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Energies, Volume 12, Issue 3 (February-1 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Concentrated Solar Power can be used to run a two-step thermochemical cycle based on different [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Methodology for the Energy Need Assessment to Effectively Design and Deploy Mini-Grids for Rural Electrification
Energies 2019, 12(3), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030574
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
In order to successfully deploy a large number of decentralized energy systems in developing countries, it is necessary to standardize effective methodologies and procedures to develop off-grid/mini-grid systems. Considering that the energy need assessment provides inputs and assumptions used in business modelling and [...] Read more.
In order to successfully deploy a large number of decentralized energy systems in developing countries, it is necessary to standardize effective methodologies and procedures to develop off-grid/mini-grid systems. Considering that the energy need assessment provides inputs and assumptions used in business modelling and mini-grid design, the accuracy of its results directly affects the technical and financial feasibility studies. Thus, the approach for applying a proven methodology for the energy need assessment of rural communities is aimed at obtaining reliable input data for the mini-grid development. This helps in reducing both the financial challenges by mitigating the uncertainties in electricity demand and the technical challenges by contributing to adequately size off-grid power generation systems, with a view to boost toward a common overall objective of mini-grid’s optimization methods and tools. Hence, taking into consideration that target communities differ in terms of needs and context conditions, the proposed paper describes an inclusive methodology that can be adapted case-by-case. It provides an effective applied solution the lack of proven guidelines from project developers or literature, giving priority to data collection methods able to achieve a large sample representative of the market, with high accuracy in estimating the energy consumptions from electricity substitutes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems in Remote Sites 2019)
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Open AccessArticle Performance and Microbial Community Dynamics in Anaerobic Digestion of Waste Activated Sludge: Impact of Immigration
Energies 2019, 12(3), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030573
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
Waste activated sludge (WAS) is a byproduct of municipal wastewater treatment. WAS contains a large proportion of inactive microbes, so when it is used as a substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD), their presence can interfere with monitoring of active microbial populations. To investigate [...] Read more.
Waste activated sludge (WAS) is a byproduct of municipal wastewater treatment. WAS contains a large proportion of inactive microbes, so when it is used as a substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD), their presence can interfere with monitoring of active microbial populations. To investigate how influent cells affect the active and inactive microbial communities during digestion of WAS, we operated model mesophilic bioreactors with conventional conditions. Under six different hydraulic retention times (HRTs; 25, 23, 20, 17, 14, and 11.5 d), the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and CH4 production of the AD were within a typical range for mesophilic sludge digesters. In the main bacteria were proteobacteria, bacteroidetes, and firmicutes in both the WAS and the bioreactors, while in main archaeal methanogen group was Methanosarcinales in the WAS and methanomicrobiales in the bioreactors. Of the 106 genera identified, the estimated net growth rates were negative in 72 and positive in 34. The genera with negative growth included many aerobic taxa. The genera with positive growth rates included methanogens and syntrophs. In some taxa, the net growth rate could be positive or negative, depending on HRT, so their abundance was also affected by HRT. This study gives insights into the microbial dynamics of a conventional sludge anaerobic digester by distinguishing potentially active (growing) and inactive (non-growing, dormant) microbes and by correlating population dynamics with process parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaerobic Digestion for the Production of Energy and Chemicals)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Disc Tip Geometry on the Aerodynamic Performance and Flow Characteristics of Multichannel Tesla Turbines
Energies 2019, 12(3), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030572
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
As a competitive small-scale turbomachinery option, Tesla turbines have wide potential in various fields, such as renewable energy generation systems and small power equipment. This paper investigates the influence of disc tip geometry, including its profile and relative height, on the aerodynamic performance [...] Read more.
As a competitive small-scale turbomachinery option, Tesla turbines have wide potential in various fields, such as renewable energy generation systems and small power equipment. This paper investigates the influence of disc tip geometry, including its profile and relative height, on the aerodynamic performance and flow characteristics of one-to-one and one-to-many multichannel Tesla turbines. The results indicate that compared to the turbine with blunt tips, the isentropic efficiency of the one-to-one turbine with sharp tips has a little decrease, which is because the relative tangential velocity gradient near the rotational disc walls decreases a little and additional vortices are generated at the rotor inlet, while that of the one-to-many turbine with sharp tips increases significantly, resulting from an increase in the relative tangential velocity in the disc channels and a decrease in the low Mach number and vortex area; for instance the turbine efficiency for the former relatively decreases by 3.6% and that for the latter increases by 13.5% at 30,000 r/min. In addition, the isentropic efficiency of the one-to-many turbine with sharp tips goes up with increasing relative height due to increasing improvement of flow status, and its increment rate slows down. A circular or elliptic tip performs better with lower relative height and a triangular tip behaves better with higher relative height. To sum up, a blunt disc tip is recommended for the one-to-one turbine, and a sharp disc tip is for the one-to-many turbine. The relative height and tip profile of the one-to-many turbine should be determined according to their effects on turbine performance, manufacturing difficulty and mechanical deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Wide Bandwidth Control for Multi-Parallel Grid-Connected Inverters with Harmonic Compensation
Energies 2019, 12(3), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030571
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper proposes a virtual impedance-based bandwidth control method for multi-parallel harmonic-compensation grid-connected inverters (HCGIs). Firstly, the influence of the resonance points caused by the interaction of multiple HCGIs on the control bandwidth is analyzed, and the analysis result shows that the control [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a virtual impedance-based bandwidth control method for multi-parallel harmonic-compensation grid-connected inverters (HCGIs). Firstly, the influence of the resonance points caused by the interaction of multiple HCGIs on the control bandwidth is analyzed, and the analysis result shows that the control bandwidth becomes narrow due to the appearance of a new resonance point. Then, to increase the control bandwidth of multi-parallel HCGIs, six different types of virtual impedance circuits are constructed and compared, and the bandwidth control method based on virtual impedance by capacitor voltage feedback is proposed. Following that, the relationship between feedback coefficient and bandwidth is established, the design approach of parameters for the proposed method is presented. Finally, the proposed method is confirmed by the simulation and experimental tests. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed control method can effectively shift resonance frequencies right to solve the issue of control bandwidth reduction in multi-parallel HCGIs systems, while without affecting the low-frequency harmonic current compensation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Incorporating the Concept of Flexible Operation in the Design of Solar Collector Fields for Industrial Applications
Energies 2019, 12(3), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030570
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
This work introduces the concept of flexible operation in the design of solar thermal utility systems for low temperature processes. The design objectives are: (a) The supply of the thermal needs of the process (heat duty and minimum required temperature), and (b) the [...] Read more.
