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Energies, Volume 14, Issue 1 (January-1 2021) – 255 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The implementation of circular economy practices in resource-consuming agricultural systems is essential for reducing their environmental impact. This study provides a literature review on such systems that enhance resource efficiency by minimizing the use of natural resources and agrochemicals and reusing bio-based materials within the water–energy–nutrients nexus. View this paper
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Article
Determining the Optimal Location and Number of Voltage Dip Monitoring Devices Using the Binary Bat Algorithm
Energies 2021, 14(1), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010255 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
Voltage dips represent a significant power quality problem. The main cause of voltage dips and short-term interruptions is an electrical short circuit that occurs in transmission or distribution networks. Faults in the power system are stochastic by nature and the main cause of [...] Read more.
Voltage dips represent a significant power quality problem. The main cause of voltage dips and short-term interruptions is an electrical short circuit that occurs in transmission or distribution networks. Faults in the power system are stochastic by nature and the main cause of voltage dips. As faults in the transmission system can affect more customers than faults in the distribution system, to reduce the number of dips, it is not enough to invest in a small part of the transmission or distribution system. Only targeted investment in the whole (or a large part of the) power system will reduce voltage dips. Therefore, monitoring parts of the power system is very important. The ideal solution would be to cover the entire system so that a power quality (PQ) monitor is installed on each bus, but this method is not economically justified. This paper presents an advanced method for determining the optimal location and the optimal number of voltage dip measuring devices. The proposed algorithm uses a monitor reach area matrix created by short-circuit simulations, and the coefficient of the exposed area. Single-phase and three-phase short circuits are simulated in DIgSILENT software on the IEEE 39 bus test system, using international standard IEC 60909. After determining the monitor reach area matrix of all potential monitor positions, the binary bat algorithm with a coefficient of the exposed area of the system bus is used to minimize the proposed objective function, i.e., to determine the optimal location and number of measuring devices. Performance of the binary bat algorithm is compared to the mixed-integer linear programming algorithm solved by using the GNU Linear Programming Kit (GLPK). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Article
Assessment of Training Aircraft Crew Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Caused by Radio Navigation Devices
Energies 2021, 14(1), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010254 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
The paper depicts research concerning the value of the electric component of the electromagnetic (EM) energy determined by the NHT3DL meter by Microrad with the 01E measuring probe during a number of flights made by Aero AT-3 R100, Cessna C172, and Tecnam P2006T [...] Read more.
The paper depicts research concerning the value of the electric component of the electromagnetic (EM) energy determined by the NHT3DL meter by Microrad with the 01E measuring probe during a number of flights made by Aero AT-3 R100, Cessna C172, and Tecnam P2006T fixed wing aircrafts and a Robinson R44 Raven helicopter. The point of reference for the recorded measurement was the normative limits of the electromagnetic field (EMF), which can influence a pilot in the course of a flight. Selected studies of the maximum value recorded by the meter was E = 10.66 V/m when landing at an airfield equipped with the VHF (Very High Frequency) omnidirectional radio range (VOR) approach system. Particular attention has been paid to changes in electric field intensity during the operation and their effects on the type of radio navigation systems as well as communication with the airfield control tower. The obtained results were validated in the Statistica 13.3 software for the purpose of a detailed stochastic analysis of the tested values. Results obtained are subject to the mandatory requirements of Directive 2013/35/EU as well as to the relevant regulations in Poland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Aircraft Electrical Power System)
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Article
A Novel Co-Phase Power-Supply System Based on Modular Multilevel Converter for High-Speed Railway AT Traction Power-Supply System
Energies 2021, 14(1), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010253 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1051
Abstract
The existing problems of the traction power-supply system (i.e., the existence of the neutral section and the power quality problems) limit the development of railways, especially high-speed railways, which are developing rapidly worldwide. The existence of the neutral section leads to the speed [...] Read more.
The existing problems of the traction power-supply system (i.e., the existence of the neutral section and the power quality problems) limit the development of railways, especially high-speed railways, which are developing rapidly worldwide. The existence of the neutral section leads to the speed loss and traction loss as well as mechanical failures, all of which threaten the fast and safe operation of the train and the system. Meanwhile, the power quality problems (e.g., the negative sequence current, the reactive power, and the harmonic) can bring a series of problems that cannot be ignored on the three-phase grid side. In response, many researchers have proposed co-phase power-supply schemes to solve these two problems simultaneously. Given that the auto-transformer (AT) power-supply mode has become the main power-supply mode for the high-speed railway traction power-supply system, it has a bright future following the rapid development of the high-speed railway. In addition, there is no co-phase power-supply scheme designed for AT power-supply mode in the existing schemes. Therefore, the main contribution of this paper is to propose a specifically designed power-supply mode more suitable for the AT, as well as to establish the control systems for the rectifier side and the inverter side. In addition, for the proposed scheme, the operation principle is analyzed, the mathematical model is built, and the control system is created, and its functionality is verified by simulation, and its advantages are compared and summarized finally. The result proves that it can meet functional requirements. At the same time, compared with the existing co-phase power-supply scheme, it saves an auto-transformer in terms of topology, reduces the current stress by 10.9% in terms of the current stress of the switching device, and reduces the power loss by 0.25% in terms of the entire system power loss, which will result in a larger amount of electricity being saved. All of this makes it a more suitable co-phase power-supply scheme for the AT power-supply mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power Quality in Electrified Transportation Systems)
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Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles—A Brief Review of Current Topologies and Energy Management Strategies
Energies 2021, 14(1), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010252 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
With the development of technologies in recent decades and the imposition of international standards to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, car manufacturers have turned their attention to new technologies related to electric/hybrid vehicles and electric fuel cell vehicles. This paper focuses on electric fuel [...] Read more.
