Next Issue
Volume 14, February-2
Previous Issue
Volume 14, January-2

Energies, Volume 14, Issue 3 (February-1 2021) – 270 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The green transition requires novel practices coupled to state-of-the-art research. An innovative approach could consist of establishing small biorefinery plants on university campuses and in scientific incubators. These plants would decrease the local waste disposal, both fostering circular economy and providing additional educational value. View this paper.

 

 
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Exploitation of a New Short-Term Multimodel Photovoltaic Power Forecasting Method in the Very Short-Term Horizon to Derive a Multi-Time Scale Forecasting System
Energies 2021, 14(3), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030789 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 388
Abstract
The relentless spread of photovoltaic production drives searches of smart approaches to mitigate unbalances in power demand and supply, instability on the grid and ensuring stable revenues to the producer. Because of the development of energy markets with multiple time sessions, there is [...] Read more.
The relentless spread of photovoltaic production drives searches of smart approaches to mitigate unbalances in power demand and supply, instability on the grid and ensuring stable revenues to the producer. Because of the development of energy markets with multiple time sessions, there is a growing need of power forecasting for multiple time steps, from fifteen minutes up to days ahead. To address this issue, in this study both a short-term-horizon of three days and a very-short-term-horizon of three hours photovoltaic production forecasting methods are presented. The short-term is based on a multimodel approach and referred to several configurations of the Analog Ensemble method, using the weather forecast of four numerical weather prediction models. The very-short-term consists of an Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average Model with eXogenous input (ARIMAX) that uses the short-term power forecast and the irradiance from satellite elaborations as exogenous variables. The methods, applied for one year to four small-scale grid-connected plants in Italy, have obtained promising improvements with respect to refence methods. The time horizon after which the short-term was able to outperform the very-short-term has also been analyzed. The study also revealed the usefulness of satellite data on cloudiness to properly interpret the results of the performance analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar and Wind Power and Energy Forecasting)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Capacitive Load-Based Smart OTF for High Power Rated SPV Module
Energies 2021, 14(3), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030788 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Solar energy is the most promising renewable resource with an unbounded energy source, capable of meeting all human energy requirements. Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) is an effective approach to convert sunlight into electricity, and it has a promising future with consistently rising energy demand. [...] Read more.
Solar energy is the most promising renewable resource with an unbounded energy source, capable of meeting all human energy requirements. Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) is an effective approach to convert sunlight into electricity, and it has a promising future with consistently rising energy demand. In this work, we propose a smart solution of outdoor performance characterization of the SPV module utilizing a robust, lightweight, portable, and economical Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) with the Internet of Things (IoT) capability. This approach is focused on the capacitive load-based method, which offers improved accuracy and cost-effective data logging using Raspberry Pi and enables the OTF to sweep during the characterization of the SPV module automatically. A demonstration using an experimental setup is also provided in the paper to validate the proposed OTF. This paper further discusses the advantages of using the capacitive load approach over the resistive load approach. IoT’s inherent benefits empower the proposed OTF method on the backgrounds of real-time tracking, data acquisition, and analysis for outdoor output performance characterization by capturing Current–Voltage (IV) and Power–Voltage (PV) curves of the SPV module. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PV Tracking Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Improving the Anaerobic Digestion of Swine Manure through an Optimized Ammonia Treatment: Process Performance, Digestate and Techno-Economic Aspects
Energies 2021, 14(3), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030787 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Swine manure mono-digestion results in relatively low methane productivity due to the low degradation rate of its solid fraction (manure fibers), and due to the high ammonia and water content. The aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment of manure fibers has been proposed for [...] Read more.
Swine manure mono-digestion results in relatively low methane productivity due to the low degradation rate of its solid fraction (manure fibers), and due to the high ammonia and water content. The aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment of manure fibers has been proposed for overcoming these limitations. In this study, continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure mixed with optimally AAS-treated manure fibers was compared to the AD of manure mixed with untreated manure fibers. Due to lab-scale pumping restrictions, the ratio of AAS-optimally treated manure fibers to manure was only 1/3 on a total solids (TS) basis. However, the biogas productivity and methane yield were improved by 17% and 38%, respectively, also confirming the predictions from a simplified 1st order hydrolysis model based on batch experiments. Furthermore, an improved reduction efficiency of major organic components was observed for the digester processing AAS-treated manure fibers compared to the non-treated one (e.g., 42% increased reduction for cellulose fraction). A preliminary techno-economic analysis of the proposed process showed that mixing raw manure with AAS manure fibers in large-scale digesters could result in a 72% increase of revenue compared to the AD of manure mixed with untreated fibers and 135% increase compared to that of solely manure. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Discussing the Actual Impact of Optimizing Cost and GHG Emission Minimal Charging of Electric Vehicles in Distributed Energy Systems
Energies 2021, 14(3), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030786 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 315
Abstract
Electric vehicles represent a promising opportunity to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets in the transport sector. Integrating them comprehensively into the energy system requires smart control strategies for the charging processes. In this paper we concentrate on charging processes at the end [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles represent a promising opportunity to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets in the transport sector. Integrating them comprehensively into the energy system requires smart control strategies for the charging processes. In this paper we concentrate on charging processes at the end users home. From the perspective of an end user, optimizing of charging electric vehicles might strive for different targets: cost minimization of power purchase for the individual household or—as proposed more often recently—minimization of GHG emissions. These targets are sometimes competing and cannot generally be achieved at the same time as the results show. In this paper, we present approaches of considering these targets by controlling charging processes at the end users home. We investigate the influence of differently designed optimizing charging strategies for this purpose, considering the electrical purchase cost as well as the GHG emissions and compare them with the conventional uncontrolled charging strategy using the example of a representative household of a single family. Therefore, we assumed a detailed trip profile of such a household equipped with a local generation and storage system at the same time. We implemented the mentioned strategies and compare the results concerning effects on annual GHG emissions and annual energy purchase costs of the household. Regarding GHG emissions we apply a recently proposed approach by other authors based on hourly emission factors. We discuss the effectivity of this approach and derive, that there is hardly no real impact on actual GHG emissions in the overall system. As incorporating this GHG target into the objective function increases cost, we appraise such theoretical GHG target therefore counterproductive. In conclusion, we would thus like to appeal for dynamic electricity prices for decentralised energy systems, leading at the same time to cost efficient charging of electric vehicles unfolding clear incentives for end users, which is GHG friendly at the end. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Modern Small and Microcogeneration Systems—A Review
Energies 2021, 14(3), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030785 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 322
Abstract
Small and micro energy sources are becoming increasingly important in the current environmental conditions. Especially, the production of electricity and heat in so-called cogeneration systems allows for significant primary energy savings thanks to their high generation efficiency (up to 90%). This article provides [...] Read more.