This work introduces the concept of flexible operation in the design of solar thermal utility systems for low temperature processes. The design objectives are: (a) The supply of the thermal needs of the process (heat duty and minimum required temperature), and (b) the maximization of the operating time during the day. The approach shows how the network structure is defined by adjusting the mass flow rate and the inlet temperature of the working fluid to achieve the smallest collector surface area. This work emphasizes the need to specify the solar network structure, which is comprised of two main elements: The number of lines in parallel and the number of collectors in series in each line. The former of these two design specifications is related to the heat load that the system will supply, while the latter is directly related to the delivery temperature. A stepwise design approach is demonstrated using two case studies where it is shown that the detailed design of the solar collector network structure is fundamental for a successful thermal integration with minimum investment. In this paper, the design methodology is based on flat-plate solar collectors, but it can be extended to any other type of low temperature solar technology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Thermodynamic and Technical Issues of Hydrogen and Methane-Hydrogen Mixtures Pipeline Transmission
Energies 2019, 12(3), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030569
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
The use of hydrogen as a non-emission energy carrier is important for the innovative development of the power-generation industry. Transmission pipelines are the most efficient and economic method of transporting large quantities of hydrogen in a number of variants. A comprehensive hydraulic analysis [...] Read more.
The use of hydrogen as a non-emission energy carrier is important for the innovative development of the power-generation industry. Transmission pipelines are the most efficient and economic method of transporting large quantities of hydrogen in a number of variants. A comprehensive hydraulic analysis of hydrogen transmission at a mass flow rate of 0.3 to 3.0 kg/s (volume flow rates from 12,000 Nm3/h to 120,000 Nm3/h) was performed. The methodology was based on flow simulation in a pipeline for assumed boundary conditions as well as modeling of fluid thermodynamic parameters for pure hydrogen and its mixtures with methane. The assumed outlet pressure was 24 bar (g). The pipeline diameter and required inlet pressure were calculated for these parameters. The change in temperature was analyzed as a function of the pipeline length for a given real heat transfer model; the assumed temperatures were 5 and 25 C. The impact of hydrogen on natural gas transmission is another important issue. The performed analysis revealed that the maximum participation of hydrogen in natural gas should not exceed 15%–20%, or it has a negative impact on natural gas quality. In the case of a mixture of 85% methane and 15% hydrogen, the required outlet pressure is 10% lower than for pure methane. The obtained results present various possibilities of pipeline transmission of hydrogen at large distances. Moreover, the changes in basic thermodynamic parameters have been presented as a function of pipeline length for the adopted assumptions. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle HIRA Model for Short-Term Electricity Price Forecasting
Energies 2019, 12(3), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030568
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
In competitive power markets, electric utilities, power producers, and traders are exposed to increased risks caused by electricity price volatility. The growing reliance on renewable sources and their dependence on weather, nuclear uncertainty, market coupling, and global financial instability are contributing to the [...] Read more.
In competitive power markets, electric utilities, power producers, and traders are exposed to increased risks caused by electricity price volatility. The growing reliance on renewable sources and their dependence on weather, nuclear uncertainty, market coupling, and global financial instability are contributing to the importance of accurate electricity price forecasting. Since power markets are not all equally developed, different price forecasting methods have been introduced for individual markets. The aim of this research is to introduce a short-term electricity price forecasting method that addresses the problems of price volatility, a varying number of input parameters, varying data availability, and a large number of parameters and input data. Furthermore, the proposed model can be used on any market as it targets the characteristics and specifics of each market. The proposed Hybrid Iterative Reactive Adaptive (HIRA) method consists of two phases. In analysis phase, fundamental parameters which affect the electricity price are identified depending on market development. Obtained parameters are used as data inputs for price forecasting using a hybrid method. The HIRA model combines a statistical approach for large data set analysis and a similar day method with neural network tools. Similar days are examined using a statistical method which combines correlation significance, price volatility, and forecasting accuracy of the historical data. Data are collected based on their availability and electricity prices are forecasted in several iterations. All relevant data for price forecasting are collected, categorized, and arranged using simple indicators which makes the HIRA model adaptive and reactive to new market circumstances. The proposed model is validated using the Hungarian Power Exchange (HUPX) electricity price data records. The results show that with HIRA model forecasting, the error is stable and does not depend on price volatility. The HIRA method has proven to be applicable for forecasting electricity prices in real-time market conditions and enables effective hedging of price risk in the production or market portfolio. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling a High Concentrator Photovoltaic Module Using Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems
Energies 2019, 12(3), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030567
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
Currently, there is growing interest in the modeling of high concentrator photovoltaic modules, due to the importance of achieving an accurate model, to improve the knowledge and understanding of this technology and to promote its expansion. In recent years, some techniques of artificial [...] Read more.