With the development of technologies in recent decades and the imposition of international standards to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, car manufacturers have turned their attention to new technologies related to electric/hybrid vehicles and electric fuel cell vehicles. This paper focuses on electric fuel cell vehicles, which optimally combine the fuel cell system with hybrid energy storage systems, represented by batteries and ultracapacitors, to meet the dynamic power demand required by the electric motor and auxiliary systems. This paper compares the latest proposed topologies for fuel cell electric vehicles and reveals the new technologies and DC/DC converters involved to generate up-to-date information for researchers and developers interested in this specialized field. From a software point of view, the latest energy management strategies are analyzed and compared with the reference strategies, taking into account performance indicators such as energy efficiency, hydrogen consumption and degradation of the subsystems involved, which is the main challenge for car developers. The advantages and disadvantages of three types of strategies (rule-based strategies, optimization-based strategies and learning-based strategies) are discussed. Thus, future software developers can focus on new control algorithms in the area of artificial intelligence developed to meet the challenges posed by new technologies for autonomous vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Article
Theoretical and Experimental Fatigue Strength Calculations of Lips Compensating Circumferential Backlash in Gear Pumps
Energies 2021, 14(1), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010251 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 730
Abstract
This article presents theoretical and experimental calculations of the minimum thickness of a compensation lip used in external gear pumps. Pumps of this type are innovative technical solutions in which circumferential backlash (clearance) compensation is used to improve their volumetric and overall efficiency. [...] Read more.
This article presents theoretical and experimental calculations of the minimum thickness of a compensation lip used in external gear pumps. Pumps of this type are innovative technical solutions in which circumferential backlash (clearance) compensation is used to improve their volumetric and overall efficiency. However, constructing a prototype of such a pump requires long-lasting research, and the compensation lip is its key object, due to the fact that it is an element influenced by a notch and that it operates in unfavorable conditions of strong fatigue stresses. The theoretical calculations presented in this article are based on identifying maximum stress values in a fatigue cycle and on implementing the stress failure condition and the conditions related to the required value of the fatigue safety factor. The experimental research focuses on static bending tests of the lips as well as on the fatigue loading of the lips in series of tests at increasing stress values until lip failure due to fatigue. The tests allowed the minimum lip thickness to be found for the assumed number of fatigue cycles, which is 2.5 times the number of cycles used in wear margin tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gear Pumps and Motors)
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Article
Fresh Validation of the Low Carbon Development Hypothesis under the EKC Scheme in Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain
Energies 2021, 14(1), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010250 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
The present study is in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDGs) that address pertinent global issues. This study focuses on the need for access to clean and affordable energy consumption, responsible energy consumption, sustainable economic growth, and climate change mitigation. [...] Read more.
The present study is in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDGs) that address pertinent global issues. This study focuses on the need for access to clean and affordable energy consumption, responsible energy consumption, sustainable economic growth, and climate change mitigation. To this end, this paper evaluates the relevance of the renewable energy sector on the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) framework in Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Spain for the period 1995–2015. As an econometric strategy, we adopt the use of panel data over the highlighted countries. In the first step, we apply the unit root test recommended by Levin, Lin, and Chu in conjunction with ADF-Fisher, and Phillips-Perron for robustness and consistency. We found that the variables used in this study are integrated I (1) in the first difference. In the second step, we apply the Pedroni cointegration test, and Kao Residual cointegration test, and we observe that the variables are cointegrated in the long run. The generalized least squares (GLS), the panel fully modified least squares (FMOLS), ordinary least squares robust (OLS), and panel quantile regression are considered in this research. The econometric results validate the assumption of the environmental Kuznets curve, i.e., and there is a positive correlation between income per capita and a negative effect of squared income per capita on carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast, we observe that renewable energy reduces CO2 emissions. Finally, we also find a direct connection between the urban population and the environmental degradation in the examined blocs. These results show that in Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Spain, more is required to achieve environmental sustainability in the respective countries growth trajectory. Further policy prescriptions are appended in the concluding section of this study. Full article
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Article
Building Energy Commons: Three Mini-PV Installation Cases in Apartment Complexes in Seoul
Energies 2021, 14(1), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010249 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 744
Abstract
Solar photovoltaics (PV) deployment is not easy in dense urban areas because there is little space for the installation. Furthermore, tenants have few incentives to install PV panels because they frequently relocate, and most PV facilities are nonremovable. To address these factors, this [...] Read more.
Solar photovoltaics (PV) deployment is not easy in dense urban areas because there is little space for the installation. Furthermore, tenants have few incentives to install PV panels because they frequently relocate, and most PV facilities are nonremovable. To address these factors, this study reports on an innovative model that collectively installed 260 W of mini-PV on the balconies of almost all the households in two high-rise apartment complexes in Seoul, South Korea. This project was unique in that it established energy commons in a community using private space. This study found that economic and social factors significantly influenced community-internal or micro factors, which in turn affected the success of the community energy project. Economic factors such as the expected economic benefit and residents paying no direct installation costs shaped the initial conditions for the commencement of the project. Leadership played a key role by speeding up the process, relieving residents’ concerns and distrust. This study introduced an innovative community energy model that can be referenced by megacities and communities. It provides opportunities for enhancing awareness of energy transition via on-site energy production using renewable energy and allows even communities that have insufficient common space to build energy commons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Solar and Grid Integration)
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Article
Dynamic Modeling of an Offshore Floating Wind Turbine for Application in the Mediterranean Sea
Energies 2021, 14(1), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010248 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
Wind power is emerging as one of the most sustainable and low-cost options for energy production. Far-offshore floating wind turbines are attractive in view of exploiting high wind availability sites while minimizing environmental and landscape impact. In the last few years, some offshore [...] Read more.
