Special Issue "Economic and Policy Challenges of the Energy Transition in CEE Countries"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Economics and Policy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 11 October 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jacek Kamiński
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Wybickiego 7A, 31-261 Kraków, Poland
Interests: power system economics; energy markets; energy and climate policy; energy transition; energy planning; mathematical modeling; decision support systems

Special Issue Information

With the announcement of the European Green Deal, which defines a set of policy initiatives aimed at achieving a 50–55% reduction in carbon emissions by 2030 and making Europe climate neutral in 2050, the challenge of energy transition becomes even more critical. The transformation of national energy systems towards sustainability is progressing throughout all Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, yet the goals and results are different. Most Member States have made substantial progress towards meeting their long-term commitments of emissions reductions. However, some block members have struggled to meet their obligations. The effective energy transition requires the introduction of appropriately designed policy instruments and of robust economic analyses that ensure the best possible outcomes at the lowest costs for society. In this context, this Special Issue aims to bring into the discussion the challenges that CEE countries have to face and overcome while undergoing energy transition.

Contributions on the following topics, among others, are invited: 

  • Energy transition;
  • Economics of energy systems;
  • Climate and energy policy instruments;
  • Power generation system transition;
  • Intelligent power and district heating networks;
  • Demand-side management and energy storage;
  • Integration of energy markets;
  • Energy efficiency;
  • Renewable energy;
  • Low- and zero-emission transport;
  • Smart grids.

Prof. Dr. Jacek Kamiński
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries
  • Energy transition
  • Energy policy
  • Energy economics
  • Energy markets
  • Policy instruments
  • Power generation systems
  • Intelligent networks
  • Demand side
  • Energy storage
  • Energy efficiency
  • Renewable energy
  • Low- and zero-emission transport
  • Smart grids
  • Energy security.