Currently, there is growing interest in the modeling of high concentrator photovoltaic modules, due to the importance of achieving an accurate model, to improve the knowledge and understanding of this technology and to promote its expansion. In recent years, some techniques of artificial intelligence, such as the Artificial Neural Network, have been used with the goal of obtaining an electrical model of these modules. However, little attention has been paid to applying Fuzzy Rule-Based Systems for this purpose. This work presents two new models of high concentrator photovoltaics that use two types of Fuzzy Systems: the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang, characterized by the achievement of high accuracy in the model, and the Mamdani, characterized by high accuracy and the ease of interpreting the linguistic rules that control the behavior of the fuzzy system. To obtain a good knowledge base, two learning methods have been proposed: the “Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system” and the “Ad Hoc data-driven generation”. These combinations of fuzzy systems and learning methods have allowed us to obtain two models of high concentrator photovoltaic modules, which include two improvements over previous models: an increase in the model accuracy and the possibility of deducing the relationship between the main meteorological parameters and the maximum power output of a module. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Sources of Energy Modeling and Automation)
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Open AccessArticle Analytical Calculation of Mutual Inductance of Finite-Length Coaxial Helical Filaments and Tape Coils
Energies 2019, 12(3), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030566
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
Mutual inductance between finite-length coaxial helical filaments and tape coils are presented analytically. In this paper, a mathematical model for finite-length coaxial helical filaments is established, and subsequently, the mutual inductance of the filaments is derived in a series form, containing a one-dimensional [...] Read more.
Mutual inductance between finite-length coaxial helical filaments and tape coils are presented analytically. In this paper, a mathematical model for finite-length coaxial helical filaments is established, and subsequently, the mutual inductance of the filaments is derived in a series form, containing a one-dimensional integral. The mutual inductance expression of the filaments is then generalized for a tape conductor. When the tape conductor of each coil is closely wound, then the inverse Mellin transform is further utilized for transforming the generalized integral in the mutual inductance expression into a series involving hypergeometric functions, for increasing the calculation speed. Finally, the obtained expressions are compared numerically with the existing analytical solutions and finite-element simulation in order to verify the correctness and general applicability of the results. In this paper, as all the mutual-inductance analytical expressions are concise with fast convergence, it is easy to obtain the numerical results in software, such as Mathematica. The expressions presented in this paper are applicable to any corresponding geometric parameter, and are thereby more advantageous compared to the existing analytical methods. In addition, evaluation by these expressions is considerably more efficient, as compared to finite element simulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Torrefaction of Sewage Sludge: Kinetics and Fuel Properties of Biochars
Energies 2019, 12(3), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030565
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
We propose a ‘Waste to Carbon’ thermal transformation of sewage sludge (SS) via torrefaction to a valuable product (fuel) with a high content of carbon. One important, technological aspect to develop this concept is the determination of activation energy needed for torrefaction. Thus, [...] Read more.
We propose a ‘Waste to Carbon’ thermal transformation of sewage sludge (SS) via torrefaction to a valuable product (fuel) with a high content of carbon. One important, technological aspect to develop this concept is the determination of activation energy needed for torrefaction. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the kinetics of SS torrefaction and determine the effects of process temperature on fuel properties of torrefied products (biochars). Torrefaction was performed using high ash content SS at six (200~300 °C) temperatures and 60 min residence (process) time. Mass loss during torrefaction ranged from 10~20%. The resulting activation energy for SS torrefaction was ~12.007 kJ·mol−1. Initial (unprocessed) SS higher heating value (HHV) was 13.5 MJ·kg−1. However, the increase of torrefaction temperature decreased HHV from 13.4 to 3.8 MJ·kg−1. Elemental analysis showed a significant decrease of the H/C ratio that occurred during torrefaction, while the O/C ratio fluctuated with much smaller differences. Although the activation energy was significantly lower compared with lignocellulosic materials, low-temperature SS torrefaction technology could be explored for further SS stabilization and utilization (e.g., dewatering and hygienization). Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Study on Effects of Common Rail Injector Drive Circuitry with Different Freewheeling Circuits on Control Performance and Cycle-by-Cycle Variations
Energies 2019, 12(3), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030564
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper provides a new common rail injector drive circuitry for practical use. The new drive circuitry with variable freewheeling circuit was developed based on the requirements for the rate of current drop in the peak-and-hold solenoid model. The variable freewheeling circuit exhibited [...] Read more.