Small and micro energy sources are becoming increasingly important in the current environmental conditions. Especially, the production of electricity and heat in so-called cogeneration systems allows for significant primary energy savings thanks to their high generation efficiency (up to 90%). This article provides an overview of the currently used and developed technologies applied in small and micro cogeneration systems i.e., Stirling engines, gas and steam microturbines, various types of volumetric expanders (vane, lobe, screw, piston, Wankel, gerotor) and fuel cells. Their basic features, power ranges and examples of implemented installations based on these technologies are presented in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Processes, Systems and Equipment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Simplified Method for Modeling of Pressure Losses and Heat Transfer in Fixed-Bed Reactors with Low Tube-to-Particle Diameter Ratio
Energies 2021, 14(3), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030784 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
This manuscript presents a simplified method of modeling fixed-bed reactors based on the porous medium. The proposed method primarily allows the necessity of precisely mapping the internal structure of the bed—which usually is done using real object imaging techniques (like X-ray tomography) or [...] Read more.
This manuscript presents a simplified method of modeling fixed-bed reactors based on the porous medium. The proposed method primarily allows the necessity of precisely mapping the internal structure of the bed—which usually is done using real object imaging techniques (like X-ray tomography) or numerical methods (like discrete element method (DEM))—to be avoided. As a result, problems with generating a good quality numerical mesh at the particles’ contact points using special techniques, such as by flattening spheres or the caps method, are also eliminated. The simplified method presented in the manuscript is based on the porous medium method. Preliminary research has shown that the porous medium method needs modifications. This is because of channeling, wall effects, and local backflows, which are substantial factors in reactors with small values of tube-to-particle-diameter ratio. The anisotropic thermal conductivity coefficient was introduced to properly reproduce heat transfer in the direction perpendicular to the general fluid flow. Since the commonly used fixed-bed reactor models validation method based on comparing the velocity and temperature profiles in the selected bed cross-section is not justified in the case of the porous medium method, an alternative method was proposed. The validation method used in this work is based on the mass-weighted average temperature increase and area-weighted average pressure drop between two control cross-section of the reactor. Thanks to the use of the described method, it is possible to obtain satisfactorily accurate results of the fixed-bed reactor model with no cumbersome mesh preparation and long-term calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Fluid Mechanics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Implementation and Validation of an Advanced Wind Energy Controller in Aero-Servo-Elastic Simulations Using the Lifting Line Free Vortex Wake Model
Energies 2021, 14(3), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030783 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Accurate and reproducible aeroelastic load calculations are indispensable for designing modern multi-MW wind turbines. They are also essential for assessing the load reduction capabilities of advanced wind turbine control strategies. In this paper, we contribute to this topic by introducing the TUB Controller, [...] Read more.
Accurate and reproducible aeroelastic load calculations are indispensable for designing modern multi-MW wind turbines. They are also essential for assessing the load reduction capabilities of advanced wind turbine control strategies. In this paper, we contribute to this topic by introducing the TUB Controller, an advanced open-source wind turbine controller capable of performing full load calculations. It is compatible with the aeroelastic software QBlade, which features a lifting line free vortex wake aerodynamic model. The paper describes in detail the controller and includes a validation study against an established open-source controller from the literature. Both controllers show comparable performance with our chosen metrics. Furthermore, we analyze the advanced load reduction capabilities of the individual pitch control strategy included in the TUB Controller. Turbulent wind simulations with the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine featuring the individual pitch control strategy show a decrease in the out-of-plane and torsional blade root bending moment fatigue loads of 14% and 9.4% respectively compared to a baseline controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Simulation of Wind Turbines)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Increasing Efficiency of a Finned Heat Sink Using Orthogonal Analysis
Energies 2021, 14(3), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030782 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 262
Abstract
As the heat flux of electronic components is increasing rapidly, the traditional air-cooling technique is gradually not meeting the requirements of thermal management. The immersion liquid-cooling technique shows great potential, and has attracted increasing attention due to its excellent performance in recent years. [...] Read more.