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Hydrogen Technology on the Polish Electromobility Market. Legal, Economic, and Social Aspects
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2357; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092357 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 252
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the motorization market of electric vehicles powered by hydrogen cells in Poland. European conditions of such technology were indicated, as well as original proposals on amendments to the law to increase the development pace of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the motorization market of electric vehicles powered by hydrogen cells in Poland. European conditions of such technology were indicated, as well as original proposals on amendments to the law to increase the development pace of electromobility based on hydrogen cells. There were also presented economic aspects of this economic phenomenon. Moreover, survey research was conducted to examine the preferences of hydrogen and electric vehicle users in 5 primary Polish cities. In this way, the level of social acceptance for the technological revolution based on hydrogen cells and taking place in the motorization sector was determined. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Methodology for Assessing the Impact of Aperiodic Phenomena on the Energy Balance of Propulsion Engines in Vehicle Electromobility Systems for Given Areas
Energies 2021, 14(8), 2314; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14082314 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 273
Abstract
The article presents the methodology of isolating aperiodic phenomena constituting the basis of the energy balance of vehicles for the analysis of electromobility system indicators. The symptom observation matrix (SOM) and experimental input data are used to analyze periodic phenomena symptoms. The multidimensional [...] Read more.
The article presents the methodology of isolating aperiodic phenomena constituting the basis of the energy balance of vehicles for the analysis of electromobility system indicators. The symptom observation matrix (SOM) and experimental input data are used to analyze periodic phenomena symptoms. The multidimensional nature of the engine efficiency shortage has been well defined and analyzed in terms of errors in the general model using neural networks, singular value decomposition, and principal component analysis. A more difficult task is the analysis of a multidimensional decision-making process. The research used a data fusion method and the concept of symptom reliability, which is applied to the generalized failure symptom obtained by applying the singular value decomposition (SVD). The model research has been based on the gray system theory (GST) and GM forecasting models (1,1). Input data were obtained from the assessment of driving cycles and analysis of the failure frequency for 1200 vehicles and mileage of 150,000 km. Based on this analysis, it can be concluded that with the current infrastructure and operating costs and the frequency of failure of PHEV and BEV drives, ICEV vehicles are unrivaled in terms of their operating costs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Varying the Energy Mix in the EU-28 and in Poland as a Step towards Sustainable Development
Energies 2021, 14(5), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14051502 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 444
Abstract
The demand for clean energy is a key global issue requiring global ideas to be implemented through local action. This is particularly important in Poland’s energy transition, since the country produces energy mainly from conventional sources, i.e., coal, gas, and crude oil. Adverse [...] Read more.
The demand for clean energy is a key global issue requiring global ideas to be implemented through local action. This is particularly important in Poland’s energy transition, since the country produces energy mainly from conventional sources, i.e., coal, gas, and crude oil. Adverse climate change caused by high emissions of the economy based on the combustion of hydrocarbons as well as the growing public awareness have made it necessary to look for new environmentally friendly energy sources. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that the use of alternative energy sources, biomass in particular, is compatible with sustainable development policy. Eight indicators for the EU-28 and for Poland were analysed in order to verify the progress in modifying the energy mix between 2010 and 2018 in the context of implementing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The analysis showed that both in the EU-28 and in Poland, the aggregated indicator taking into account the positive and negative change in the values of individual indicators improved between 2010 and 2018. In the EU-28, this indicator is higher (180.1) than in Poland (152.3). The lower value for Poland is mainly due to the fact that the main source of energy in Poland remains hard coal and lignite. However, the noticeable increase in recent years in the share of energy from renewable sources, biomass included, allows us to look with hope to a rapidly growing indicator measuring progress towards a sustainable development goal, and to improving environmental standards. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Decarbonisation in the Transformation of the Energy Sector: The Case of Poland
Energies 2021, 14(5), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14051217 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 541
Abstract
This paper aims to identify the determinants of the decarbonisation processes in Poland within the scope of energy transformation. The purpose of the study is to identify how the public perceives decarbonisation determinants in order to develop a sustainable energy strategy for Poland. [...] Read more.
This paper aims to identify the determinants of the decarbonisation processes in Poland within the scope of energy transformation. The purpose of the study is to identify how the public perceives decarbonisation determinants in order to develop a sustainable energy strategy for Poland. The transition of the energy market to low-carbon technology is a policy challenge. Governments must implement policies that are environmentally friendly, cost-effective, but, most of all, socially acceptable. Social acceptance risk plays a significant role in Poland, influencing the decarbonisation process. In Poland’s case, the coal share is decreasing, but it is still the most important fuel for electricity production. This process of decarbonisation is a fundamental influence on the transformation of the energy sector in Poland. The social perception of solutions that can be applied was examined. The Polish natural environment is poisoned. Poles suffer from diseases related to the burning of coal for energy production. Societal awareness, how people perceive the government’s actions, and what they expect in this regard is crucial. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Central and Eastern European CO2 Market—Challenges of Emissions Trading for Energy Companies
Energies 2021, 14(4), 1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041051 - 17 Feb 2021
Viewed by 559
Abstract
The aim of this article was to identify challenges of emissions trading that the Polish and CEE Central and Eastern Europe energy industry will face, as well as to indicate key implications for the competitiveness of the companies from the energy sector resulting [...] Read more.
The aim of this article was to identify challenges of emissions trading that the Polish and CEE Central and Eastern Europe energy industry will face, as well as to indicate key implications for the competitiveness of the companies from the energy sector resulting from that trading. The EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is the emissions trading system, which results from the EU policy concerning climate change. It is a tool for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). The system regulates an annual allocation of the allowances. The price of CO2 emission allowances is subject to constant fluctuations because it depends on various macroeconomic factors as well as is an effect of proprietary trading by global investment banks. Polish energy companies have an increasing share in the emission of CO2 in the European market. This is due to the fact that other European countries are rapidly moving away from fossil fuel-fired sources. The cost per MWh related to CO2 price has been growing in the last 10 years from ca. 5 up to 30 EUR/MWh at the beginning of 2021. From an electric power utilities perspective, the ability to set up a proper strategy in trading CO2 will be crucial to be competitive in the wholesale power market. The higher price of CO2 (and electric power) at the domestic market in relation to more green (more renewable energy sources RES in energy mix) surrounding countries translates into a worse competitive position. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Consumption in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) Households in the Platform Economics