This paper provides a new common rail injector drive circuitry for practical use. The new drive circuitry with variable freewheeling circuit was developed based on the requirements for the rate of current drop in the peak-and-hold solenoid model. The variable freewheeling circuit exhibited superior performance in the control accuracy compared to the conventional circuit with a resistor in series with diode (RD) freewheeling circuit. Furthermore, the current cutting process was 30 μ s shorter, and the control accuracy of the cycle fuel injection mass was improved by at least 0.36% or exactly 2.86% when a small fuel injection mass was used. In addition, the variable freewheeling circuit consumed less power because the drive power charging was done through the feedback from electromagnetic energy to electrical energy. When the fuel injection mass was large, the fall range of the driving power voltage became 1 V smaller, its recovery time was 1ms shorter, and the highest temperature of the drive circuitry was only 37 C, which was 127 C lower than that of the RD freewheeling due to the decrease in energy consumption. Finally, experimental tests with a multi-cylinder engine showed that the variable freewheeling circuit reduced the cycle-by-cycle combustion variations by 0.5%, and lessened the NOx and soot emissions significantly by 3.5% and 4%, respectively, in comparison to the RD freewheeling circuit. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An MPC Reference Governor Approach for Enhancing the Performance of Precompensated Boost DC–DC Converters
Energies 2019, 12(3), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030563
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
This article addresses the problem of enhancing the performance of boost DC–DC converters that are already compensated either in voltage-mode by a common proportional–integral–derivative (PID, Type III) primary controller or in current-mode with a two-loop PI control law. Improved performance may be obtained [...] Read more.
This article addresses the problem of enhancing the performance of boost DC–DC converters that are already compensated either in voltage-mode by a common proportional–integral–derivative (PID, Type III) primary controller or in current-mode with a two-loop PI control law. Improved performance may be obtained with the addition of a secondary controller/prefilter in the form of a reference governor. This complementary scheme adjusts the imposed voltage reference input signal dynamically and can be designed in an optimal fashion via the model predictive control (MPC) methodology. Our evaluation with numerical simulation in MATLAB suggests that this two-level controller can effectively enhance the performance of a DC–DC boost converter in a wide operating range without imposing extra requirements or limitations. A simple linear MPC design in explicit form is employed in this approach, which is computationally tractable for digital microprocessor implementation. This work paves the way for future research involving reference governor ideas in the area of bilinear power electronic converters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on the Physical Performance and Flow Behavior of Decorated Polyacrylamide for Enhanced Oil Recovery
Energies 2019, 12(3), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030562
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
With the rapid growth of energy consumption, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are continually emerging, the most effective and widely used was polymer flooding. However, the shortcomings were gradually exposed. A novel decorated polyacrylamide might be a better alternative than polymer. In this [...] Read more.
With the rapid growth of energy consumption, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are continually emerging, the most effective and widely used was polymer flooding. However, the shortcomings were gradually exposed. A novel decorated polyacrylamide might be a better alternative than polymer. In this work, the molecular structure and the properties reflecting the viscosity of decorated polyacrylamide, interfacial tension, and emulsification were examined. In order to better understand the interactions between decorated polyacrylamide and oil as well as the displacement mechanism, the displacement experiment were conducted in the etched-glass microscale model. Moreover, the coreflooding comparison experiments between decorated polyacrylamide and polymer were performed to investigate the displacement effect. The statistical analysis showed that the decorated polyacrylamide has excellent characteristics of salt tolerance, viscosity stability, and viscosification like polymer. Besides, the ability to reduce the interfacial tension in order 10−1 and emulsification, which were more similar to surfactant. Therefore, the decorated polyacrylamide was a multifunctional polymer. The displacement process captured by camera illustrated that the decorated polyacrylamide flooded oil mainly by means of ‘pull and drag’, ‘entrainment’, and ‘bridging’, based on the mechanism of viscosifying, emulsifying, and viscoelasticity. The results of the coreflooding experiment indicated that the recovery of decorated polyacrylamide can be improved by approximately 11–16% after water flooding when the concentration was more than 800 mg/L, which was higher than that of conventional polymer flooding. It should be mentioned that a new injection mode of ‘concentration reduction multi-slug’ was first proposed, and it obtained an exciting result of increasing oil production and decreasing water-cut, the effect of conformance control was more significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Fossil Fuels)
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Open AccessArticle On-Board Cold Thermal Energy Storage System for Hydrogen Fueling Process
Energies 2019, 12(3), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030561
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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The hydrogen storage pressure in fuel cell vehicles has been increased from 35 MPa to 70 MPa in order to accommodate longer driving range. On the downside, such pressure increase results in significant temperature rise inside the hydrogen tank during fast filling at [...] Read more.
The hydrogen storage pressure in fuel cell vehicles has been increased from 35 MPa to 70 MPa in order to accommodate longer driving range. On the downside, such pressure increase results in significant temperature rise inside the hydrogen tank during fast filling at a fueling station, which may pose safety issues. Installation of a chiller often mitigates this concern because it cools the hydrogen gas before its deposition into the tank. To address both the energy efficiency improvement and safety concerns, this paper proposed an on-board cold thermal energy storage (CTES) system, cooled by expanded hydrogen. During the driving cycle, the proposed system uses an expander, instead of a pressure regulator, to generate additional power and cold hydrogen gas. Moreover, CTES is equipped with phase change materials (PCM) to recover the cold energy of the expanded hydrogen gas, which is later used in the next filling to cool the high-pressure hydrogen gas from the fueling station. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Hydrogen Production, Storage and Utilization)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle An Emissions Arbitrage Algorithm to Improve the Environmental Performance of Domestic PV-Battery Systems
Energies 2019, 12(3), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030560
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
Domestic PV-battery systems are rarely operated in a way which specifically maximizes environmental benefit. Consequently the studies that seriously examine such systems often find that the greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions savings of rooftop PV, though still positive, are lessened by adding a [...] Read more.
