of the components of a photovoltaic power plant is connected with a certain quantity of energy and matter and a negative impact on the natural environment. A life cycle assessment was carried out on a real 2 MW photovoltaic power plant located in the northern part of Poland. The analysis was carried out applying the ReCiPe 2016 model and the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The impact of the examined renewable energy system was evaluated using 22 impact categories and 3 emission areas (air, water, soil). Life Cycle Assessment analysis was carried out for 2 post-consumer development scenarios (landfill and recycling). The examination of the collected results reveals that photovoltaic modules are the element causing the most negative environmental repercussions connected to the release of dangerous compounds into the atmosphere. Post-consumer development in the form of recycling would provide major environmental benefits and reduce detrimental environmental consequences across the whole life cycle of the photovoltaic power plant. The obtained research results enabled the formulation of pro-environmental recommendations aimed at the long-term development of the life cycle of solar power plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Life Cycle Assessment in Waste Management)
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21 pages, 866 KiB  
Article
Optimal Operation of CCHP System Combined Electric Vehicles Considering Seasons
by Junchao Cheng, Yongyi Huang, Hongjing He, Abdul Matin Ibrahimi and Tomonobu Senjyu
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4229; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104229 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Energy shortage has always been a problem that the world needs to face. The combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system, as a multi-level energy utilization system that can provide cooling, heating, and electric energy simultaneously, is considered to have good development prospects [...] Read more.
Energy shortage has always been a problem that the world needs to face. The combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system, as a multi-level energy utilization system that can provide cooling, heating, and electric energy simultaneously, is considered to have good development prospects in alleviating energy problems. In addition, because of the rapid development of electric vehicles (EVs), using EVs as power supply devices has become a hot topic of research. In this paper, EVs are combined with the CCHP system as new power supply equipment, and the influence of the season on the user’s cooling, heating, and power demand is considered. Aiming at the minimum economic cost, the system is optimized by using the PSO algorithm in two operating modes: following electricity load (FEL) and following thermal load (FTL). The final results show that the participation of EVs can reduce costs in both operating modes, especially in FTL mode, which can reduce costs by 4.58%, 13.61%, 12.74%, and 3.57% in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. In addition, the FEL mode is more economical in spring and winter, and the FTL mode is more economical in summer and winter. In addition, the CO2 emissions in FEL mode are always less than in FTL mode. Full article
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36 pages, 26895 KiB  
Article
Optimal Inverter Control Strategies for a PV Power Generation with Battery Storage System in Microgrid
by Md Jahidur Rahman, Tahar Tafticht, Mamadou Lamine Doumbia and Iqbal Messaïf
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4228; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104228 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Power generation from Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) is unpredictable due to climate or weather changes. Therefore, more control strategies are required to maintain the proper power supply in the entire microgrid. This paper presents a simulation scheme utilizing a solar system instanced by [...] Read more.
Power generation from Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) is unpredictable due to climate or weather changes. Therefore, more control strategies are required to maintain the proper power supply in the entire microgrid. This paper presents a simulation scheme utilizing a solar system instanced by Photovoltaic (PV) panels coupled to the grid, loads, and an energy storage device. At first, modeling the PV panels cell and their operation were analyzed. The synthesis of the adaptive notch filter was designed to compensate for the input currents. The power converter’s/inverter’s efficiency and control facility allowed us to link the energy storage system with an electrical grid. Several simulations were accomplished consistently with nonlinear control techniques for the simple inverter, multi-variable filter, notch filter, and without a filter. Finally, the performances of the nonlinear controller with various filters were carried out to regulate the DC bus of the proposed grid. The advantage of these controllers is compensating the reactive power and harmonic currents to obtain a disturbance-free power network. The overall installations and simulations were established using the Matlab/Simulink software. Full article
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