Wind power is emerging as one of the most sustainable and low-cost options for energy production. Far-offshore floating wind turbines are attractive in view of exploiting high wind availability sites while minimizing environmental and landscape impact. In the last few years, some offshore floating wind farms were deployed in Northern Europe for technology validation, with very promising results. At present time, however, no offshore wind farm installations have been developed in the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this work is to comprehensively model an offshore floating wind turbine and examine the behavior resulting from a wide spectrum of sea and wind states typical of the Mediterranean Sea. The flexible and accessible in-house model developed for this purpose is compared with the reference model FAST v8.16 for verifying its reliability. Then, a simulation campaign is carried out to estimate the wind turbine LCOE (Levelized Cost of Energy). Based on this, the best substructure is chosen and the convenience of the investment is evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbines and Wind Farms)
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Article
Estimating Energy Forecasting Uncertainty for Reliable AI Autonomous Smart Grid Design
Energies 2021, 14(1), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010247 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 750
Abstract
Building safe, reliable, fully automated energy smart grid systems requires a trustworthy electric load forecasting system. Recent work has shown the efficacy of Long Short-Term Memory neural networks in energy load forecasting. However, such predictions do not come with an estimate of uncertainty, [...] Read more.
Building safe, reliable, fully automated energy smart grid systems requires a trustworthy electric load forecasting system. Recent work has shown the efficacy of Long Short-Term Memory neural networks in energy load forecasting. However, such predictions do not come with an estimate of uncertainty, which can be dangerous when critical decisions are being made autonomously in energy production and distribution. In this paper, we present methods for evaluating the uncertainty in short-term electrical load predictions for both deep learning and gradient tree boosting. We train Bayesian deep learning and gradient boosting models with real electric load data and show that an uncertainty estimate may be obtained alongside the prediction itself with minimal loss of accuracy. We find that the uncertainty estimates obtained are robust to changes in the input features. This result is an important step in building reliable autonomous smart grids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence Technologies for Electric Power Systems)
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Article
Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Distributed Energy System Based on Order Relation-Anti-Entropy Weight Method
Energies 2021, 14(1), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010246 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 594
Abstract
Distributed Energy System (DES), a comprehensive energy utilization system distributed on user side, has been recognized as a promising energy utilization method that can improve energy efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and achieve sustainable development. However, the DES is usually driven by various [...] Read more.
Distributed Energy System (DES), a comprehensive energy utilization system distributed on user side, has been recognized as a promising energy utilization method that can improve energy efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and achieve sustainable development. However, the DES is usually driven by various energy sources, and it is a complex issue to decide the composition of the system. To improve the incompleteness of a single subjective or objective assessment. So, it is urgent to find a comprehensive and efficient decision-making method for different systems. This paper states a total of 23 indicators in 4 criterion group: technology, economy, environment, and society. Based on the combination of the order relation analysis method (G1) and the anti-entropy weighting method (a-EWM), a comprehensive evaluation model, order relation-anti-entropy weight model (G1-aEWM), of distributed energy is established. This comprehensive evaluation model is used to analyze a hospital in Henan and find the final solution for the distributed energy system of the hospital. The empirical analysis results verify the rationality of the comprehensive evaluation model and provide an evaluation basis for the establishment of distributed energy systems in the future. Full article
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Article
Improvement of Position Estimation of PMSMs Using an Iterative Vector Decoupling Algorithm
Energies 2021, 14(1), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010245 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 574
Abstract
This paper presents an improvement of sensorless techniques based on anisotropy for the estimation of the electrical angular position of synchronous machines by means of an iterative algorithm. The presented method reduces the effect of the fourth saliency harmonics on the measured signals [...] Read more.
This paper presents an improvement of sensorless techniques based on anisotropy for the estimation of the electrical angular position of synchronous machines by means of an iterative algorithm. The presented method reduces the effect of the fourth saliency harmonics on the measured signals avoiding the use of an observer or filter, thus, no additional dynamics are introduced on the system. Instead, a static algorithm based on iterative steps is proposed, minimizing the angular position error. The algorithm is presented and applied using the DFC (Direct Flux Control) technique but it is not limited to this choice. The advantages and limitations of this method are presented within this paper. The proof of the algorithm convergence is given. Simulations and experimental tests are performed in order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Full article
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Article
Use of Gas Desorption Effect in Injection Systems of Diesel Engines
Energies 2021, 14(1), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010244 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 541
Abstract
The article presents a concept of improving operation of the engine with the effect of gas desorption from a solution with nucleation of gas bubbles. This concept consists in dissolving gas in diesel fuel until the solution is in equilibrium. At a later [...] Read more.