Domestic PV-battery systems are rarely operated in a way which specifically maximizes environmental benefit. Consequently the studies that seriously examine such systems often find that the greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions savings of rooftop PV, though still positive, are lessened by adding a domestic battery. This study shows thatby simulating a PV-battery system with a range of sizes that this need not be inevitable. A novel algorithm was designed specifically to perform ‘emissions arbitrage’: to charge the battery when the grid emissions intensity is low and to discharge when it is high. It was found that the CO2 saved relative to the same system with PV only can more than pay back the CO2 debt of manufacturing the battery. This is true as long as the UK moves away from the present-day situation where natural gas-fired generators are nearly always the marginal generator. This work underlines the importance of both the operating strategy and the interactions between the system and the entire grid, in order to maximize the environmental benefit achievable with domestic PV-battery systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Technologies for CO2 Capture from Cement Production—Part 1: Technical Evaluation
Energies 2019, 12(3), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030559
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
A technical evaluation of CO2 capture technologies when retrofitted to a cement plant is performed. The investigated technologies are the oxyfuel process, the chilled ammonia process, membrane-assisted CO2 liquefaction, and the calcium looping process with tail-end and integrated configurations. For comparison, [...] Read more.
A technical evaluation of CO2 capture technologies when retrofitted to a cement plant is performed. The investigated technologies are the oxyfuel process, the chilled ammonia process, membrane-assisted CO2 liquefaction, and the calcium looping process with tail-end and integrated configurations. For comparison, absorption with monoethanolamine (MEA) is used as reference technology. The focus of the evaluation is on emission abatement, energy performance, and retrofitability. All the investigated technologies perform better than the reference both in terms of emission abatement and energy consumption. The equivalent CO2 avoided are 73–90%, while it is 64% for MEA, considering the average EU-28 electricity mix. The specific primary energy consumption for CO2 avoided is 1.63–4.07 MJ/kg CO2, compared to 7.08 MJ/kg CO2 for MEA. The calcium looping technologies have the highest emission abatement potential, while the oxyfuel process has the best energy performance. When it comes to retrofitability, the post-combustion technologies show significant advantages compared to the oxyfuel and to the integrated calcium looping technologies. Furthermore, the performance of the individual technologies shows strong dependencies on site-specific and plant-specific factors. Therefore, rather than identifying one single best technology, it is emphasized that CO2 capture in the cement industry should be performed with a portfolio of capture technologies, where the preferred choice for each specific plant depends on local factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage)
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Open AccessArticle Research on Configuration Methods of Battery Energy Storage System for Pure Electric Bus Fast Charging Station
Energies 2019, 12(3), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030558
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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With the pervasiveness of electric vehicles and an increased demand for fast charging, stationary high-power fast-charging is becoming more widespread, especially for the purpose of serving pure electric buses (PEBs) with large-capacity onboard batteries. This has resulted in a huge distribution capacity demand. [...] Read more.
With the pervasiveness of electric vehicles and an increased demand for fast charging, stationary high-power fast-charging is becoming more widespread, especially for the purpose of serving pure electric buses (PEBs) with large-capacity onboard batteries. This has resulted in a huge distribution capacity demand. However, the distribution capacity is limited, and in some urban areas the cost of expanding the electric network capacity is very high. In this paper, three battery energy storage system (BESS) integration methods—the AC bus, each charging pile, or DC bus—are considered for the suppression of the distribution capacity demand according to the proposed charging topologies of a PEB fast-charging station. On the basis of linear programming theory, an evaluation model was established that consider the influencing factors of the configuration: basic electricity fee, electricity cost, cost of the energy storage system, costs of transformer and converter equipment, and electric energy loss. Then, a case simulation is presented using realistic operation data, and an economic comparison of the three configurations is provided. An analysis of the impacts of each influence factor in the case study is discussed to verify the case results. The numerical results indicate that the appropriate BESS configuration can significantly reduce the distribution demand and stationary cost synchronously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
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Open AccessArticle Direct Printing of a Multi-Layer Sensor on Pet Substrate for CO2 Detection
Energies 2019, 12(3), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030557
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
The use of inexpensive gas sensors is a real need for many applications requiring the use of disposable sensors. This work deals with the realization and characterization of a low cost CO2 sensor realized by rapid prototyping techniques. In particular, the sensor [...] Read more.