As the heat flux of electronic components is increasing rapidly, the traditional air-cooling technique is gradually not meeting the requirements of thermal management. The immersion liquid-cooling technique shows great potential, and has attracted increasing attention due to its excellent performance in recent years. The finned heat sink is common and essential for cooling electric components. To analyze the influences of its structural parameters on heat dissipation and improve its efficiency while using a dielectric coolant, this study used the orthogonal analysis method to obtain the optimal structure via the numerical simulation method. The maximum temperature of the heat sink was selected as the evaluation criteria. The results showed that the parameters that affect the maximum temperature, in order of importance, are fin thickness, the number of fins, the height of the fins, and substrate thickness. Finally, taking the maximum temperature and mass as indexes obtained the optimal structure of the heat sink. The mass was reduced by 19%, while the temperature only increased by 4.5% when considering the mass index. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Decentralised Electricity Markets and Proactive Customer Behaviour
Energies 2021, 14(3), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030781 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 259
Abstract
The energy transition in Germany takes part in decentral structures. With the ongoing integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into the electricity supply system, supply-side is therefore becoming increasingly decentral and volatile due to the specific generation characteristics. A rather inflexible demand-side, on [...] Read more.
The energy transition in Germany takes part in decentral structures. With the ongoing integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into the electricity supply system, supply-side is therefore becoming increasingly decentral and volatile due to the specific generation characteristics. A rather inflexible demand-side, on the other hand, increases the effort to gain the necessary equilibrium between generation and consumption. This paper discusses how consumer behaviour can be influenced by real-time pricing to align demand with generation. Therefore, a combination of two different approaches is used, (I) The Cellular Approach (CA) and (II) Agent Based Modelling (ABM). A model is set up considering a regional energy market, where regional electricity products can be traded peer-to-peer regarding each consumer’s preferences. The observation is made for a whole distribution grid including all types of consumers. The investigations show that energy purchases can be stimulated individually by a flexible pricing mechanism and met preferences. Moreover, benefits occur for the whole region and potentials arise to smooth the exchange balance to the superordinate grid level. Running the model for one entire year in a conservative generation scenario, hours of oversupply could be reduced by 18% and the consumption of green electricity generated regionally could be increased by over 125 MWh within the region itself, in comparison to a base scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Economics and Policy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Comparing Permitted Emissions to Atmospheric Observations of Hydrocarbons in the Eagle Ford Shale Suggests Permit Violations
Energies 2021, 14(3), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030780 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 245
Abstract
The recent decade’s rapid unconventional oil and gas development in the Eagle Ford of south-central Texas has caused increased hydrocarbon emissions, which we have previously analyzed using data from a Texas Commission on Environmental Quality air quality monitoring station located downwind of the [...] Read more.
The recent decade’s rapid unconventional oil and gas development in the Eagle Ford of south-central Texas has caused increased hydrocarbon emissions, which we have previously analyzed using data from a Texas Commission on Environmental Quality air quality monitoring station located downwind of the shale area. Here, we expand our previous top-down emissions estimate and compare it to an estimated regional emissions maximum based on (i) individual facility permits for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, (ii) reported point source emissions of VOCs, (iii) traffic-related emissions, and (iv) upset emissions. This largely permit-based emissions estimate accounted, on average, for 86% of the median calculated emissions of C3-C6-hydrocarbons at the monitor. Since the measurement-based emissions encompass a smaller section of the shale than the calculated maximum permitted emissions, this strongly suggests that the actual emissions from oil and gas operations in this part of the Eagle Ford exceeded their permitted allowance. Possible explanations for the discrepancy include emissions from abandoned wells and high volumes of venting versus flaring. Using other recent observations, such as large fractions of unlit flares in the Permian shale basin, we suggest that the excessive venting of raw gas is a likely explanation. States such as Texas with significant oil gas production will need to require better accounting of emissions if they are to move towards a more sustainable energy economy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
State of Art of Using Biofuels in Spark Ignition Engines
Energies 2021, 14(3), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030779 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Biofuels are receiving increased scientific attention, and recently different biofuels have been proposed for spark ignition engines. This paper presents the state of art of using biofuels in spark ignition engines (SIE). Different biofuels, mainly ethanol, methanol, i-butanol-n-butanol, and acetone, are blended together [...] Read more.
Biofuels are receiving increased scientific attention, and recently different biofuels have been proposed for spark ignition engines. This paper presents the state of art of using biofuels in spark ignition engines (SIE). Different biofuels, mainly ethanol, methanol, i-butanol-n-butanol, and acetone, are blended together in single dual issues and evaluated as renewables for SIE. The biofuels were compared with each other as well as with the fossil fuel in SIE. Future biofuels for SIE are highlighted. A proposed method to reduce automobile emissions and reformulate the emissions into new fuels is presented and discussed. The benefits and weaknesses of using biofuels in SIE are summarized. The study established that ethanol has several benefits as a biofuel for SIE; it enhanced engine performance and decreased pollutant emissions significantly; however, ethanol showed some drawbacks, which cause problems in cold starting conditions and, additionally, the engine may suffer from a vapor lock situation. Methanol also showed improvements in engine emissions/performance similarly to ethanol, but it is poisonous biofuel and it has some sort of incompatibility with engine materials/systems; its being miscible with water is another disadvantage. The lowest engine performance was displayed by n-butanol and i-butanol biofuels, and they also showed the greatest amount of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and CO emissions, but the lowest greenhouse effect. Ethanol and methanol introduced the highest engine performance, but they also showed the greatest CO2 emissions. Acetone introduced a moderate engine performance and the best/lowest CO and UHC emissions. Single biofuel blends are also compared with dual ones, and the results showed the benefits of the dual ones. The study concluded that the next generation of biofuels is expected to be dual blended biofuels. Different dual biofuel blends are also compared with each other, and the results showed that the ethanol–methanol (EM) biofuel is superior in comparison with n-butanol–i-butanol (niB) and i-butanol–ethanol (iBE). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste-to-Wheel Approach for Future Renewable Drop-In Fuel Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Improvement of Photoautotrophic Algal Biomass Production after Interrupted CO2 Supply by Urea and KH2PO4 Injection
Energies 2021, 14(3), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030778 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Microalgae-derived biomass is currently considered a sustainable feedstock for making biofuels, including biodiesel and direct combustion fuel. The photoautotrophic cultivation of microalgae using flue gas from power plants has been continuously investigated to improve the economic feasibility of microalgae processes. The utilization of [...] Read more.