The article presents a concept of improving operation of the engine with the effect of gas desorption from a solution with nucleation of gas bubbles. This concept consists in dissolving gas in diesel fuel until the solution is in equilibrium. At a later stage, the phenomenon is reversed, and the gas is released from the solution during its injection into the combustion chamber. The purpose of the study is to present the idea of the desorption effect along with a thermodynamic analysis of the process and to study its impact on the operation of a diesel engine. The article also describes the most important features of the injection pump adapted to employ the desorption effect, which is a proprietary, patented solution. The conducted engine preliminary tests concerned the most important parameters of the engine’s operation (indicated pressure course, pressure growth rate, heat release rate, etc.) and the emission of harmful compounds (PM—particulate matter, CO, HC, and NOx—nitrogen oxides). A significant reduction of PM, CO, and HC, with a simultaneous increase in NOx emissions obtained in tests, confirmed that the desorption effect facilitated engine operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Internal Combustion Engines)
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Article
Use of Machine Learning Methods for Predicting Amount of Bioethanol Obtained from Lignocellulosic Biomass with the Use of Ionic Liquids for Pretreatment
Energies 2021, 14(1), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010243 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 714
Abstract
The study objective was to model and predict the bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic biomass based on an example of empirical study results. Two types of algorithms were used in machine learning: artificial neural network (ANN) and random forest algorithm (RF). Data for [...] Read more.
The study objective was to model and predict the bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic biomass based on an example of empirical study results. Two types of algorithms were used in machine learning: artificial neural network (ANN) and random forest algorithm (RF). Data for the model included results of studying bioethanol production with the use of ionic liquids (ILs) and different enzymatic preparations from the following biomass types: buckwheat straw and biomass from four wastelands, including a mixture of various plants: stems of giant miscanthus, common nettle, goldenrod, common broom, fireweed, and hay (a mix of grasses). The input variables consisted of different ionic liquids (imidazolium and ammonium), enzymatic preparations, enzyme doses, time and temperature of pretreatment, and type of yeast for alcoholic fermentation. The output value was the bioethanol concentration. The multilayer perceptron (MLP) was used in the artificial neural networks. Two model types were created; the training dataset comprised 120 vectors (14 elements for Model 1 and 11 elements for Model 2). Assessment of the optimum random forest was carried out using the same division of experimental points (two random datasets, containing 2/3 for training and 1/3 for testing) and the same criteria used for the artificial neural network models. Data for mugwort and hemp were used for validation. In both models, the coefficient of determination for neural networks was <0.9, while for RF it oscillated around 0.95. Considering the fairly large spread of the determination coefficient, two hybrid models were generated. The use of the hybrid approach in creating models describing the present bioethanol production process resulted in an increase in the fit of the model to R2 = 0.961. The hybrid model can be used for the initial classification of plants without the necessity to perform lengthy and expensive research related to IL-based pretreatment and further hydrolysis; only their lignocellulosic composition results are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technologies for Biofuels and Energy)
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Article
Dual Resonant Frequency Inductive Power Transfer in an Underwater Tight Coupling System
Energies 2021, 14(1), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010242 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 499
Abstract
The application of wireless power transfer technology in the underwater environment proposes both opportunities and challenges to undersea power feeding. Due to the attenuation of electromagnetic waves in seawater, the distance between transmitter and receiver is always maintained at a minimum value, which [...] Read more.
The application of wireless power transfer technology in the underwater environment proposes both opportunities and challenges to undersea power feeding. Due to the attenuation of electromagnetic waves in seawater, the distance between transmitter and receiver is always maintained at a minimum value, which results in tight coupling between the transmitter and receiver. The tight coupling condition provides a low impedance loop for high-order harmonic, so the component of the harmonic wave is thus significantly increased and cannot be ignored in the power transmission system. In order to fully utilize the harmonic energy, a fundamental-harmonic dual-channel system was proposed and studied in this paper. Compared with single-channel systems transmitting fundamental wave only, the dual-channel system has higher power transmission capability, while the loss in dual channel system can be less than that of a single-channel system after proper optimization. A 3 kW experiment platform is established to verify the effectiveness of theoretical analysis. Full article
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Article
Addressing the Effects of Climate Change on Modeling Future Hydroelectric Energy Production in Chile
Energies 2021, 14(1), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010241 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
Despite the growing scientific evidence, the electricity market models used in Chile do not consider the effects of climate change on hydroelectric energy production. Based on a statistical analysis of the historical hydro-energy inflow dataset and a revision of the scientific literature, we [...] Read more.
Despite the growing scientific evidence, the electricity market models used in Chile do not consider the effects of climate change on hydroelectric energy production. Based on a statistical analysis of the historical hydro-energy inflow dataset and a revision of the scientific literature, we suggest a set of technical and statistical criteria to determine an alternative representation of the hydro-energy uncertainty in the Chilean electricity market. Based on these criteria, we then propose an alternative range of historical hydrological data, which is built by shedding the first 35 years of the historical dataset (out of 59 years) and using only a reduced subset of 24 years. Additionally, we propose to capture the potential impacts of even more prolonged droughts on the Chilean electricity system by repeating the last nine years of data at the end of the 24 year-long series. The resulting extended subset of 33 hydro-years is approximately 10% drier on average than the original dataset of 59 years. The proposed range of hydrological data captures some of the anticipated effects of climate change on Chilean hydro-uncertainty reported in the literature and also preserves most of the intra-annual and spatial diversity of the original data. Full article
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Article
Study of Radial Wall Jets from Ceiling Diffusers at Variable Air Volume
Energies 2021, 14(1), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010240 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 493
Abstract
The knowledge of the air velocity distribution in the supply jets is essential when designing ventilation and air conditioning systems. In this study, we tested and analyzed the velocity distributions in the radial wall jets—these jets are commonly used in ventilated rooms. Tests [...] Read more.