The use of inexpensive gas sensors is a real need for many applications requiring the use of disposable sensors. This work deals with the realization and characterization of a low cost CO2 sensor realized by rapid prototyping techniques. In particular, the sensor consists of a set of InterDigiTed electrodes, over which a double sensing layer made of PEDOT/PSS (CLEVIOS™ PHCV4, by H.C.Starck) and a solution of pristine graphene powder has been deposited. A silver nano-particle solution is used for inkjet printing the electrodes onto the PET (PolyEthylene Terephthalate) substrate, through a commercial inkjet printer. The sensing strategy is based on the variation of the electrical conductance of graphene due to gas molecules adsorption. The device responsivity observed in two different operating conditions (50 °C and 60 °C), is 4.0 µΩ/Ω/ppm and 4.7 µΩ/Ω/ppm. The corresponding values of the resolution are 400 ppm and 420 ppm. Main advantages of the developed sensor consist in the cost-effective fabrication techniques and the device flexibility, which are strategic for applications requiring disposable and shapeable devices to be installed into irregular surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics, Micronanosensor and Smart Devices for Control)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Perforated Fin on Flow Characteristics and Thermal Performance in Spiral Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger
Energies 2019, 12(3), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030556
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
The present study conducts the numerical investigation of flow characteristics and thermal performance of spiral finned-tube heat exchangers. The effects of location of perforations (90°, 120°, and 150°) on heat transfer and pressure drop are analyzed for the air-side. The commercial computational fluid [...] Read more.
The present study conducts the numerical investigation of flow characteristics and thermal performance of spiral finned-tube heat exchangers. The effects of location of perforations (90°, 120°, and 150°) on heat transfer and pressure drop are analyzed for the air-side. The commercial computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS Fluent (V.17.0) is used for simulations with the RNG k-ε model based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. The velocity field, Colburn j-factor, and friction factor are analyzed to evaluate the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. Because of the flow through the perforations, the boundary layers on the fin surfaces are interrupted. This results in increased flow disturbances close to the fin, and the heat transfer performance increases compared to the reference case. The pressure drop, which is one of the disadvantages of spiral finned tubes comparing to plate or circular fins, decreases with perforations on the fin. Overall, the cases with perforated fin exhibit greater performance of area goodness factor considering the relationship between the heat transfer and the pressure drop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Transfer Enhancement)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Incidence of Direct Lightning over a HVDC Transmission Line through EFD Model
Energies 2019, 12(3), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030555
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 26 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
HVDC systems are becoming more common worldwide, specially in Brazil, since the adoption of such system for Itaipu’s hydroelectric complex in the 1980’s. Today, the country has the Xingu-Estreito bipole, with length of 2375 km. This system crosses a region with high lightning [...] Read more.
HVDC systems are becoming more common worldwide, specially in Brazil, since the adoption of such system for Itaipu’s hydroelectric complex in the 1980’s. Today, the country has the Xingu-Estreito bipole, with length of 2375 km. This system crosses a region with high lightning incidence, a phenomenon which causes faults in power systems. The most widely used model for the positioning of the arrestor cables over a transmission line is the electrogeometric model. This model, however, does not take into account the different potentials over the structure’s surface, and therefore presents significant inaccuracies when assessing the risk of lightning strikes on structures such as a HVDC line. This work then used the Electric Field Deflection (EFD) model with the aid finite elements. Four levels of lightning are assessed (I, II, III and IV), with current peaks of 3.9, 5.4, 10.1 and 15.7 kA. It was verified that the positive pole tends to attract most of the lightning with shielding failures width (SFW) of 12, 8, 4 and 0 m. It was then proposed to move the arrestor cables horizontally. The study indicates that this horizontal shifting of the cables in 5 and 8 m toward the side with larger chance of direct incidence reduces the shielding failure widths in 50% for peak current of 3.9 kA and almost eliminates the strikes for lightning with peak currents of 5.4, 10.1 and 15.7 kA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle Development Processes of Surface Trucking and Partial Discharge of Pressboards Immersed in Mineral Oil: Effect of Tip Curvatures
Energies 2019, 12(3), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030554
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
The pressboard surface is the electric weak link of the oil-paper insulation in transformers, and long-term partial discharge (PD) erosion is the dominant cause of degradation in pressboard. To explore the development processes of surface tracking under the effect of tip curvature, the [...] Read more.
The pressboard surface is the electric weak link of the oil-paper insulation in transformers, and long-term partial discharge (PD) erosion is the dominant cause of degradation in pressboard. To explore the development processes of surface tracking under the effect of tip curvature, the typical needle-plate model was selected to initiate an electric field with a high tangential component on pressboard surface under needle tip curvature of 4~42 μm. With the help of a high-speed camera and a PD detecting system, the development processes of surface tracking and PD were recorded under a sustained AC voltage. A profound difference between surface tracking under different curvatures was discussed. Pressboard surfaces after tests were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the damage degree of cellulose fibers was dependent on the tip curvature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle Power Loss Minimization and Voltage Stability Improvement in Electrical Distribution System via Network Reconfiguration and Distributed Generation Placement Using Novel Adaptive Shuffled Frogs Leaping Algorithm
Energies 2019, 12(3), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030553
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper proposes a novel adaptive optimization algorithm to solve the network reconfiguration and distributed generation (DG) placement problems with objective functions including power loss minimization and voltage stability index (VSI) improvement. The proposed technique called Adaptive Shuffled Frogs Leaping Algorithm (ASFLA) was [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel adaptive optimization algorithm to solve the network reconfiguration and distributed generation (DG) placement problems with objective functions including power loss minimization and voltage stability index (VSI) improvement. The proposed technique called Adaptive Shuffled Frogs Leaping Algorithm (ASFLA) was performed for solving network reconfiguration and DG installation in IEEE 33- and 69-bus distribution systems with seven different scenarios. The performance of ASFLA was compared to that of other algorithms such as Fireworks Algorithm (FWA), Adaptive Cuckoo Search Algorithm (ACSA) and Shuffled Frogs Leaping Algorithm (SFLA). It was found that the power loss and VSI provided by ASFLA were better than those given by FWA, ACSA and SFLA in both 33- and 69-bus systems. The best solution of power loss reduction and VSI improvement of both 33- and 69-bus systems was achieved when the network reconfiguration with optimal sizing and the location DG were simultaneously implemented. From our analysis, it was indicated that the ASFLA could provide better solutions than other methods since the generating process, local and global searching of this algorithm were significantly improved from a conventional method. Hence, the ASFLA becomes another effective algorithm for solving network reconfiguration and DG placement problems in electrical distribution systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Engineering for Sustainable and Renewable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Impact of High Penetration Levels of PV Power Plants on the Capacity, Frequency and Voltage Stability of Egypt’s Unified Grid
Energies 2019, 12(3), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030552
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, the impact of integrating photovoltaic plants (PVPs) with high penetration levels into the national utility grid of Egypt is demonstrated. Load flow analysis is used to examine the grid capacity in the case of integrating the desired PVPs and computer [...] Read more.