Microalgae-derived biomass is currently considered a sustainable feedstock for making biofuels, including biodiesel and direct combustion fuel. The photoautotrophic cultivation of microalgae using flue gas from power plants has been continuously investigated to improve the economic feasibility of microalgae processes. The utilization of waste CO2 from power plants is advantageous in reducing carbon footprints and the cost of carbon sources. Nonetheless, the sudden interruption of CO2 supply during microalgal cultivation leads to a severe reduction in biomass productivity. Herein, chemical fertilizers including urea and KH2PO4 were added to the culture medium when CO2 supply was halted. Urea (5 mM) and KH2PO4 (5 mM) were present in the culture medium in the form of CO2/NH4+ and K+/H2PO4, respectively, preventing cell growth inhibition. The culture with urea and KH2PO4 supplementation exhibited 10.02-fold higher and 7.28-fold higher biomass and lipid productivity, respectively, compared to the culture with ambient CO2 supply due to the maintenance of a stable pH and dissolved inorganic carbon in the medium. In the mass cultivation of microalgae using flue gas from coal-fired power plants, urea and KH2PO4 were supplied while the flue gas supply was shut off. Consequently, the microalgae were grown successfully without cell death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bio-Energy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Supply Voltage Waveform Distortion on Non-Intentional Emission in the Frequency Range 2–150 kHz: An Experimental Study with Power-Line Communication and Selected End-User Equipment
Energies 2021, 14(3), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030777 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Knowledge of the conducted emissions in the frequency range 2–150 kHz contains some gaps related to the impact of the harmonics in the supply voltage on the nature of these emissions. It can be noticed that the conducted emissions from non-sinusoidal power supplies [...] Read more.
Knowledge of the conducted emissions in the frequency range 2–150 kHz contains some gaps related to the impact of the harmonics in the supply voltage on the nature of these emissions. It can be noticed that the conducted emissions from non-sinusoidal power supplies have not been studied sufficiently, and that the impact of this distortion may be greater than the generally known results of emission tests carried out under standardized test conditions. This paper is aimed at investigating experimental cases of the influence of supply voltage waveform distortion on non-intentional emission in the range 2–150 kHz and the efficiency of power line communication based on selected PRIME (PoweRline Intelligent Metering Evolution) power line communication (PLC) technology. A series of experimental laboratory studies were investigated, representing the operation of the investigated PLC system with different types of end-user equipment (LED—Light Emitting Diode, CFL—Compact Fluorescent Lamp, induction motor with frequency converter) working under a distorted supply voltage condition obtained by the programmable power supply for different scenarios of the admissible harmonics contribution in the range 0–2 kHz. The scenarios included limits defined in standards EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-13. The researchers used spectral analysis with a notation to emission limits, compatibility levels, and mains signalling, as well as statistics of the PLC communication. The obtained results provide important conclusions, which may be applied both in the development of the design of the appliances in question and the higher frequency emission testing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning and Data Mining Applications in Power Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of Modular Multilevel Converter and Modular Multilevel Series Converter under Variable-Frequency Operation Regarding Submodule-Capacitor Voltage Ripple
Energies 2021, 14(3), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030776 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 312
Abstract
The modular multilevel converter is capable to reach high-voltage levels with high flexibility, high reliability, and high power quality as it became the standard solution for high-power high-voltage applications that operate with fixed frequency. However, in machine-drive applications, the modular multilevel converter shows [...] Read more.
The modular multilevel converter is capable to reach high-voltage levels with high flexibility, high reliability, and high power quality as it became the standard solution for high-power high-voltage applications that operate with fixed frequency. However, in machine-drive applications, the modular multilevel converter shows critical problems since an extremely high submodule-capacitor voltage ripple occurs in the machine start-up and at low-speed operation, which can damage the converter. Recently, a new converter solution named modular multilevel series converter was proposed as a promising alternative for high-power machine-drive applications since it presented many important structural and operational advantages in relation to the modular multilevel converter such as the reduced number of submodule capacitors and the low submodule-capacitor voltage ripple at low frequencies. Even though the modular multilevel series converter presented a reduced number of capacitors, the size of these capacitors was not analyzed. This paper presents a detailed comparison analysis of the performance of the modular multilevel converter and the modular multilevel series converter at variable-frequency operation, which is based on the proposed analytical description of the submodule-capacitor voltage ripple in such topologies. This analysis concludes that the new modular multilevel series converter can be designed with smaller capacitors in comparison to the modular multilevel converter if these converters are used to drive electrical machines that operate within a range of low-frequency values. In other words, the modular multilevel series converter experiences extremely low submodule-capacitor voltage ripple at very low frequencies, which means that this converter solution presents high performance in the electrical machine start-up and at low-speed operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modular Multilevel Converters MMC)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Purification of Methyl Acetate/Water Mixtures from Chemical Interesterification of Vegetable Oils by Pervaporation
Energies 2021, 14(3), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030775 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Biodiesel production through chemical interesterification of triglycerides requires an excess of methyl acetate that must be recovered once the reaction is finished and the catalyst is neutralized. The present study concerns with the purification of methyl acetate by pervaporation. PERVAP 2201 was chosen [...] Read more.