Energies 2021, 14(4), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041002 - 14 Feb 2021
Viewed by 373
Abstract
The ongoing digitization of the economy has led to the creation and functioning of platform model socio-economic systems. It is also reflected in the changes in patterns of energy consumption in households. In the first cross-section, it is an industrial revolution, with environmental [...] Read more.
The ongoing digitization of the economy has led to the creation and functioning of platform model socio-economic systems. It is also reflected in the changes in patterns of energy consumption in households. In the first cross-section, it is an industrial revolution, with environmental benefits. However, platforms are primarily a revolution in the consumption sphere, and here, the effects of digitization are not fully recognized. Our social needs are increasingly met “through accessibility” without us leaving our home. Due to the home’s multifunctionality, based on the availability of platform services, household energy consumption should be viewed differently today than before. The article aims to show the changes in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) household energy consumption between 2008–2018 and their assessment through the prism of the economy’s platformization methods. The study presents the changes in energy consumption in households and determines the correlations between platformization (the author’s index) and changes in energy consumption in households with the use of taxonomic methods. The platformization leaders—Estonia and Lithuania—were subjected to a more detailed analysis. The presented method(s) may be useful in predicting the changes in households’ energy consumption caused by the digitization of other countries in the region (countries under transformation and outsiders-Bulgaria, Romania), in implementing household energy management systems, and in a better adjustment of regulations directed at these consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coopetitive Nature of Energy Communities—The Energy Transition Context
Energies 2021, 14(4), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14040931 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 654
Abstract
The decentralization of the large-scale energy sector, its replacement with pro-ecological, dispersed production sources and building a citizen dimension of the energy sector are the directional objectives of the energy transformation in the European Union. Building energy self-sufficiency at a local level is [...] Read more.
The decentralization of the large-scale energy sector, its replacement with pro-ecological, dispersed production sources and building a citizen dimension of the energy sector are the directional objectives of the energy transformation in the European Union. Building energy self-sufficiency at a local level is possible, based on the so-called Energy Communities, which include energy clusters and energy cooperatives. Several dozen pilot projects for energy clusters have been implemented in Poland, while energy cooperatives, despite being legally sanctioned and potentially a simpler formula of operation, have not functioned in practice. This article presents the coopetitive nature of Energy Communities. The authors analysed the principles and benefits of creating Energy Communities from a regulatory and practical side. An important element of the analysis is to indicate the managerial, coopetitive nature of the strategies implemented within the Energy Communities. Their members, while operating in a competitive environment, simultaneously cooperate to achieve common benefits. On the basis of the actual data of recipients and producers, the results of simulations of benefits in the economic dimension will be presented, proving the thesis of the legitimacy of creating coopetitive structures of Energy Communities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Green Energy in Central and Eastern European (CEE) Countries: New Challenges on the Path to Sustainable Development
Energies 2021, 14(4), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14040884 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 449
Abstract
In the conditions of climate change and the scarcity of natural resources, the future of energy is increasingly associated with the development of the so-called green energy. Its development is reflected in the European Commission strategic vision to transition to a climate-neutral economy. [...] Read more.
In the conditions of climate change and the scarcity of natural resources, the future of energy is increasingly associated with the development of the so-called green energy. Its development is reflected in the European Commission strategic vision to transition to a climate-neutral economy. This is a challenge that the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, members of the EU, are also trying to meet. In recent years, these countries have seen an increase in the share of renewable energy and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (GGE). On the other hand, basing the energy sector on unstable energy sources (photovoltaics and wind technologies) may imply new challenges on the way to sustainable development. These are old problems in a new version (ecology, diversification of supplies) and new ones related to the features of renewable energy sources (RES; instability, dispersion). The aim of the article was to classify, on the basis of taxonomic methods, the CEE countries from the point of view of green energy transformation (original indicator) and to predict new threats to Romania, Poland, and Bulgaria, the countries representing different groups according to the applied classification. The issues presented are part of a holistic view of RES and can be useful in energy policy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Discounting for Energy Transition Policies—Estimation of the Social Discount Rate for Poland
Energies 2021, 14(3), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030741 - 31 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 524
Abstract
The transition of the energy system in Poland has a long time horizon and demands a substantial investment effort supported by proper economic evaluation. It requires a precise Social Discount Rate (SDR) estimation as discounting makes the present value of long-term effects extremely [...] Read more.
The transition of the energy system in Poland has a long time horizon and demands a substantial investment effort supported by proper economic evaluation. It requires a precise Social Discount Rate (SDR) estimation as discounting makes the present value of long-term effects extremely sensitive to the discount rate level. However, Polish policymakers have little information on SDR: the predominant practice applies a priori fixed 5% discount rate, while studies devoted only to Poland are quite rare. To eliminate this research gap, our paper aims at estimating SDR for Poland, applicable in energy transition policies. We derive SDR for three datasets varying in length, twofold: using market rates via Consumption Rate of Interest (CRI) and Social Opportunity Cost (SOC) of capital, and prescriptive Ramsey and Gollier approaches based on Social Welfare Function (SWF). The results indicate that the rates based on CRI and SOC deviate substantially with changing data timeframes and market conditions, while prescriptive methods show much higher time stability. Due to long-term planning horizons for energy policies, we argue for adopting, as SDR in Poland, the longest dataset’s Ramsey-based rate of 4.72% which can be reduced to 4.39% by Gollier’s precautionary term (reflecting the uncertainty over future consumption growth), which are our main findings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“My Electricity” Program Effectiveness Supporting the Development of PV Installation in Poland
Energies 2021, 14(1), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010231 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 627
Abstract
There are a lot of studies that show the legitimacy of subsidizing renewable energy; however, some mechanisms are defective, and there are problems with the appropriate allocation of funds. Therefore, this paper aims to look at the situation of allocating funds to photovoltaics [...] Read more.