In this paper, the impact of integrating photovoltaic plants (PVPs) with high penetration levels into the national utility grid of Egypt is demonstrated. Load flow analysis is used to examine the grid capacity in the case of integrating the desired PVPs and computer simulations are also used to assess the upgrading of the transmission network to increase its capacity. Furthermore, the impact of increasing the output power generated from PVPs, during normal conditions, on the static voltage stability was explored. During transient conditions of operation (three-phase short circuit and outage of a large generating station), the impact of high penetration levels of PVPs on the voltage and frequency stability has been presented. Professional DIgSILENT PowerFactory simulation package was used for implementation of all simulation studies. The results of frequency stability analysis proved that the national grid could be maintained stable even when the PVPs reached a penetration level up to 3000 MW of the total generation in Egypt. Transmission network upgrading to accommodate up to 3000 MW from the proposed PV power plants by 2025 is suggested. In addition, analysis of voltage stability manifests that the dynamic behavior of the voltage depends remarkably on the short circuit capacity of the grid at the point of integrating the PVPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Conversion Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Hybrid ABC-BAT for Solving Short-Term Hydrothermal Scheduling Problems
Energies 2019, 12(3), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030551
Received: 25 November 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
The main objective of short-term hydrothermal scheduling is the optimal allocation of the hydro and thermal generating units, so that the total cost of thermal plants can be minimized. The time of operation of the functioning units are considered to be 24 h. [...] Read more.
The main objective of short-term hydrothermal scheduling is the optimal allocation of the hydro and thermal generating units, so that the total cost of thermal plants can be minimized. The time of operation of the functioning units are considered to be 24 h. To achieve this objective, the hybrid algorithm combination of Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) and the BAT algorithm were applied. The swarming behavior of the algorithm searches the food source for which the objective function of the cost is to be considered; here, we have used two search algorithms, one to optimize the cost function, and another to improve the performance of the system. In the present work, the optimum scheduling of hydro and thermal units is proposed, where these units are acting as a relay unit. The short term hydrothermal scheduling problem was tested in a Chilean system, and confirmed by comparison with other hybrid techniques such as Artificial Bee Colony–Quantum Evolutionary and Artificial Bee Colony–Particle Swarm Optimization. The efficiency of the proposed hybrid algorithm is established by comparing it to these two hybrid algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessEditorial Distributed Energy Resources Management
Energies 2019, 12(3), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030550
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
The impact of distributed energy resources in the operation of power and energy systems is nowadays unquestionable at the distribution level but also at the whole power system management level [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distributed Energy Resources Management) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Effect of Dispersion Solvents in Catalyst Inks on the Performance and Durability of Catalyst Layers in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
Energies 2019, 12(3), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030549
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
Five different ionomer dispersions using water–isopropanol (IPA) and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) were investigated as ionomer binders for catalyst layers in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The distribution of ionomer plays an important role in the design of high-performance porous electrode catalyst layers since [...] Read more.