Biodiesel production through chemical interesterification of triglycerides requires an excess of methyl acetate that must be recovered once the reaction is finished and the catalyst is neutralized. The present study concerns with the purification of methyl acetate by pervaporation. PERVAP 2201 was chosen as pervaporation membrane due to its high hydrophilic character that makes it suitable for the elimination of water in methyl acetate. Runs were started from concentrations in the feed of 2–8 wt.% of water and working temperatures close to the boiling point of methyl acetate (50, 60, and 70 °C), to get the main design parameters, i.e., permeate flux and selectivity. High temperature favored the permeate flux without compromising the selectivity. However, the flux declines significantly when water contained in the feed is below 2 wt.%. This implies that pervaporation should be used, only to decrease the water content to a value lower than in the azeotrope (2.3% by weight). A solution-diffusion model relating the flux of the permeating compound with the activity of the compound in the feed and the operating temperature has been proposed. The model obtained can be used in the design of the pervaporation stage, thus allowing to know the permeate flux for the different operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prospects of Biomass-Based Biofuels)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
State Estimation-Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization for Distribution Voltage Regulation in Telemetry-Sparse Environments Using a Real-Time Digital Twin
Energies 2021, 14(3), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030774 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Real-time state estimation using a digital twin can overcome the lack of in-field measurements inside an electric feeder to optimize grid services provided by distributed energy resources (DERs). Optimal reactive power control of DERs can be used to mitigate distribution system voltage violations [...] Read more.
Real-time state estimation using a digital twin can overcome the lack of in-field measurements inside an electric feeder to optimize grid services provided by distributed energy resources (DERs). Optimal reactive power control of DERs can be used to mitigate distribution system voltage violations caused by increased penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems. In this work, a new technology called the Programmable Distribution Resource Open Management Optimization System (ProDROMOS) issued optimized DER reactive power setpoints based-on results from a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm wrapped around OpenDSS time-series feeder simulations. This paper demonstrates the use of the ProDROMOS in a RT simulated environment using a power hardware-in-the-loop PV inverter and in a field demonstration, using a 678 kW PV system in Grafton (MA, USA). The primary contribution of the work is demonstrating a RT digital twin effectively provides state estimation pseudo-measurements that can be used to optimize DER operations for distribution voltage regulation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Potential Benefit of Using Nowcasting Systems to Improve the Yield of Parabolic Trough Power Plants with Single-Phase HTF
Energies 2021, 14(3), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030773 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Solar field developers include innovative solutions to optimize the energy production of their plants. Simulation tools play a significant role in the design and testing phases as they provide estimations of this yield in different conditions. Transient processes, like passing clouds and solar [...] Read more.
Solar field developers include innovative solutions to optimize the energy production of their plants. Simulation tools play a significant role in the design and testing phases as they provide estimations of this yield in different conditions. Transient processes, like passing clouds and solar field start-up, are specifically challenging to optimize and estimate using such simulation tools. Solar fields are subject to high degree of both temporal and spatial variability in the energy input and a detailed estimation can be achieved by simulating subsystems within acceptable time and computational power. Hence, such simulation tools cannot be utilized for tests under realistic operation conditions. The Virtual Solar Field is a computationally efficient simulation tool that allows a detailed transient simulation of parabolic trough solar fields based on single-phase fluids. Using this tool, developers could reproduce a transient test case with exactly the same disturbances to provide fair comparisons between different configurations. In this paper, an evaluation process based on numerical simulations using the Virtual Solar Field is presented. The economic benefit of novel innovative control concepts can be assessed according to the presented scheme. This is demonstrated by evaluating the potential benefit of availability of spatial DNI nowcasts on the control of parabolic trough solar fields. Results show that nowcasting can increase the economic revenue of commercial power plants by up to 2.5% per day. This proves the feasibility of installing such systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Large Eddy Simulations of Strongly Non-Ideal Compressible Flows through a Transonic Cascade
Energies 2021, 14(3), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030772 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Transonic flows of a molecularly complex organic fluid through a stator cascade were investigated by means of large eddy simulations (LESs). The selected configuration was considered as representative of the high-pressure stages of high-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) axial turbines, which may exhibit [...] Read more.
Transonic flows of a molecularly complex organic fluid through a stator cascade were investigated by means of large eddy simulations (LESs). The selected configuration was considered as representative of the high-pressure stages of high-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) axial turbines, which may exhibit significant non-ideal gas effects. A heavy fluorocarbon, perhydrophenanthrene (PP11), was selected as the working fluid to exacerbate deviations from the ideal flow behavior. The LESs were carried out at various operating conditions (pressure ratio and total conditions at inlet), and their influence on compressibility and viscous effects is discussed. The complex thermodynamic behavior of the fluid generates highly non-ideal shock systems at the blade trailing edge. These are shown to undergo complex interactions with the transitional viscous boundary layers and wakes, with an impact on the loss mechanisms and predicted loss coefficients compared to lower-fidelity models relying on the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transition/Turbulence Models for Turbomachinery Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Changes in Leachability of Selected Elements and Chemical Compounds in Residues from Municipal Waste Incineration Plants
Energies 2021, 14(3), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030771 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
In Poland, special attention is focused on sustainable municipal waste management. As a result, new waste incineration plants are being planned. They are considered to be modern, ecologically friendly, and renewable energy sources. The waste from conventional incineration, which contains hazardous substances, must [...] Read more.