There are a lot of studies that show the legitimacy of subsidizing renewable energy; however, some mechanisms are defective, and there are problems with the appropriate allocation of funds. Therefore, this paper aims to look at the situation of allocating funds to photovoltaics (PV) micro-installations in Poland through the “My Electricity” program. The article presents the results of analyses aimed at identifying inequalities between provinces in the use of funds available under the “My Electricity” program and verifying whether these inequalities are getting worse and whether the intensity of support should not be territorially conditioned in terms of maximization an electricity production. As part of two editions of the “My Electricity” program (until 1 August 2020), over 64,000 PV micro-installations were created with an average power of approximately 5.7 kWp. The total installed PV capacity was 367.1 MWp (1st edition: 159.3 MWp, 2nd edition: 207.8 MWp). Financial resources (as a whole), in the second edition of “My Electricity” program, were distributed better than in the first edition. In the first edition, as much as 7.60% of funds were allocated inefficiently; in the second edition, it was only 3.88%. Allocation surpluses occur in provinces where the average disposable income is low and where there are a small number of households. There is a potential to introduce a territorial project selection criteria. The analysis shows that the criteria should promote provinces with higher disposable income and a larger number of households. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Trade and Financial Globalization on Renewable Energy in EU Transition Economies: A Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Test
Energies 2021, 14(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010019 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 478
Abstract
The globalized world has experienced significant environmental degradation together with raising global production and population. In this context, the employment of renewable energy use has become crucial for a sustainable environment and development. In the research, the mutual causality among renewable energy, trade [...] Read more.
The globalized world has experienced significant environmental degradation together with raising global production and population. In this context, the employment of renewable energy use has become crucial for a sustainable environment and development. In the research, the mutual causality among renewable energy, trade and financial globalization, real GDP per capita, and CO2 emissions in EU transition economies experiencing the integration with global economy was explored through bootstrap panel Granger causality test for the period of 1995–2015. The causality analysis revealed a unilateral causality from trade globalization to renewable energy in Estonia, Latvia, and Slovenia, and from renewable energy to trade globalization in Croatia and Lithuania. However, no significant causality between financial globalization and renewable energy was revealed. On the other side, a unilateral causality from CO2 emissions to renewable energy in Lithuania and Slovenia, and from renewable energy to CO2 emissions in Czechia, Hungary, and Latvia and a reciprocal causality between renewable energy to CO2 emissions in Romania and Slovakia and a unilateral causality from real GDP per capita to renewable energy in Czechia, Romania, and Slovenia was discovered in the causality analysis. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of Support Mechanisms for New CHPs: The Case of Poland
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5635; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215635 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 520
Abstract
The increasing demand for energy on a global scale, as well as the social pressure related to counteracting the effects of climate change, has created favourable conditions for the transformation of energy sectors towards the possession of low-emission generation sources. This situation, however, [...] Read more.
The increasing demand for energy on a global scale, as well as the social pressure related to counteracting the effects of climate change, has created favourable conditions for the transformation of energy sectors towards the possession of low-emission generation sources. This situation, however, requires investment actions in order to modernise the existing power and CHP (Combined Heat and Power) plants and construct new units. These issues, together with the climate and energy policy pursued by the European Union, are the main reasons for the emergence of various governmental mechanisms supporting the replacement of old coal power units with highly efficient cogeneration units based on gas turbines and other units. The support may take different forms. This article discusses two examples of mechanisms available on the Polish market, i.e., (i) the capacity market and (ii) promoting electricity from high-efficiency cogeneration in the form of individual cogeneration premium. The purpose and novelty of the analysis was to identify the pros and cons and the key parameters which determine the advantage of a given mechanism. Both these mechanisms have been characterised and then compared via the example of a planned cogeneration gas unit (an open cycle gas turbine—OCGT). This assessment was made using discount methods based on the FCFF (free cashflow to company) approach. The analysis did not bring forward an unequivocal answer as to the absolute advantage of any of the solutions, but it was able to point out significant problems related to their practical use. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Grand Challenges in Central Europe: The Relationship of Food Security, Climate Change, and Energy Use
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5422; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205422 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
Pursuing various sustainable development goals is posing new challenges for societies, policymakers, and researchers alike. This study implements an exploratory approach to address the complexity of food security and nuance its relationship with other grand challenges, such as energy use and climate change, [...] Read more.
Pursuing various sustainable development goals is posing new challenges for societies, policymakers, and researchers alike. This study implements an exploratory approach to address the complexity of food security and nuance its relationship with other grand challenges, such as energy use and climate change, in Central European countries. A multiple factor analysis (MFA) suggests that the three pillars of food security relate differently to climate change: food affordability and food accessibility positively correlate with climate change, while food quality has a negative association with temperature rise. However, if countries switched to renewable energy resources, all three pillars of food security could be achieved simultaneously. The study also underlines regional inequalities regarding grand challenges and emphasizes the need for innovative local solutions, i.e., advances in agriculture systems, educational programs, and the development of environmental technologies that consider social and economic issues. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Market for limestone sorbents for flue gas desulphurization in coal fired power plants in the context of the transformation of the Polish power sector
Authors: Jarosław Szlugaj; Krzysztof Galos
Affiliation: Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
Abstract: Since the beginning of the 1990s, a large number of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) installations has been constructed in the Polish coal-fired power industry. Thanks to that, domestic SO2 emission was reduced fourfold, recently amounting to less than 0.6 million tpy, while SO2 capture increased to over 80%, respectively. As for FGD purposes wet limestone method has been applied in most cases, a significant increase in domestic demand for limestone sorbents has been recorded, from virtually zero in 1990 to about 3.5 million tpy today, and coal-fired power industry has become the most important customer of limestone industry in Poland. The paper analyses process of the implementation of FGD in Poland along with potential and real limestone sorbents consumption and FGD gypsum production in the Polish coal-fired power plants. It also presents the currently used and potentially to be used limestone deposits, which are or can be useful for production of limestone sorbents applied in FGD. Electric energy mix in Poland is expected to be changed radically in the coming 30 years. Share of coal-fired electricity is still very high – ca. 80% - and significance of coal-fired power plants will remain dominant for at least next decade. With further increase in the level of FGD, it will result in further moderate increase of limestone sorbents consumption, even up to 3.7 million tpy in 2030. Nevertheless, after 2030 gradual, but significant decrease of share of coal-fired electricity is expected in Poland, down to probably ca. 30% in 2050. This will result in a gradual decrease in limestone sorbent demand, to max. 1.7 million tpy around 2050. Declining FGD gypsum production will follow it, from over 4 million tpy at the moment, down to only ca. 2 million tpy in 2050.

Title: The Relationship of Food Security, Climate Change and Energy Use – the Example of Central Europe
Authors: Domicián Máté; Mohammad Fazle Rabbi; Adam Novotny; Sándor Kovács
Affiliation: University of Debrecen - Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Management and Entrepreneurship, H-4028, Hungary, Debrecen, Ótemető Str. 2.
Abstract: Pursuing goals in relation to sustainable economic growth, energy use, and climate change are posing new challenges for food security. This study implements a unique exploratory approach to study the intersections of these complex phenomena in Central European countries. A Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) reveals that whereas climate change is positively related to food affordability and accessibility, temperature rise is negatively correlated with food safety and renewable energy consumption. It seems that higher food affordability and accessibility couple with lower food quality, and climate change may play a mediating role in this relationship. However, if countries switch to more renewable energy resources all three pillars of food security could be achieved together. The study also draws attention to the role of regional inequalities, emphasizing inventive local solutions and the need for educational programs to support exploratory and interdisciplinary research on complex social and environmental issues.

Title: Development of Energy Sector Dilemmas-European Common Goals Due to Polish Way of the Energy Transition
Authors: Waldemar Kamrat
Affiliation: Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
Abstract: The paper presents the development of energy sector dilemmas vs European energy policy due to Polish way for climate goals achievement. The problems of investing effectiveness in energy sector are very important due to development of national economy. Power engineering, generally understood as a branch of the national economy is a strategic sector for the functioning of the state. Its standard development and in particular energy investments play a major role in changing the structure of material production, ensure the rapid development of modern industry, acting as carriers of technological progress in the national economy. These investments determine the increase of technical material production apparatus, its improvement and modernization. Investments play a vital role in ensuring the rational distribution of production, and thus saving social effort, for the comprehensive development of their national economy. As a result of investment activity in the construction of energy facilities, new jobs and conditions for the implementation of the principle of full and rational employment are created. This leads to desired changes in the socio-professional patterns and the development of the national economy. Energy policy determinants in Poland are presented. The Polish energy sector possibilities of the energy transition are described.

Title: Discounting for energy transition policies – estimation of a social discount rate for Poland
Authors: Rafał Buła; Monika Foltyn-Zarychta; Krystian Pera
Affiliation: University of Economics in Katowice , Poland
Abstract: The transition of energy system in Poland requires profound alterations to meet the sustainability goals required by the European Green Deal. The transformation policy must embrace inevitably long-time perspective, more likely measured in decades, than in years, firstly - due to the fact that climate change counteractions are long-term issues, secondly – because energy generation in Poland rests heavily on coal making the transformation long and difficult task. The stretching in time of transformation impacts involves inescapable economic efficiency questions, as the policy decisions should be based on a decision criterion capable of comparing gains and losses of those actions. Such criteria could be provided by economic analysis (i.e. net present value), where outlays borne at present are opposed to future impacts. One of the crucial parameter in such evaluation is a social discount rate (SDR) (used for public policies evaluation) that allows to calculate present value of future impacts to add them up to outlays borne today, however may be decisive for the outcome due to the fact that the growing time distance makes delayed gains and losses extraordinarily sensitive to discount rate value once they are transformed to present value. However, while the importance of SDR is undeniable, polish policy-makers have very small information resource in this area. The predominant practice for public spending is the application of EU cost-benefit guides recommendations of 5%, which is a general estimate for majority of CEE countries (EC 2014). Additionally, the studies measuring SDR that include Poland among other countries are rare (i.e. Evans & Sezer 2005, Florio & Sirtori 2013, Seçilmiş Akbulut 2019), while estimations devoted exclusively to Poland are almost non-existing (Foltyn-Zarychta 2018). Therefore, we aim at estimating SDR for Poland capable to be used for long-term energy sector transition policies. We apply the social rate of time preference approach, often referred to as Ramsey equation (Ramsey 1928) that adds up utility discount rate and the product of the growth rate of per capita consumption and the elasticity of marginal utility of consumption, estimated in our study on the basis of the personal taxation method (Stern 1977).

Title: Energy Security Issues in CEE Countries
Authors: Honorata Nyga-Łukaszewska
Affiliation: Szkoła Główna Handlowa w Warszawie, Kolegium Gospodarki Światowej, Instytut Ekonomii Międzynarodowej, al. Niepodległości 162, 02-554 Warszawa, Poland

Title: The Future of the Polish Energy Mix in the Context of Social Expectations
Authors: Oliwia Mróz – Malik; Wojciech Drożdż; Marcin Kopiczko
Affiliation: Logistics and Purchases Department, Electromobility and Transport Office, ENEA Operator, Poznan, Poland

Title: An Analysis of Support Mechanisms for New CHPs: The Case of Poland
Authors: Krzysztof Zamasz; Radosław Kapłan; Przemysław Kaszyński; Piotr W. Saługa
Affiliation: AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Management, Krakow, Poland
Abstract: The increasing demand for energy on a global scale, as well as the social pressure related to counteracting the effects of climate change have created favourable conditions for the transformation of energy sectors towards the possession of low-emission generation sources. This situation, however, requires investment actions in order to modernise the existing power and CHP plants and constructing new units. These issues, together with the climate and energy policy pursued by the European Union, are the main reason for the emergence of various governmental mechanisms supporting the replacement of old coal power units with highly efficient cogeneration units based on gas turbines and other units. The support may take different forms. The article discusses two examples of mechanisms available on the Polish market, i.e. (i) the capacity market and (ii) promoting electricity from high-efficiency cogeneration in the form of individual cogeneration premium. Both those mechanisms have been characterised and then compared on the example of a planned cogeneration gas unit (an open cycle gas turbine – OCGT). The purpose of the analysis was to identify the pros and cons and to identify the key parameters which determine the advantage of a given mechanism. The analysis did not bring forward an unequivocal answer as to the absolute advantage of any of the solutions, but it allowed pointing out significant problems related to their practical use.

Title: A Model-Based Analysis of Energy Transition Scenarios for the Polish Power Sector to 2050
Authors: Pablo Benalcazar; Przemysław Kaszyński; Jacek Kamiński
Affiliation: Division of Energy Economics, Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-261 Kraków, Poland
Abstract: The imminent retirement of a significant share of coal-fired power plants in Poland by 2035, the rising EUA prices, and the declining costs in renewable energy technologies have intensified the need for modernization plans and energy transition pathways that can lead to a low-carbon generation portfolio. In this paper, we analyze the long-term impacts of several energy transition scenarios and decarbonization plans on the electricity generation mix of Poland. We quantify the necessary investments to achieve the technical transformation outlined in the analyzed scenarios and the emission reduction potential from the rising share of electricity generated from renewable energy sources. To this end, we employ a long-term investment model based on a linear programming approach to investigate different energy strategy scenarios. Our results provide important insights and a new perspective on the effects of declining costs of renewable energy technologies and the increasing share of gas-fired power plants on the Polish power sector. In addition, we identify and discuss the key factors that will drive Poland’s energy transition.

Title: Is Biomass a Sustainable Energy Source?
Authors: Wiktoria Sobczyk; Eugeniusz Jacek Sobczyk
Affiliation: AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mining and Geoengineering, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland Mineral Energy and Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, J. Wybickiego 7, 31-261 Krakow, Poland

Title: Use of Blockchain Technology to Achieve Goals of the Energy Transition in Poland - A Political and Legal Perspective
Authors: Krzysztof Matan; Radosław Miśkiewicz; Katarzyna Ziółkowska
Affiliation: Silesian University of Technology, University of Warsaw

Title: The Future of the Polish Energy Mix in the Context of Social Expectations
Authors: Wojciech Drożdż; Oliwia Mróz-Malik; Marcin Kopiczko; Andrzej Rrzeczycki
Affiliation: University of Szczecin; Research Center on Management in Energy Sector, Poland

Title: Forecasting European CO2 market - challenges in trading and fundamental pricing aspects. Poland as an example of a greenhouse gases producer in Europe
Authors: Dawid Klimczak
Affiliation: Polish Electricity Association (PKEE), Poland

Title: Value Creation of Electricity Generators through Decarbonisation – Examples from Poland
Authors: Artur Galbarczyk
Affiliation: Szkoła Główna Handlowa w Warszawie

Title: Competitiveness of the Polish Hard Coal Mining Sector as a Fuel Supplier for Heat and Power Generation
Authors: Przemysław KASZYŃSKI; Aleksandra KOMOROWSKA; Marcin MALEC; Jacek KAMIŃSKI
Affiliation: Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-261 Kraków, Wybickiego 7A, Poland

Title: Energy consumption in CEE households in the platform economics
Authors: Malgorzata Poniatowska-Jaksch
Affiliation: Warsaw School of Economics

Title: Green energy in CEE countries: New challenges on the path to sustainable development
Authors: Teresa Pakulska
Affiliation: Warsaw School of Economics, Poland

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