Five different ionomer dispersions using water–isopropanol (IPA) and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) were investigated as ionomer binders for catalyst layers in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The distribution of ionomer plays an important role in the design of high-performance porous electrode catalyst layers since the transport of species, such as oxygen and protons, is controlled by the thickness of the ionomer on the catalyst surface and the continuity of the ionomer and gas networks in the catalyst layer, with the transport of electrons being related to the continuity of the carbon particle network. In this study, the effect of solvents in ionomer dispersions on the performance and durability of catalyst layers (CLs) is investigated. Five different types of catalyst inks were used: (i) ionomer dispersed in NMP; (ii) ionomer dispersed in water–IPA; (iii) ionomer dispersed in NMP, followed by adding water–IPA; (iv) ionomer dispersed in water–IPA, followed by adding NMP; and (v) a mixture of ionomer dispersed in NMP and ionomer dispersed in water–IPA. Dynamic light scattering of the five dispersions showed different average particles sizes: ~0.40 μm for NMP, 0.91–1.75 μm for the mixture, and ~2.02 μm for water–IPA. The membrane-electrode assembly prepared from an ionomer dispersion with a larger particle size (i.e., water–IPA) showed better performance, while that prepared from a dispersion with a smaller particle size (i.e., NMP) showed better durability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Study on Thermal Hydraulic Performance of Supercritical LNG in Zigzag-Type Channel PCHEs
Energies 2019, 12(3), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030548
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we study a promising plate-type heat exchanger, the printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE), which has high compactness and is suitable for high-pressure conditions as a vaporizer during vaporization. The thermal hydraulic performance of supercritical produce liquefied natural gas (LNG) in [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study a promising plate-type heat exchanger, the printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE), which has high compactness and is suitable for high-pressure conditions as a vaporizer during vaporization. The thermal hydraulic performance of supercritical produce liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the zigzag channel of PCHE is numerically investigated using the SST κ-ω turbulence model. The thermo-physical properties of supercritical LNG from 6.5 MPa to 10MPa were calculated using piecewise-polynomial approximations of the temperature. The effect of the channel bend angle, mass flux and inlet pressure on local convection heat transfer coefficient, and pressure drop are discussed. The heat transfer and pressure loss performance are evaluated using the Nusselt and Euler numbers. Nu/Eu is proposed to evaluate the comprehensive heat transfer performance of PCHE by considering the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics to find better bend angle and operating conditions. The supercritical LNG has a better heat transfer performance when bend angle is less than 15° with the mass flux ranging from 207.2 kg/(m2·s) to 621.6 kg/(m2·s), which improves at bend angle of 10° and lower compared to 15° at mass flux above 414.4 kg/(m2·s). The heat transfer performance is better at larger mass flux and lower operating pressures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer)
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Open AccessArticle Bayesian Estimation on Load Model Coefficients of ZIP and Induction Motor Model
Energies 2019, 12(3), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030547
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
Parameter identification in load models is a critical factor for power system computation, simulation, and prediction, as well as stability and reliability analysis. Conventional point estimation based composite load modeling approaches suffer from disturbances and noises, and provide limited information of the system [...] Read more.
Parameter identification in load models is a critical factor for power system computation, simulation, and prediction, as well as stability and reliability analysis. Conventional point estimation based composite load modeling approaches suffer from disturbances and noises, and provide limited information of the system dynamics. In this work, a statistics (Bayesian Estimation) based distribution estimation approach is proposed for both static and dynamic load models. When dealing with multiple parameters, Gibbs sampling method is employed. The proposed method samples all parameters in each iteration and updates one parameter while others remain fixed. The proposed method provides a distribution estimation for load model coefficients and is robust for measuring errors. The proposed parameter identification approach is generic and can be applied to both transmission and distribution networks. Simulations using a 33-feeder system illustrated the efficiency and robustness of the proposal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Producer and Transmission Reliability on the Sustainability Assessment of Power System Networks
Energies 2019, 12(3), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030546
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
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Abstract
Details are presented of the development and incorporation of a generation and transmission reliability approach in an upper-level sustainability assessment framework for power system planning. This application represents a quasi-stationary, multiobjective optimization problem with nonlinear constraints, load uncertainties, stochastic effects for renewable energy [...] Read more.
Details are presented of the development and incorporation of a generation and transmission reliability approach in an upper-level sustainability assessment framework for power system planning. This application represents a quasi-stationary, multiobjective optimization problem with nonlinear constraints, load uncertainties, stochastic effects for renewable energy producers, and the propagation of uncertainties along the transmission lines. The Expected Energy Not Supplied (EENS) accounts for generation and transmission reliability and is based on a probabilistic as opposed to deterministic approach. The optimization is developed for three scenarios. The first excludes uncertainties in the load demand, while the second includes them. The third scenario accounts not only for these uncertainties, but also for the stochastic effects related to wind and photovoltaic producers. The sustainability-reliability approach is applied to the standard IEEE Reliability Test System. Results show that using a Mixture of Normals Approximation (MONA) for the EENS formulation makes the reliability analysis simpler, as well as possible within a large-scale optimization. In addition, results show that the inclusion of renewable energy producers has some positive impact on the optimal synthesis/design of power networks under sustainability considerations. Also shown is the negative impact of renewable energy producers on the reliability of the power network. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Refrigerant Charge Fault Detection and Diagnosis Algorithm for Water-to-Water Heat Pump Unit
Energies 2019, 12(3), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030545
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
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Abstract
Refrigerant charge faults have a great adverse effect on the performance of heat pumps and must therefore be detected and diagnosed early in real time. In this study, the effect of refrigerant charge faults on a water-to-water heat pump is experimentally investigated in [...] Read more.
Refrigerant charge faults have a great adverse effect on the performance of heat pumps and must therefore be detected and diagnosed early in real time. In this study, the effect of refrigerant charge faults on a water-to-water heat pump is experimentally investigated in cooling mode and heating mode at various outdoor entering water temperature conditions. The study showed that refrigerant undercharge affects the performance of water-to-water heat pump more in heating mode than in cooling mode. Results from the study are used to develop a refrigerant charge fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) algorithm that works using correlations and rule-based refrigerant fault characteristic charts. The FDD algorithm is able to detect refrigerant charge faults in the water-to-water heat pump within an error threshold of ±4.5% and ±1.1% in cooling mode and heating mode respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Storage and Application)
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