In Poland, special attention is focused on sustainable municipal waste management. As a result, new waste incineration plants are being planned. They are considered to be modern, ecologically friendly, and renewable energy sources. The waste from conventional incineration, which contains hazardous substances, must be disposed of in an appropriate manner. This study used advanced statistical tools, such as control charts, trend analysis, and time series analysis. The analysis was based on the leachability of selected elements and chemical compounds in incineration bottom ashes (IBAs) from the Waste to Energy Plant in Kraków, which were weathered for 2 weeks. The analysis was performed for 34 weeks. The obtained leachability results were compared with the leachability limit values of individual components. Based on the analysis of the control charts, it was found that in the case of selected samples, the leachability limit values for processing outside the plant using the R5 recovery process (LLVR5) values were exceeded. Seasonality analysis was performed using the autocorrelation function (ACF), the partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and the frequency analysis. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that the leachability of elements and chemical compounds from waste does not confirm the occurrence of seasonality. It was found that from the exceedances of the LLVR5 mean that the two-week weathering is not sufficient and further studies should be carried out. The research methodology, which was presented on the example of the leachability of elements and compounds from IBA, can also be used for other waste analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recovery of Solid Waste in Industrial and Environmental Processes)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Carbon Footprint of Electrified City Buses: A Case Study in Trondheim, Norway
Energies 2021, 14(3), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030770 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 612
Abstract
In August 2019, a new bus fleet of 36 electric and 58 hybrid buses were implemented in Trondheim, Norway. This paper examines the carbon footprint of electrified city buses, by addressing the achieved and potential reduction for the new bus fleet. Important aspects [...] Read more.
In August 2019, a new bus fleet of 36 electric and 58 hybrid buses were implemented in Trondheim, Norway. This paper examines the carbon footprint of electrified city buses, by addressing the achieved and potential reduction for the new bus fleet. Important aspects such as geographical location of production, charging electricity mix, and impact from production and operation on lifetime emissions, are also examined. A meta-analysis on life cycle assessment studies was undertaken to investigate greenhouse gas emissions and energy demand in different parts of bus production. This is followed by the production of a bus model using the findings and comparing electrified buses with diesel and HVO buses. The models were then used in a case study of the bus fleet in Trondheim, to understand the specific parameters affecting the carbon footprint. The results show that the overall carbon footprint has been considerably reduced (37%) by implementing biofuel and electrified buses, and that a further reduction of 52% can be achieved through full electrification. The operation emissions for the fleet were found to be 49 g CO2-eq/person-km, which is lower than the average city bus and passenger car in Norway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technology to Improve Energy Efficiency and Storage)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Variable-Order Equivalent Circuit Modeling and State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Energies 2021, 14(3), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030769 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 328
Abstract
In the battery management system, it is important to accurately and efficiently estimate the state of charge (SOC) of lithium-ion batteries, which generally requires the establishment of a equivalent circuit model of the battery, whose accuracy and rationality play an important role in [...] Read more.
In the battery management system, it is important to accurately and efficiently estimate the state of charge (SOC) of lithium-ion batteries, which generally requires the establishment of a equivalent circuit model of the battery, whose accuracy and rationality play an important role in accurately estimating the state of lithium-ion batteries. The traditional single order equivalent circuit models do not take into account the changes of impedance spectrum under the action of multiple factors, nor do they take into account the balance of practicality and complexity of the model, resulting the low accuracy and poor practicability. In this paper, the theory of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to guide and improve the equivalent circuit model. Based on the analysis of the variation of the high and intermediate frequency range of the impedance spectrum with the state of charge and temperature of the battery, a variable order equivalent model (VOEM) is proposed by Arrhenius equation and Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and the state equation and observation equation of VOEM are improved by autoregressive (AR) equations. Combined with the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), a SOC online estimation method is proposed, named VOEM-AR-UKF. The experimental results show that the proposed method has high accuracy and good adaptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Energy Materials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Defining the Shallow Geothermal Heat-Exchange Potential for a Lower Fluvial Plain of the Central Apennines: The Metauro Valley (Marche Region, Italy)
Energies 2021, 14(3), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030768 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 403
Abstract
In this work we assessed the shallow geothermal heat-exchange potential of a fluvial plain of the Central Apennines, the lower Metauro Valley, where about 90,000 people live. Publicly available geognostic drilling data from the Italian Seismic Microzonation studies have been exploited together with [...] Read more.
In this work we assessed the shallow geothermal heat-exchange potential of a fluvial plain of the Central Apennines, the lower Metauro Valley, where about 90,000 people live. Publicly available geognostic drilling data from the Italian Seismic Microzonation studies have been exploited together with hydrogeological and thermophysical properties of the main geological formations of the area. These data have been averaged over the firsts 100 m of subsoil to define the thermal conductivity, the specific heat extraction rates of the ground and to establish the geothermal potential of the area (expressed in MWh y−1). The investigation revealed that the heat-exchange potential is mainly controlled by the bedrock lithotypes and the saturated conditions of the sedimentary infill. A general increase in thermal conductivity, specific heat extraction and geothermal potential have been mapped moving from the coast, where higher sedimentary infill thicknesses have been found, towards the inland where the carbonate bedrock approaches the surface. The geothermal potential of the investigated lower Metauro Valley is mostly between ~9.0 and ~10 MWh y−1 and the average depth to be drilled to supply a standard domestic power demand of 4.0 kW is ~96 m (ranging from 82 to 125 m all over the valley). This investigation emphasizes that the Seismic Microzonation studies represent a huge database to be exploited for the best assessment of the shallow geothermal potential throughout the Italian regions, which can be addressed by the implementation of heating and cooling through vertical closed-loop borehole heat exchanger systems coupled with geothermal heat pumps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volume III: Low Enthalpy Geothermal Energy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Scalable Real-Time Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring System for the Estimation of Household Appliance Power Consumption
Energies 2021, 14(3), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030767 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Smart-meter technology advancements have resulted in the generation of massive volumes of information introducing new opportunities for energy services and data-driven business models. One such service is non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM). NILM is a process to break down the electricity consumption on an [...] Read more.
