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Special Issue "Waste-to-Wheel Approach for Future Renewable Drop-In Fuel Development"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "I1: Fuel".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 6675

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ulugbek Azimov
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
Interests: renewable energy; renewable fuels; energy conversion; waste-to-energy; combustion; IC engines
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleague,

The International Energy Agency envisages that advanced renewable fuels will contribute significantly to reducing emissions by increasing from 5% of total transport energy supply today to up to 30% by 2050. The promotion of renewable fuels offers clear benefits both for security of energy supply and for mitigating climate change. The main challenge for advanced renewable fuel production is to satisfy EU and global emission regulations while maintaining low cost and sustainability. Especially for heavy-duty road transport, where transition to electric powertrains will be challenging in the foreseeable future, advanced renewable drop-in fuels and a waste-to-wheel approach for innovative and sustainable fuel production, distribution, and use of renewable fuels as transportation fuel will be necessary to improve the EU’s energy security by reducing their dependence on liquid fossil fuels and natural gas. Thus, this Special Issue aims to encourage researchers to address the technological advancements that have led to the development of novel approaches in conversion and production of advanced renewable drop-in fuels from the perspective of the waste-to-wheel approach. We are looking for contributions in the following areas:

  • thermochemical and biochemical methods for renewable fuel production;
  • cost-effective methods of pre-treatment and processing of biogenic residue and waste for renewable fuel production;
  • techno-economic and environmental analysis of advanced renewable fuels;
  • renewable fuel supply, distribution, and storage;
  • vehicle and engine performance and emissions using advanced renewable fuels.

Dr. Ulugbek Azimov
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • thermochemical conversion
  • biochemical conversion
  • electrochemical conversion
  • waste biomass (agricultural, forest, and industrial residues)
  • drop-in biofuels
  • carbon capture in transport
  • new powertrain concepts with alternative fuels

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Study of the Impact of Methanol, Ethanol and the Miller Cycle on a Gasoline Engine
Energies 2021, 14(16), 4847; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164847 - 09 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
This paper focuses on the investigation and optimisation of the Miller cycle, methanol, ethanol and turbocharging when applied to a high-performance gasoline engine. These technologies have been applied both individually and concurrently to test for potential compounding effects. Improvements have been targeted with [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the investigation and optimisation of the Miller cycle, methanol, ethanol and turbocharging when applied to a high-performance gasoline engine. These technologies have been applied both individually and concurrently to test for potential compounding effects. Improvements have been targeted with regards to both emission output and performance. Also assessed is the capability of the engine to operate when exclusively powered by biofuels. This has been carried out numerically using the 1D gas dynamics tool ‘WAVE’, a 1D Navier–Stokes equation solver. These technologies have been implemented within the McLaren M838T 3.8L twin-turbo engine. The Miller cycle early intake valve close (EIVC) improved peak efficiency by 0.17% and increased power output at low and medium loads by 11%. Reductions of 6% for both NOx and CO were also found at rated speed. The biofuels achieved NOx and CO reductions of 60% and 96% respectively, alongside an efficiency increase of 2.5%. Exclusive biofuel use was found to be feasible with a minimum 35% power penalty. Applied cooperatively, the Miller cycle and biofuels were not detrimental to each other, compounding effects of a further 0.05% efficiency and 2% NOx improvements were achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste-to-Wheel Approach for Future Renewable Drop-In Fuel Development)
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Article
Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Propulsion Systems for Heavy-Duty Transport Applications
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3079; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113079 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1993
Abstract
To meet climate change challenges, the UK government is aiming to reach zero emissions by 2050. The heavy-duty transportation sector contributes 17% to the UKs total emissions, so to combat this, alternative power units to traditional fossil fuel-reliant internal combustion engines (ICEs) are [...] Read more.
To meet climate change challenges, the UK government is aiming to reach zero emissions by 2050. The heavy-duty transportation sector contributes 17% to the UKs total emissions, so to combat this, alternative power units to traditional fossil fuel-reliant internal combustion engines (ICEs) are being utilized and investigated. Hydrogen fuel cells are a key area of interest to try and reduce these transportation emissions. To gain a true view of the impact that hydrogen fuel cells can have, this study looks at the impact the manufacturing of a fuel cell has upon the environment, from material extraction through to the usage phase. This was done through the use of a lifecycle assessment following ISO 14040 standards, with hydrogen systems being compared to alternative systems. This study has found that whilst fuel cells depend upon energy intensive materials for their construction, it is possible to reduce emissions by 34–87% compared to ICE systems, depending upon the source of hydrogen used. This study shows that hydrogen fuel cells are a viable option for heavy-duty transport that can be utilized to meet the target emissions reduction level by 2050. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste-to-Wheel Approach for Future Renewable Drop-In Fuel Development)
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Article
Dual and Ternary Biofuel Blends for Desalination Process: Emissions and Heat Recovered Assessment
Energies 2021, 14(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010061 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 838
Abstract
Desalination using fossil fuels is so far the most common technique for freshwater production worldwide. However, such a technique faces some challenges due to limited fossil fuels, high pollutants in our globe, and its high energy demand. In this study, solutions for such [...] Read more.
Desalination using fossil fuels is so far the most common technique for freshwater production worldwide. However, such a technique faces some challenges due to limited fossil fuels, high pollutants in our globe, and its high energy demand. In this study, solutions for such challenges were proposed and investigated. Renewable biofuel blends were introduced and examined as energy/sources for desalination plants and, in turn, reduced dependency on fossil fuels, enhanced pollutants, and recovered energy for desalinations. Eight different blended biofuels in terms of dual and ternary blend approaches were investigated. Results displayed that dual and ternary blends of gasoline/n-butanol, gasoline/isobutanol, gasoline/n-butanol/isobutanol, gasoline/bioethanol/isobutanol, and gasoline/bioethanol/biomethanol were all not highly recommended as energy sources for desalination units due to their low heat recovery (they showed much lower than the gasoline, G, fuel); however, they could provide reasonable emissions. Both gasoline/bioethanol (E) and gasoline/biomethanol (M) provided high heat recovery and sensible emissions (CO and UHC). Gasoline/bio-acetone was the best one among all blends and, accordingly, it was upper recommended for both heat recovery and emissions for desalination plants. In addition, both E and M were recommended subsequently. Concerning emissions, all blends showed lower emissions than the G fuel in different levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste-to-Wheel Approach for Future Renewable Drop-In Fuel Development)
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Review

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Review
State of Art of Using Biofuels in Spark Ignition Engines
Energies 2021, 14(3), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030779 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2227
Abstract
Biofuels are receiving increased scientific attention, and recently different biofuels have been proposed for spark ignition engines. This paper presents the state of art of using biofuels in spark ignition engines (SIE). Different biofuels, mainly ethanol, methanol, i-butanol-n-butanol, and acetone, are blended together [...] Read more.
Biofuels are receiving increased scientific attention, and recently different biofuels have been proposed for spark ignition engines. This paper presents the state of art of using biofuels in spark ignition engines (SIE). Different biofuels, mainly ethanol, methanol, i-butanol-n-butanol, and acetone, are blended together in single dual issues and evaluated as renewables for SIE. The biofuels were compared with each other as well as with the fossil fuel in SIE. Future biofuels for SIE are highlighted. A proposed method to reduce automobile emissions and reformulate the emissions into new fuels is presented and discussed. The benefits and weaknesses of using biofuels in SIE are summarized. The study established that ethanol has several benefits as a biofuel for SIE; it enhanced engine performance and decreased pollutant emissions significantly; however, ethanol showed some drawbacks, which cause problems in cold starting conditions and, additionally, the engine may suffer from a vapor lock situation. Methanol also showed improvements in engine emissions/performance similarly to ethanol, but it is poisonous biofuel and it has some sort of incompatibility with engine materials/systems; its being miscible with water is another disadvantage. The lowest engine performance was displayed by n-butanol and i-butanol biofuels, and they also showed the greatest amount of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and CO emissions, but the lowest greenhouse effect. Ethanol and methanol introduced the highest engine performance, but they also showed the greatest CO2 emissions. Acetone introduced a moderate engine performance and the best/lowest CO and UHC emissions. Single biofuel blends are also compared with dual ones, and the results showed the benefits of the dual ones. The study concluded that the next generation of biofuels is expected to be dual blended biofuels. Different dual biofuel blends are also compared with each other, and the results showed that the ethanol–methanol (EM) biofuel is superior in comparison with n-butanol–i-butanol (niB) and i-butanol–ethanol (iBE). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste-to-Wheel Approach for Future Renewable Drop-In Fuel Development)
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