The knowledge of the air velocity distribution in the supply jets is essential when designing ventilation and air conditioning systems. In this study, we tested and analyzed the velocity distributions in the radial wall jets—these jets are commonly used in ventilated rooms. Tests included jets from two ceiling diffusers of different constructions, at three airflow rates. The mean air speed distributions were measured with a 16-channel hot-sphere anemometer both in the self-similarity zone and in the terminal zone. A specially developed method of converting the mean speed to mean velocity was used. The measurement results show that the spread coefficients of the jets from both diffusers were the same, but the positions of the virtual origin were different. Due to the friction of the jet with the ceiling and the transfer of momentum to the recirculating flows, the momentum flux in the self-similarity zone decreased by up to 50%. An improved method for calculating velocity distributions in radial wall jets was developed and validated. This method takes into account the decrease of momentum, non-zero position of the jet origin, and faster velocity decrease in the terminal zone. A reliable method of predicting air velocity distribution in radial wall jets (RWJs) from ceiling diffusers may allow to properly select the diffuser size, its location, and the range of flow rate changes. The design process for variable air volume systems can be facilitated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ventilation and Building Energy Systems)
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Article
Relieving Tensions on Battery Energy Sources Utilization among TSO, DSO, and Service Providers with Multi-Objective Optimization
Energies 2021, 14(1), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010239 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
The European strategic long-term vision underlined the importance of a smarter and flexible system for achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Distributed energy resources (DERs) could provide the required flexibility products. Distribution system operators (DSOs) cooperating with TSO (transmission system operators) are [...] Read more.
The European strategic long-term vision underlined the importance of a smarter and flexible system for achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Distributed energy resources (DERs) could provide the required flexibility products. Distribution system operators (DSOs) cooperating with TSO (transmission system operators) are committed to procuring these flexibility products through market-based procedures. Among all DERs, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are a promising technology since they can be potentially exploited for a broad range of purposes. However, since their cost is still high, their size and location should be optimized with a view of maximizing the revenues for their owners. Intending to provide an instrument for the assessment of flexibility products to be shared between DSO and TSO to ensure a safe and secure operation of the system, the paper proposes a planning methodology based on the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). Contrasting objectives, as the maximization of the BESS owners’ revenue and the minimization of the DSO risk inherent in the use of the innovative solutions, can be considered by identifying trade-off solutions. The proposed model is validated by applying the methodology to a real Italian medium voltage (MV) distribution network. Full article
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Article
Design and Performance Analysis of New Ultra-Supercritical Double Reheat Coal-Fired Power Generation Systems
Energies 2021, 14(1), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010238 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 513
Abstract
In order to solve the existing problems of large mean heat transfer temperature differences of regenerative air heaters and high superheat degrees of regenerative extraction steam in double reheat coal-fired power generation systems, two new design schemes of ultra-supercritical double reheat cycles are [...] Read more.
In order to solve the existing problems of large mean heat transfer temperature differences of regenerative air heaters and high superheat degrees of regenerative extraction steam in double reheat coal-fired power generation systems, two new design schemes of ultra-supercritical double reheat cycles are proposed, which can realize the deep boiler-turbine coupling among the heat transfer processes of air, feeding water and regeneration extraction steam on the base of the principle of energy level matching. A typical 1000 MW ultra-supercritical double reheat cycle system is selected as the reference system and the overall system model is built by using the Ebsilon simulation software. The performances of two new systems are analyzed by using both the exergy method and energy equilibrium method. The results show that net output powers of both new systems 1 and 2 increase by 6.38 MW and 6.93 MW, respectively, and the standard coal consumptions of power generation decrease by 1.65 g/kWh and 1.79 g/kWh, respectively. The off-design performances of new systems and the reference system are analyzed, and the results show that performances of two new systems are better than that of the reference system. The system flow of the new system 2 is more complex compared with that of the new system 1. Generally speaking, the performance of new system 1 is better than that of new system 2. On the basis of new system 1, new system 3 is further optimized and its full operating condition performance characteristics are analyzed. The standard coal consumption rate of new system 3 is reduced about 1 g/kWh at higher load, and around 0.2 g/kWh at low load. Full article
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Article
A Data Analytics-Based Energy Information System (EIS) Tool to Perform Meter-Level Anomaly Detection and Diagnosis in Buildings
Energies 2021, 14(1), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010237 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 970
Abstract
Recently, the spread of smart metering infrastructures has enabled the easier collection of building-related data. It has been proven that a proper analysis of such data can bring significant benefits for the characterization of building performance and spotting valuable saving opportunities. More and [...] Read more.
Recently, the spread of smart metering infrastructures has enabled the easier collection of building-related data. It has been proven that a proper analysis of such data can bring significant benefits for the characterization of building performance and spotting valuable saving opportunities. More and more researchers worldwide are focused on the development of more robust frameworks of analysis capable of extracting from meter-level data useful information to enhance the process of energy management in buildings, for instance, by detecting inefficiencies or anomalous energy behavior during operation. This paper proposes an innovative anomaly detection and diagnosis (ADD) methodology to automatically detect at whole-building meter level anomalous energy consumption and then perform a diagnosis on the sub-loads responsible for anomalous patterns. The process consists of multiple steps combining data analytics techniques. A set of evolutionary classification trees is developed to discover frequent and infrequent aggregated energy patterns, properly transformed through an adaptive symbolic aggregate approximation (aSAX) process. Then a post-mining analysis based on association rule mining (ARM) is performed to discover the main sub-loads which mostly affect the anomaly detected at the whole-building level. The methodology is developed and tested on monitored data of a medium voltage/low voltage (MV/LV) transformation cabin of a university campus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Open Data and Models for Energy and Environment)
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Article
Reducing the Decarbonisation Cost Burden for EU Energy-Intensive Industries
Energies 2021, 14(1), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010236 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
Carbon leakage features prominently in the climate policy debate in economies implementing climate policies, especially in the EU. The imposition of carbon pricing impacts negatively the competitiveness of energy-intensive industries, inducing their relocation to countries with weaker environmental regulation. Unilateral climate policy may [...] Read more.
Carbon leakage features prominently in the climate policy debate in economies implementing climate policies, especially in the EU. The imposition of carbon pricing impacts negatively the competitiveness of energy-intensive industries, inducing their relocation to countries with weaker environmental regulation. Unilateral climate policy may complement domestic emissions pricing with border carbon adjustment to reduce leakage and protect the competitiveness of domestic manufacturing. Here, we use an enhanced version of GEM-E3-FIT model to assess the macro-economic impacts when the EU unilaterally implements the EU Green Deal goals, leading to a leakage of 25% over 2020–2050. The size and composition, in terms of GHG and energy intensities, of the countries undertaking emission reductions matter for carbon leakage, which is significantly reduced when China joins the mitigation effort, as a result of its large market size and the high carbon intensity of its production. Chemicals and metals face the stronger risks for relocation to non-abating countries. The Border Carbon Adjustment can largely reduce leakage and the negative activity impacts on energy-intensive and trade-exposed industries of regulating countries, by shifting the emission reduction to non-abating countries through implicit changes in product prices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Systems Analysis and Modelling towards Decarbonisation)
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Article
Integrated Unfold-PCA Monitoring Application for Smart Buildings: An AHU Application Example
Energies 2021, 14(1), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010235 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 608
Abstract
This paper presents a complete methodology, together with its implementation as a web application, for monitoring smart buildings. The approach uses unfold-Principal Component Analysis (unfold-PCA) as a batch projection method and two statistics, Hotelling’s T-squared (T2) and the squared prediction [...] Read more.
This paper presents a complete methodology, together with its implementation as a web application, for monitoring smart buildings. The approach uses unfold-Principal Component Analysis (unfold-PCA) as a batch projection method and two statistics, Hotelling’s T-squared (T2) and the squared prediction error (SPE), for alarm generation resulting in two simple control charts independently on the number of variables involved. The method consists of modelling the normal operating conditions of a building (entire building, room or subsystem) with latent variables described expressing the principal components. Thus, the method allows detecting faults and misbehaviour as a deviation of previously mentioned statistics from their statistical thresholds. Once a fault or misbehaviour is detected, the isolation of sensors that mostly contribute to such detection is proposed as a first step for diagnosis. The methodology has been implemented under a SaaS (software as a service) approach to be offered to multiple buildings as an on-line application for facility managers. The application is general enough to be used for monitoring complete buildings, or parts of them, using on-line data. A complete example of use for monitoring the performance of the air handling unit of a lecture theatre is presented as demonstrative example and results are discussed Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control Strategies for Buildings and HVAC Systems)
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Article
A Probable Origin of Dibenzothiophenes in Coals and Oils
Energies 2021, 14(1), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010234 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 537
Abstract
To probe the possibility of thiophenolate as an origin of dibenzothiophenes (DBTs) and establish the detailed chemical transformations from thiophenolate to DBTs, the thermal degradation of thiophenolate has been carried out at various temperatures. The characterizations of both gaseous products and solid residues [...] Read more.
To probe the possibility of thiophenolate as an origin of dibenzothiophenes (DBTs) and establish the detailed chemical transformations from thiophenolate to DBTs, the thermal degradation of thiophenolate has been carried out at various temperatures. The characterizations of both gaseous products and solid residues indicate that DBTs together with benzene, diphenyl sulfide, and diphenyl disulfide are the major degradation products. The presence of benzene supports that the thermal degradation of thiophenolate begins with the homolysis of Ar‒H bonds. The subsequent hydroarylation followed by the elimination and cyclization reactions facilely generates DBTs. The transformation of thiophenolate to DBTs is chemically simple and highly geochemically feasible. It readily unifies the chemical pathways involved in the generation of DBTs from thiophenolate and that of dibenzofurans from phenolate in nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geo-Energy)
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Article
CO2 Convective Dissolution in Oil-Saturated Unconsolidated Porous Media at Reservoir Conditions
Energies 2021, 14(1), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010233 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
During CO2 storage, CO2 plume mixes with the water and oil present at the reservoir, initiated by diffusion followed by a density gradient that leads to a convective flow. Studies are available where CO2 convective mixing have been studied in [...] Read more.
During CO2 storage, CO2 plume mixes with the water and oil present at the reservoir, initiated by diffusion followed by a density gradient that leads to a convective flow. Studies are available where CO2 convective mixing have been studied in water phase but limited in oil phase. This study was conducted to reach this gap, and experiments were conducted in a vertically packed 3-dimensional column with oil-saturated unconsolidated porous media at 100 bar and 50 °C (representative of reservoir pressure and temperature conditions). N-Decane and crude oil were used as oils, and glass beads as porous media. A bromothymol blue water solution-filled sapphire cell connected at the bottom of the column was used to monitor the CO2 breakthrough. With the increase of the Rayleigh number, the CO2 transport rate in n-decane was found to increase as a function of a second order polynomial. Ra number vs. dimensionless time τ had a power relationship in the form of Ra = c×τn. The overall pressure decay was faster in n-decane compared to crude oil for similar permeability (4 D), and the crude oil had a breakthrough time three times slower than in n-decane. The results were compared with similar experiments that have been carried out using water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and Environment)
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Review
Biometric Data as Real-Time Measure of Physiological Reactions to Environmental Stimuli in the Built Environment
Energies 2021, 14(1), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010232 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
The physiological and cognitive effects of environmental stimuli from the built environment on humans have been studied for more than a century, over short time frames in terms of comfort, and over long-time frames in terms of health and wellbeing. The strong interdependence [...] Read more.
The physiological and cognitive effects of environmental stimuli from the built environment on humans have been studied for more than a century, over short time frames in terms of comfort, and over long-time frames in terms of health and wellbeing. The strong interdependence of objective and subjective factors in these fields of study has traditionally involved the necessity to rely on a number of qualitative sources of information, as self-report variables, which however, raise criticisms concerning their reliability and precision. Recent advancements in sensing technology and data processing methodologies have strongly contributed towards a renewed interest in biometric data as a potential high-precision tool to study the physiological effects of selected stimuli on humans using more objective and real-time measures. Within this context, this review reports on a broader spectrum of available and advanced biosensing techniques used in the fields of building engineering, human physiology, neurology, and psychology. The interaction and interdependence between (i) indoor environmental parameters and (ii) biosignals identifying human physiological response to the environmental stressors are systematically explored. Online databases ScienceDirect, Scopus, MDPI and ResearchGate were scanned to gather all relevant publications in the last 20 years, identifying and listing tools and methods of biometric data collection, assessing the potentials and drawbacks of the most relevant techniques. The review aims to support the introduction of biomedical signals as a tool for understanding the physiological aspects of indoor comfort in the view of achieving an improved balance between human resilience and building resilience, addressing human indoor health as well as energetic and environmental building performance. Full article
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Article
“My Electricity” Program Effectiveness Supporting the Development of PV Installation in Poland
Energies 2021, 14(1), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010231 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
There are a lot of studies that show the legitimacy of subsidizing renewable energy; however, some mechanisms are defective, and there are problems with the appropriate allocation of funds. Therefore, this paper aims to look at the situation of allocating funds to photovoltaics [...] Read more.
There are a lot of studies that show the legitimacy of subsidizing renewable energy; however, some mechanisms are defective, and there are problems with the appropriate allocation of funds. Therefore, this paper aims to look at the situation of allocating funds to photovoltaics (PV) micro-installations in Poland through the “My Electricity” program. The article presents the results of analyses aimed at identifying inequalities between provinces in the use of funds available under the “My Electricity” program and verifying whether these inequalities are getting worse and whether the intensity of support should not be territorially conditioned in terms of maximization an electricity production. As part of two editions of the “My Electricity” program (until 1 August 2020), over 64,000 PV micro-installations were created with an average power of approximately 5.7 kWp. The total installed PV capacity was 367.1 MWp (1st edition: 159.3 MWp, 2nd edition: 207.8 MWp). Financial resources (as a whole), in the second edition of “My Electricity” program, were distributed better than in the first edition. In the first edition, as much as 7.60% of funds were allocated inefficiently; in the second edition, it was only 3.88%. Allocation surpluses occur in provinces where the average disposable income is low and where there are a small number of households. There is a potential to introduce a territorial project selection criteria. The analysis shows that the criteria should promote provinces with higher disposable income and a larger number of households. Full article
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Article
Design and Verification of the LQR Controller Based on Fuzzy Logic for Large Wind Turbine
Energies 2021, 14(1), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010230 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 841
Abstract
In this study, a linear quadratic regulator based on the fuzzy logic (LQRF) control algorithm for a variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbine was designed. In addition, to verify the optimum performance of the controller, simulations and wind tunnel tests were conducted. In the simulation, [...] Read more.
In this study, a linear quadratic regulator based on the fuzzy logic (LQRF) control algorithm for a variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbine was designed. In addition, to verify the optimum performance of the controller, simulations and wind tunnel tests were conducted. In the simulation, the performances of the proportional-integral (PI) and LQRF algorithms were compared in the transition region and the rated power region. In the wind tunnel test, the applicability of the LQRF algorithm was verified by comparing it with the conventional PI algorithms. The results showed that when compared with the PI control, the proposed LQRF control reduced the tower vibration by up to 12.50% depending on the operating region. Furthermore, the power deviation was reduced by 38.93%. These tests confirmed that the proposed LQRF control increases the power performance and structural stability of wind turbines compared with conventional PI controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy)
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Article
Dynamic Characteristics of Downhole Bit Load and Analysis of Conversion Efficiency of Drill String Vibration Energy
Energies 2021, 14(1), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010229 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 711
Abstract
The longitudinal vibration of the drill pipe contains considerable energy which can be used to improve the rock-breaking efficiency during drilling. It is very important to the development of drilling speed-up tools to have a comprehensive understanding of the energy conversion efficiency of [...] Read more.
The longitudinal vibration of the drill pipe contains considerable energy which can be used to improve the rock-breaking efficiency during drilling. It is very important to the development of drilling speed-up tools to have a comprehensive understanding of the energy conversion efficiency of downhole drill string vibration. In this paper, the characteristics of downhole bit load and longitudinal vibration of drill string under different conditions were studied in the experiment, and the analysis method of energy conversion efficiency from drill string vibration to spring potential energy was proposed. The experimental analysis showed that the fluctuation of the downhole bit load was reduced by 10%–90% after the spring was installed in the bottom hole assembly. The rotation rate and the spring elastic stiffness had a significant and positive influence on the fluctuation amplitude of the downhole bit load. Meanwhile, the longitudinal vibration amplitude and acceleration of the drill string peaked at the elastic stiffness of 1 kN/mm. The closer the spring position to the drill bit was, the more severe the longitudinal vibration of the drill string above the spring component was. The bit load and the rotation rate had a positive influence on the severity of longitudinal vibration. The analysis of energy conversion efficiency showed that the available mechanical energy range of the longitudinal vibration of the drill pipe was about 200–420 kW. The work power of the drill string vibration to the spring component increased sharply and then decreased with the increasing of elastic stiffness. The energy conversion efficiency came to the optimal value when the elastic stiffness was between 1 kN/mm and 2 kN/mm. Increasing the rotation rate, keeping the bit load below 134.5 kN and installing the spring component near the drill bit are beneficial for improving the energy conversion efficiency of drill string vibration. This paper reveals the main factors affecting the energy conversion efficiency of drill string vibration and their influencing laws, and determines the range of WOB, rotation speed, spring position and stiffness to obtain the best energy conversion efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section State-of-the-Art Energy Related Technologies)
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Article
Off-Grid DoA Estimation via Two-Stage Cascaded Neural Network
Energies 2021, 14(1), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010228 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 692
Abstract
This paper introduces an off-grid DoA estimation via two-stage cascaded network which can resolve a mismatch between true direction-of-arrival (DoA) and discrete angular grid. In the first-stage network, the initial DoAs are estimated with a convolutional neural network (CNN), where initial DoAs are [...] Read more.
This paper introduces an off-grid DoA estimation via two-stage cascaded network which can resolve a mismatch between true direction-of-arrival (DoA) and discrete angular grid. In the first-stage network, the initial DoAs are estimated with a convolutional neural network (CNN), where initial DoAs are mapped on the discrete angular grid. To deal with the mismatch between initially estimated DoAs and true DoAs, the second-stage network estimates a tuning vector which represents the difference between true DoAs and nearest discrete angles. By using tuning vector, the final DoAs are estimated by moving initially estimated DoAs as much as the difference between true DoAs and nearest discrete angles. The limitation on estimation accuracy induced by the discrete angular grid can be resolved with the proposed two-stage network so that the estimation accuracy can be further enhanced. Simulation results show that adding the second-stage network after the first-stage network helps improve the estimation accuracy by resolving mismatch induced by the discretized grid. In the aspect of the implementation of machine learning, results also show that using CNN and using PReLU as the activation function is the best option for accurate estimation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Designs and Algorithms of Localization in Vehicular Networks)
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Article
Corporate Social Responsibility and Profitability: The Moderating Role of Firm Type in Chinese Appliance Listed Companies
Energies 2021, 14(1), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010227 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the dominant multi-attribute methods of comprehensively representing the competitiveness of a company. A large number of studies have commonly found that profitability can positively affect CSR. However, positivity depends on firm type and the economy, and there [...] Read more.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the dominant multi-attribute methods of comprehensively representing the competitiveness of a company. A large number of studies have commonly found that profitability can positively affect CSR. However, positivity depends on firm type and the economy, and there is little research in this area. The objective of this paper is to study and verify whether the profitability of different types of companies has a comparable impact on CSR measures in Chinese appliance listed companies. A specific multi-attribute AHP (analytic hierarchy process) model was proposed to determine the CSR for the conditions of Chines appliance listed companies. The interactive regression model serves to analyse the impact of a firm type. The specific multi-attribute AHP model was verified as a suitable tool for CSR evaluation of Chines appliance listed companies. The regression results show that for family firms, the impact of profitability on CSR is significant, while for non-family firms, the impact was not confirmed. Thus, evidence that family firms fulfil better CSR than non-family firms in the investigated Chinese sector is offered. The findings provide proof that it is essential to distinguish firm types, and the generalised findings are simplified and not valid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Approaches for Enterprise Sustainability)
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Article
Selection of Heat Pump Capacity Used at Thermal Power Plants under Electricity Market Operating Conditions
Energies 2021, 14(1), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010226 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 711
Abstract
The percentage of heat pumps used in thermal power plants (TPPs) in the fuel and energy balance is extremely low in in most countries. One of the reasons for this is the lack of a systematic approach to selecting and justifying the circuit [...] Read more.
The percentage of heat pumps used in thermal power plants (TPPs) in the fuel and energy balance is extremely low in in most countries. One of the reasons for this is the lack of a systematic approach to selecting and justifying the circuit solutions and equipment capacity. This article aims to develop a new method of calculating the maximum capacity of heat pumps. The method proposed in the article has elements of marginal analysis. It takes into account the limitation of heat pump capacity by break-even operation at electric power market (compensation of fuel expenses, connected with electric power production). In this case, the heat pump’s maximum allowable capacity depends on the electric capacity of TPP, electricity consumption for own needs, specific consumption of conditional fuel for electricity production, a ratio of prices for energy resources, and a conversion factor of heat pump. For TPP based on combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CCGT-450 with prices at the Russian energy resources markets at the level of 2019, when operating with the maximum heat load, the allowable heat pump capacity will be about 50 MW, and when operating with the minimum heat load—about 200 MW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Simulation in Energy Efficiency and Building Energy Saving)
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