Smart-meter technology advancements have resulted in the generation of massive volumes of information introducing new opportunities for energy services and data-driven business models. One such service is non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM). NILM is a process to break down the electricity consumption on an appliance level by analyzing the total aggregated data measurements monitored from a single point. Most prominent existing solutions use deep learning techniques resulting in models with millions of parameters and a high computational burden. Some of these solutions use the turn-on transient response of the target appliance to calculate its energy consumption, while others require the total operation cycle. In the latter case, disaggregation is performed either with delay (in the order of minutes) or only for past events. In this paper, a real-time NILM system is proposed. The scope of the proposed NILM algorithm is to detect the turning-on of a target appliance by processing the measured active power transient response and estimate its consumption in real-time. The proposed system consists of three main blocks, i.e., an event detection algorithm, a convolutional neural network classifier and a power estimation algorithm. Experimental results reveal that the proposed system can achieve promising results in real-time, presenting high computational and memory efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Data Analytics for Smart Meter Data)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Ultra-Efficient Lightweight Electric Vehicle—Power Demand Analysis to Enable Lightweight Construction
Energies 2021, 14(3), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030766 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 253
Abstract
A detailed analysis of the power demand of an ultraefficient lightweight-battery electric vehicle is performed. The aim is to overcome the problem of lightweight electric vehicles that may have a relatively bad environmental impact if their power demand is not extremely reduced. In [...] Read more.
A detailed analysis of the power demand of an ultraefficient lightweight-battery electric vehicle is performed. The aim is to overcome the problem of lightweight electric vehicles that may have a relatively bad environmental impact if their power demand is not extremely reduced. In particular, electric vehicles have a higher environmental impact during the production phase, which should be balanced by a lower impact during the service life by means of a lightweight design. As an example of an ultraefficient electric vehicle, a prototype for the Shell Eco-marathon competition is considered. A “tank-to-wheel” multiphysics model (thermo-electro-mechanical) of the vehicle was developed in “Matlab-Simscape”. The model includes the battery, the DC motors, the motor controller and the vehicle drag forces. A preliminary model validation was performed by considering experimental data acquisitions completed during the 2019 Shell Eco-marathon European competition at the Brooklands Circuit (UK). Numerical simulations are employed to assess the sharing of the energy consumption among the main dissipation sources. From the analysis, we found that the main sources of mechanical dissipation (i.e., rolling resistance, gravitational/inertial force and aerodynamic drag) have the same role in the defining the power consumption of such kind of vehicles. Moreover, the effect of the main vehicle parameters (i.e., mass, aerodynamic coefficient and tire rolling resistance coefficient) on the energy consumption was analyzed through a sensitivity analysis. Results showed a linear correlation between the variation of the parameters and the power demand, with mass exhibiting the highest influence. The results of this study provide fundamental information to address critical decisions for designing new and more efficient lightweight vehicles, as they allow the designer to clearly identify which are the main parameters to keep under control during the design phase and which are the most promising areas of action. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Formate Salt PCM’s for Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage
Energies 2021, 14(3), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030765 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
This work examines formate salts as potential phase change materials (PCMs) for middle-high temperature (≤250 °C) latent heat thermal energy storage applications. The thermophysical properties of three formate salts were characterized: pure sodium formate and binary blends of sodium/potassium formate and sodium/calcium formate. [...] Read more.
This work examines formate salts as potential phase change materials (PCMs) for middle-high temperature (≤250 °C) latent heat thermal energy storage applications. The thermophysical properties of three formate salts were characterized: pure sodium formate and binary blends of sodium/potassium formate and sodium/calcium formate. The stability of formate PCM’s was evaluated by thermal cycling using differential scanning calorimetry where sodium formate and sodium/potassium formate appeared stable over 600 cycles, while sodium/calcium formate exhibited a monotonic decrease in heat of fusion over the test period. A longer test with sodium formate led to gas release and decomposition of the salt. FTIR analysis of the PCM showed degradation of formate to oxalate. T-history experiments with 50-g PCM quantities demonstrated a bulk supercooling of only 2–3 °C for these salts. Thermal conductivity enhancement of over 700% was achieved by embedding aluminum in the solid PCM. Finally, mild carbon steel was immersed in molten sodium formate for up to 2000 h. Sodium formate was found to be non-corrosive, as calculated by mass loss and confirmed by cross-sectional high-resolution microscopy. FTIR analysis of the PCM after 2000 h shows oxidation at the free surface, while the bulk PCM remained unchanged, further indicating a need to protect the formate from atmospheric exposure when used as a PCM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Key Factors of Development of Electromobility AMONG Microentrepreneurs: A Case Study from Poland
Energies 2021, 14(3), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030764 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 300
Abstract
Microentrepreneurs contribute to the growth of electromobility, and hence to sustainable transport, by the purchase of alternative fuel vehicles (AFV). This article attempts to identify key factors that may affect the growth of interest in AFV among microentrepreneurs. To find the key factors, [...] Read more.
Microentrepreneurs contribute to the growth of electromobility, and hence to sustainable transport, by the purchase of alternative fuel vehicles (AFV). This article attempts to identify key factors that may affect the growth of interest in AFV among microentrepreneurs. To find the key factors, data from 181 Polish microenterprises was collected and analyzed by means of the factor analysis. The results showed that in contrary to the popular opinion, it is not the price of the car that is crucial for its purchase, but the information that leads to knowledge about technical and utility values, and to legal and economic predictability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future Development of Automobile Energy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Novel Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of IEGES Based on the TOPSIS Optimized by MEE Method
Energies 2021, 14(3), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030763 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 278
Abstract
The integrated electricity–gas energy system (IEGES) coordinates the power system and natural gas system through P2G equipment, gas turbines and other coupling components. The IEGES can realize wide-range and long-distance transmission of electricity, heat and natural gas, and truly realize large-scale cross-regional energy [...] Read more.
The integrated electricity–gas energy system (IEGES) coordinates the power system and natural gas system through P2G equipment, gas turbines and other coupling components. The IEGES can realize wide-range and long-distance transmission of electricity, heat and natural gas, and truly realize large-scale cross-regional energy supply in space. At present, the theoretical system applicable to the comprehensive benefit evaluation of the IEGES has not been established, and the economic, environmental and social benefits of the system are still at a preliminary study stage. Therefore, the comprehensive benefit evaluation model of the IEGES is constructed, and the integrated benefit evaluation indicator system of the IEGES is designed along the investment and planning, energy supply, equipment operation, power distribution and terminal user. Through the combination of subjective and objective indicator weighting methods, the weights of each indicator are clarified and the matter-element extension theory (MEE) is used to improve the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), and the comprehensive benefit evaluation model of the IEGES is established. Finally, taking Beijing Yanqing IEGES, Tianjin Eco-city No. 2 Energy Station and Hebei IEGES III as an example, the practicability and effectiveness of the evaluation indicator system and model are verified. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multi-Objective Load Dispatch Control of Biomass Heat and Power Cogeneration Based on Economic Model Predictive Control
Energies 2021, 14(3), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030762 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 328
Abstract
This paper proposes a multi-objective load dispatch algorithm based on economic predictive control to solve the real-time multi-objective load dispatch problem of biomass heat and power cogeneration. According to the energy conservation law and production process, a real-time multi-objective load dispatch optimization model [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a multi-objective load dispatch algorithm based on economic predictive control to solve the real-time multi-objective load dispatch problem of biomass heat and power cogeneration. According to the energy conservation law and production process, a real-time multi-objective load dispatch optimization model for heat and power units is established. Then, the concept of multi-objective utopia points is introduced, and the multi-objective load comprehensive objective function is defined to coordinate the conflict between the economic performance and pollutant emission performance of the units. Furthermore, using the online receding optimization characteristics of economic predictive control, the comprehensive objective function of multi-objective load dispatching is optimized online. Then, the fuel rate satisfying the economic performance and pollutant emission performance of the units is calculated to realize the economic performance and environmental protection operation of biomass heat and power cogeneration. Finally, the proposed multi-objective load dispatch control method is compared to traditional dispatch strategies by using industrial data. The results show that the method presented here can well balance the production cost and pollutant emission objective under the fluctuation of the thermoelectric load demand, and provides a feasible scheme for real-time dispatching of the multi-objective load dispatch problem of biomass heat and power cogeneration. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Economic Valuation of Vehicle-Grid Integration (VGI) in a Demand Response Application from Each Stakeholder’s Perspective
Energies 2021, 14(3), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030761 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Recently, the use of electric vehicles in a power grid has been attracting attention. The success of vehicle-grid integration (VGI) requires the active participation of not only VGI service providers but also electric vehicle owners, utility companies, and the government in the VGI [...] Read more.
Recently, the use of electric vehicles in a power grid has been attracting attention. The success of vehicle-grid integration (VGI) requires the active participation of not only VGI service providers but also electric vehicle owners, utility companies, and the government in the VGI service. However, until now, such research has not been sufficiently discussed. Thus, we propose a framework for analyzing the economic environment in which each stakeholder can participate, especially in the application of a demand response, and derive its economic value in Korea. Also, through the proposed framework, we suggest optimal scenarios and policy directions for each participant’s successful business. Our results show that government and a utility company need to share their benefits with a VGI service provider to make VGI a success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Technologies 2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Modelling a Heaving Point-Absorber with a Closed-Loop Control System Using the DualSPHysics Code
Energies 2021, 14(3), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030760 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 466
Abstract
The present work addresses the need for an efficient, versatile, accurate and open-source numerical tool to be used during the design stage of wave energy converters (WECs). The device considered here is the heaving point-absorber developed and tested by Sandia National Laboratories. The [...] Read more.
The present work addresses the need for an efficient, versatile, accurate and open-source numerical tool to be used during the design stage of wave energy converters (WECs). The device considered here is the heaving point-absorber developed and tested by Sandia National Laboratories. The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, as implemented in DualSPHysics, is proposed since its meshless approach presents some important advantages when simulating floating devices. The dynamics of the power take-off system are also modelled by coupling DualSPHysics with the multi-physics library Project Chrono. A satisfactory matching between experimental and numerical results is obtained for: (i) the heave response of the device when forced via its actuator; (ii) the vertical forces acting on the fixed device under regular waves and; (iii) the heave response of the WEC under the action of both regular waves and the actuator force. This proves the ability of the numerical approach proposed to simulate accurately the fluid–structure interaction along with the WEC’s closed-loop control system. In addition, radiation models built from the experimental and WAMIT results are compared with DualSPHysics by plotting the intrinsic impedance in the frequency domain, showing that the SPH method can be also employed for system identification. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop