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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 16, Issue 8 (April-2 2019)

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Open AccessBrief Report High Sedentary Behavior Is Associated with Depression among Rural South Africans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081413 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and depression among rural South Africans. Data were analyzed from the cross-sectional baseline survey of the “Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH community in South Africa (HAALSI)”. Participants [...] Read more.
The study aimed to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and depression among rural South Africans. Data were analyzed from the cross-sectional baseline survey of the “Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH community in South Africa (HAALSI)”. Participants responded to various measures, including sociodemographic information, health status, anthropometric measures, and sedentary behavior. The sample included 4782 persons (40 years and above). Overall, participants engaged in <4 h (55.9%), 4–<8 h (34.1%), 8–<11 h (6.4%), or 11 or more h a day (3.5%) of sedentary behavior, and 17.0% screened positive for depression. In multivariable logistic regression, which was adjusted for sociodemographic variables (Model 1) (Odds Ratio, or OR: 2.45, Confidence Interval, or CI: 1.74, 3.46) and adjusted for sociodemographic and health variables, including physical activity (Model 2) (OR: 3.00, CI: 2.00, 4.51), high sedentary time (≥11 h) was independently associated with depression. In combined analysis, compared to persons with low or moderate sedentary behavior (<8 h) and moderate or high physical activity, persons with high sedentary behavior (≥8 h) and low physical activity were more likely to have depression in Model 1 (OR: 1.60, CI: 1.65, 3.13) and Model 2 (OR: 1.60, CI: 1.05, 2.44). Findings support that sedentary behavior and combined sedentary behavior and low physical activity may be a modifiable target factor for strategies to reduce depression symptoms in this rural population in South Africa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
Open AccessArticle How Are Self-Reported Physical and Mental Health Conditions Related to Vaping Activities among Smokers and Quitters: Findings from the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Wave 1 Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081412 (registering DOI)
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
This study examines whether having health conditions or concerns related to smoking is associated with use of vaping products. Data came from the 2016 wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Smokers and recent quitters (n = [...] Read more.
This study examines whether having health conditions or concerns related to smoking is associated with use of vaping products. Data came from the 2016 wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Smokers and recent quitters (n = 11,344) were asked whether they had a medical diagnosis for nine health conditions (i.e., depression, anxiety, alcohol problems, severe obesity, chronic pain, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and chronic lung disease) and concerns about past and future health effects of smoking, and their vaping activities. Respondents with depression and alcohol problems were more likely to be current vapers both daily (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 1.42, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.09–1.85, p < 0.05 for depression; and AOR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.02–2.27, p < 0.05 for alcohol) and monthly (AOR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.11–1.57 for depression, p < 0.01; and AOR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.06–1.90, p < 0.05 for alcohol). Vaping was more likely at monthly level for those with severe obesity (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.29–2.43, p < 0.001), cancer (AOR = 5.19, 95% CI 2.20–12.24, p < 0.001), and concerns about future effects of smoking (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.47–2.28, p < 0.001). Positive associations were also found between chronic pain and concerns about past health effects of smoking and daily vaping. Only having heart disease was, in this case negatively, associated with use of vaping products on their last quit attempt (AOR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.43–0.91, p < 0.05). Self-reported health condition or reduced health associated with smoking is not systematically leading to increased vaping or increased likelihood of using vaping as a quitting strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Harm Reduction)
Open AccessArticle Development of Scales to Measure and Analyse the Relationship of Safety Consciousness and Safety Citizenship Behaviour of Construction Workers: An Empirical Study in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081411 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
China’s construction industry has experienced a long period of development and reform but compared to developed countries, safety on construction sites in China continues to present serious problems. Safety consciousness and safety citizenship behaviour are influential factors related to safety issues in the [...] Read more.
China’s construction industry has experienced a long period of development and reform but compared to developed countries, safety on construction sites in China continues to present serious problems. Safety consciousness and safety citizenship behaviour are influential factors related to safety issues in the construction industry and may play a direct role in improving the safety of personnel on construction sites. However, recently no research has been focused on the relationship between safety consciousness and safety citizenship behaviour. Therefore, this paper aimed to investigate the relationship between safety consciousness and safety citizenship behaviour for personnel working on construction sites in China by using a questionnaire survey and statistical analysis, so that correlation between safety consciousness and safety citizenship can be demonstrated and effective measures suggested to improve the safety of construction workers in China, and perhaps in other countries as well. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Is There a Difference in the Utilisation of Inpatient Services Between Two Typical Payment Methods of Health Insurance? Evidence from the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081410 (registering DOI)
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the differences between two typical payment methods for the new rural cooperative medical scheme (NRCMS) in China on the utilisation of inpatient services. Interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) and propensity score matching (PSM) were used to [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the differences between two typical payment methods for the new rural cooperative medical scheme (NRCMS) in China on the utilisation of inpatient services. Interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) and propensity score matching (PSM) were used to measure the difference between two typical payment methods for the NRCMS with regard to the utilisation of inpatient services. After the reform was formally implemented, the level and slope difference after reform compared with pre-intervention (distribution of inpatients in county hospitals (DIC), distribution of inpatients in township hospitals (DIT) and the actual compensation ratio of inpatients (ARCI)) were not statistically significant. Kernel matching obtained better results in reducing the mean and median of the absolute standardised bias of covariates of appropriateness of admission (AA), appropriateness of disease (AD). The difference in AA and AD of the matched inpatients between two groups was −0.03 (p-value = 0.042, 95% CI: −0.08 to 0.02) and 0.21 (p-value < 0.001, 95% CI: −0.17 to 0.25), respectively. The differences in the utilisation of inpatient services may arise owing to the system designs of different payment methods for NRCMS in China. The causes of these differences can be used to guide inpatients to better use medical services, through the transformation and integration of payment systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Care Sciences & Services)
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Open AccessArticle Age Differences in the Relationship between Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081409 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
Secondhand smoke (SHS), a common environmental exposure factor, has become a serious public health problem. Metabolic syndrome is another worldwide clinical challenge. Our study tried to determine the age differences in the relationship between SHS and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Studies were [...] Read more.
Secondhand smoke (SHS), a common environmental exposure factor, has become a serious public health problem. Metabolic syndrome is another worldwide clinical challenge. Our study tried to determine the age differences in the relationship between SHS and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Studies were searched in PubMed and Web of Science from 11 November to 30 November 2018. Eighteen studies were finally included based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The relationship between SHS and the risk indicators of metabolic syndrome was analyzed. The weighted mean difference (WMD) of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), and the standard mean difference (SMD) of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low- and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C) were calculated in a meta-analysis. SHS was positively associated with the level of insulin and WC. According to the subgroup analysis based on age difference, SHS was positively associated with FPG in the upper age group, and positively associated with LDL-C and negatively associated with HDL-C in the lower age group. BMI showed a more obvious positive correlation in the adults group than in the children and the teenagers group. In conclusion, the association of metabolic syndrome with SHS varies with age. When exposed to SHS, older people may be more susceptible to glucose metabolic disorder, but younger people may be more susceptible to lipid metabolic disorder. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Different Components of PM2.5 on the Expression Levels of NF-κB Family Gene mRNA and Inflammatory Molecules in Human Macrophage
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081408 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
Background: Studies have found that exposure to fine particulate matter with sizes below 2.5 µm (PM2.5) might cause inflammation response via the NF-κB pathway. To date, only a few studies have focused on the toxicity of different components of [...] Read more.
Background: Studies have found that exposure to fine particulate matter with sizes below 2.5 µm (PM2.5) might cause inflammation response via the NF-κB pathway. To date, only a few studies have focused on the toxicity of different components of PM2.5. We aimed to explore the effects of PM2.5 with different components on the expression levels of NF-κB family gene mRNA and inflammatory molecules in human macrophages. Methods: Human monocytic cell line THP-1-derived macrophages were exposed to water-soluble (W-PM2.5), fat-soluble (F-PM2.5), and insoluble (I-PM2.5) PM2.5. The cell survival rate was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The levels of inflammatory molecules were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the relative mRNA levels of the NF-κB family gene were determined by real time PCR. Results: PM2.5 could decrease the cell viability. After exposure to W-PM2.5, the levels of interleukins (IL)-1β and IL-12 p70 significantly increased. After exposure to F-PM2.5, the levels of IL-12 p70 significantly increased. The levels of IL-12 p70 and TNF-α after exposure to I-PM2.5 were significantly higher than that in W- and F-PM2.5 treatment groups. The levels of IL-8, C reactive protein (CRP), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 increased only after exposure to I-PM2.5. F-PM2.5 increased the mRNA levels of NF-κB genes, especially NF-κB1 and RelA. Conclusions: PM2.5 can decrease the cell survival rate and up-regulate the expression of NF-κB family gene mRNA and inflammatory molecules. The main toxic components of PM2.5 related to inflammatory response in macrophages were the I-PM2.5. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Breeding Site Characteristics and Associated Factors of Culex pipiens Complex in Lhasa, Tibet, P. R. China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081407
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Characterizing the breeding sites of Culex pipiens complex is of major importance for the control of West Nile disease and other related diseases. However, little information is available about the characteristics and associated factors of the breeding sites of the Cx. pipiens complex [...] Read more.
Characterizing the breeding sites of Culex pipiens complex is of major importance for the control of West Nile disease and other related diseases. However, little information is available about the characteristics and associated factors of the breeding sites of the Cx. pipiens complex in Lhasa, a representative high-altitude region in Southwestern China. In this study, a cross-sectional study concerning the breeding site characteristics and associated factors of the Cx. pipiens complex was carried out in Lhasa, Tibet from 2013–2016. Chi-square analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were applied to identify the key factors associated with the presence of Cx. pipiens complex larvae. Using a standard dipping method, 184 water bodies were examined and Cx. pipiens complex larvae were observed in 36 (19.57%) of them. There were significant differences in the composition of Cx. pipiens complex larvae among the breeding site stability (χ2 = 19.08, p = 0.00) and presence or absence of predators (χ2 = 6.986, p = 0.008). Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that breeding site stability and presence or absence of predators were significantly associated with the presence of Cx. pipiens complex larvae in Chengguan District, Lhasa. Relatively permanent water bodies such as water bodies along river fringes, ponds and puddles, and water bodies with no predators should be paid more attention for future Cx. pipiens complex larvae abatement campaigns in Lhasa, China. Full article
Open AccessArticle Predicting Methane Concentration in Longwall Regions Using Artificial Neural Networks
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081406
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Methane, which is released during mining exploitation, represents a serious threat to this process. This is because the gas may ignite or cause an explosion. Both of these phenomena are extremely dangerous. High levels of methane concentration in mine headings disrupt mining operations [...] Read more.
Methane, which is released during mining exploitation, represents a serious threat to this process. This is because the gas may ignite or cause an explosion. Both of these phenomena are extremely dangerous. High levels of methane concentration in mine headings disrupt mining operations and cause the risk of fire or explosion. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor and predict its concentration in the areas of ongoing mining exploitation. The paper presents the results of tests performed to improve work safety. The article presents the methodology of using artificial neural networks for predicting methane concentration values in one mining area. The objective of the paper is to develop an effective method for forecasting methane concentration in the mining industry. The application of neural networks for this purpose represents one of the first attempts in this respect. The method developed makes use of direct methane concentration values measured by a system of sensors located in the exploitation area. The forecasting model was built on the basis of a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network. The corresponding calculations were performed using a three-layered network with non-linear activation functions. The results obtained in the form of methane concentration prediction demonstrated minor errors in relation to the recorded values of this concentration. This offers an opportunity for a broader application of intelligent systems for effective prediction of mining hazards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disease Prediction, Machine Learning, and Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle The Influence of Using a Footstool during a Prolonged Standing Task on Low Back Pain in Office Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081405
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
While many office workers experience low back pain (LBP), little is known about the effect of prolonged standing on LBP symptoms. This repeated-measures within-subjects study aimed to determine whether office workers with LBP are able to work at a standing workstation for one [...] Read more.
While many office workers experience low back pain (LBP), little is known about the effect of prolonged standing on LBP symptoms. This repeated-measures within-subjects study aimed to determine whether office workers with LBP are able to work at a standing workstation for one hour without exacerbating symptoms and whether using a footstool affects LBP severity. Sixteen office workers with LBP performed computer work at a standing workstation for one hour under the following two conditions, one week apart: with a footstool and without a footstool. The intensity of LBP was recorded at 10 min intervals. Maximal severity of LBP pain and change in LBP severity throughout the standing task were not different between the footstool and no footstool conditions (p > 0.26). There was a trend for more participants to have an increase in their pain between the start and end of the task when not using a footstool compared to using a footstool (p = 0.10). Most office workers with LBP are able to use a standing workstation without significant exacerbation of symptoms, but a proportion will experience a clinical meaningful increase in symptoms. Using a footstool does not change the severity of LBP experienced when using a standing workstation in individuals with a history of LBP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Survey of Work-Related Pain Prevalence Among Construction Workers in Hong Kong: A Case-Control Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081404
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Construction workers undertake demanding physical work and face high risk of injuries in poor working environments. This case-control study investigated the extent of their musculoskeletal pain incidence at work. A total of 2021 construction workers in different trades were interviewed on-site in a [...] Read more.
Construction workers undertake demanding physical work and face high risk of injuries in poor working environments. This case-control study investigated the extent of their musculoskeletal pain incidence at work. A total of 2021 construction workers in different trades were interviewed on-site in a survey from December 2017 to December 2018. The survey results revealed that the pain prevalence of the subjects in the last 24 h was 10.6 %. The worst and top most common pain spots caused by work were central lower back, left/right shoulders, and knees. Regarding pain management, their most common method was to ignore the pain (21.4%). The average percentage of pain relief after receiving treatment in the 24 h was 37.12%. Besides, significant differences were found between the pain and non-pain groups regarding their employment duration in current job or their average sleep duration in the 24 h. The study showed that those with multiple and bilateral pain sites had pain interference on their living activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Early Lifestyle Interventions in People with Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Northern Colombia: The DEMOJUAN Project.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081403
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Background: The objective of the demonstration project for type 2 diabetes prevention in the Barranquilla and Juan Mina (DEMOJUAN) study was to investigate the extent to which it is possible to reach normal glucose metabolism with early lifestyle interventions in people at high [...] Read more.
Background: The objective of the demonstration project for type 2 diabetes prevention in the Barranquilla and Juan Mina (DEMOJUAN) study was to investigate the extent to which it is possible to reach normal glucose metabolism with early lifestyle interventions in people at high risk of type 2 diabetes (prediabetes), compared with those who receive standard usual care. Methods: DEMOJUAN was a randomized controlled trial conducted in Juan Mina and Barranquilla, Northern Colombia. Eligible participants were randomized into one of three groups (control group, initial nutritional intervention, and initial physical activity intervention). The duration of the intervention was 24 months. The main study outcome in the present analysis was reversion to normoglycemia. Relative risks and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated for reversal to normoglycemia and T2D incidence. Results: There was no statistically significant association between the intervention groups and reversion to normoglycemia. The relative risk of reversion to normoglycemia was 0.88 (95% CI 0.70–1.12) for the initial nutritional intervention group participants and 0.95 (95% CI 0.75–1.20) for the initial physical activity intervention group participants. Conclusions: Our study did not find any statistically significant differences in reversion to normoglycemia or the development of type 2 diabetes between the intervention groups and the control group in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implementation Research in Chronic Disease Prevention and Control)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Can Work Engagement Be a Resource for Reducing Workaholism’s Undesirable Outcomes? A Multiple Mediating Model Including Moderated Mediation Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081402
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to explore a possible process explaining the relationship between workaholism and sleep disorders, including two mediators: work–family conflict and emotional exhaustion. Moreover, since a possible buffering role of work engagement was recently proposed against the detrimental effects of workaholism, the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore a possible process explaining the relationship between workaholism and sleep disorders, including two mediators: work–family conflict and emotional exhaustion. Moreover, since a possible buffering role of work engagement was recently proposed against the detrimental effects of workaholism, the aim was to examine the moderating role of work engagement in the relationship between workaholism and several outcomes such as work–family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and sleep disorders. Two models were tested using conditional process analysis for testing direct and indirect effects on a sample of 395 employees: (1) a serial multiple mediation model, and (2) the same serial multiple mediation model including the moderating role of work engagement. Results showed a significant mediating effect of both work–family conflict and emotional exhaustion. Moreover, work engagement moderated the relationship between workaholism and work–family conflict and the relationship between workaholism and emotional exhaustion. This work contributes to the understanding of the process underlying the relationship between workaholism and sleep disorders and to the literature reporting the possible protective role of work engagement on the negative outcomes of workaholism. Practical implications are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Cognitive Reserve and Social Support-Focused Latent Class Analysis to Predict Self-Reported Confusion or Memory Loss among Middle-Aged World Trade Center Health Registry Enrollees
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081401
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
The World Trade Center Health Registry includes 9/11 survivors who have been surveyed about their health conditions over time. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains high among the cohort and is a risk factor for cognitive impairment or dementia. We thus [...] Read more.
The World Trade Center Health Registry includes 9/11 survivors who have been surveyed about their health conditions over time. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains high among the cohort and is a risk factor for cognitive impairment or dementia. We thus sought to examine the degree to which confusion or memory loss (CML)—potential symptoms of cognitive decline—are occurring among enrollees aged 35–64 years. Cognitive reserve theory suggests that higher levels of education and engaging in cognitively challenging activities can create stronger neural connections, offering protection against cognitive decline. We hypothesized that enrollees with less cognitive reserve would be more likely to report CML. In this study, we: (1) estimated the incidence of CML in our study sample; (2) identified indicators of cognitive reserve (e.g., indicators of educational attainment, social support); and (3) determined whether CML is associated with cognitive reserve level, stratified by PSTD status. First, we described demographics of the study sample (n = 14,574) and probable PTSD status, also stratifying by CML. Next, we conducted a latent class analysis on two groups: those with probable PTSD and those without probable PTSD, creating classes with varying cognitive reserve levels. Finally, using adjusted log binomial models, we predicted risk of CML based on cognitive reserve level. The probable PTSD group (n = 1213) and not probable PTSD group (n = 13,252) each had four latent classes: low, medium-low, medium-high, and high cognitive reserve. In the probable PTSD model, compared to the high cognitive reserve class, those with medium-low cognitive reserve were 35% more likely to report CML (relative risk (RR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 1.7). Among the not probable PTSD group, those with low and medium levels of cognitive reserve were significantly more likely to report CML (RR = 1.8 and 1.4, respectively). Overall, those with less cognitive reserve were more likely to report CML regardless of PTSD status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term Health Effects of the 9/11 Disaster)
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Open AccessArticle Demographic Forecasts Using the Game Theory
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081400
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
This paper offers certain predictions concerning the demographic population of the cities Vilnius and Olsztyn. The authors used a method of analyzing and synthesizing data sources, and comparing the actual data with the forecast between the years 1997–2014. Each prediction was prepared in [...] Read more.
This paper offers certain predictions concerning the demographic population of the cities Vilnius and Olsztyn. The authors used a method of analyzing and synthesizing data sources, and comparing the actual data with the forecast between the years 1997–2014. Each prediction was prepared in connection with its use in various areas of life, particularly for all studies involving spatial planning. The data collected on the basis of the forecasts were used by spatial planners to devise strategies for local development at the city, municipality, and provincial levels. In this sense, they created basic documents for the sustainable planning of space. The process of forecasting is a difficult and complex issue, and its accuracy determines both the choice of methods and the quality of the output. Our study sets out predictions concerning the demographic processes over the coming years in the two cities mentioned. Given that all long-range forecasts are characterized by high risk, especially taking into account the unstable political situation in Europe, the steadily deteriorating situation in the labor market and rising social discontent are of relevance, as they are causing the ongoing dynamics of the population to change, making statistical errors more likely and more serious. This has meant that organizations like Poland’s Central Statistical Office, Eurostat, and the United Nations have to adjust their demographic projections at least every two years, and the methods for making demographic forecasts which are used by governmental institutions have proven to be less than satisfactory. The main purpose of the article, therefore, is to present the authors’ method of making demographic projections by using elements of game theory. The results obtained in this method were compared with the results of the forecasting methods currently used by the governments of Poland and Lithuania. The developed method, based on the same input data and analogous coefficients, brings more probable results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Analysis of Lifetime Medical Conditions and Infectious Diseases by Sexual Identity, Attraction, and Concordance among Women: Results from a National U.S. Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081399
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
There have been limited studies assessing the differences in chronic health conditions between sexual minority (those who identify as lesbian or bisexual) and sexual majority (heterosexual) women. Research has primarily focused on overall physical and mental health or behavioral issues and not on [...] Read more.
There have been limited studies assessing the differences in chronic health conditions between sexual minority (those who identify as lesbian or bisexual) and sexual majority (heterosexual) women. Research has primarily focused on overall physical and mental health or behavioral issues and not on specific health conditions. The addition of sexual orientation and attraction questions to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) now allows for research regarding health conditions using a national survey that identifies participant sexual orientation and attraction. This study sought to compare the prevalence/odds of having 10 medical conditions/infectious diseases among women, assessing for differences associated with sexual identity, sexual attraction, and the degree of concordance between sexual identity and attraction. Data from 67,648 adult female participants in the 2015–2017 NSDUH survey were analyzed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models to assess for differences in prevalence/odds of seven medical conditions. Multivariable models adjusted for demographics, substance abuse/dependence, and mental illness. We found significant differences by sexual identity, but not sexual attraction or concordance. Compared with heterosexually identified women, women who identified as bisexual had significantly higher odds of having three medical conditions and two infectious diseases than heterosexual or lesbian women. The findings generally support those based on studies using more limited geographical samples. There are a number of potential associated and underlying factors that contribute to bisexual women reporting overall poorer health than heterosexual or lesbian women. The factors discussed include stigma, delays in seeking care, lack of insurance and access, and sexual minority women receiving poorer health care generally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity)
Open AccessArticle Health-Related Quality of Life and Its Determinants among Criminal Police Officers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1398; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081398
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Criminal police officers are viewed as having a very tiring and stressful job, one that is closely correlated with work disability and other factors that might impair quality of life. Few studies have addressed the issue of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in [...] Read more.
Criminal police officers are viewed as having a very tiring and stressful job, one that is closely correlated with work disability and other factors that might impair quality of life. Few studies have addressed the issue of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in this population. Thus, this study aimed to assess the HRQoL of criminal police officers compared with the general adult population and identify determinants associated with HRQoL. Based on a cross-sectional study of 281 criminal police officers in China, we used the EuroQol five-dimension three-level (EQ-5D-3L) scale, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) to collect data. Tobit regression models and logistic regression models were used to investigate factors associated with HRQoL. The average EQ-5D-3L index score and EQ-5D visual analogue set (EQ-5D VAS) score were 0.919 and 77.22, respectively (total comparable population 0.958 and 80.12, respectively). Anxiety/depression and pain/discomfort were the most frequently-reported problems. Lower HRQoL was associated with age, drinking alcohol, physical activity, injury on duty, and symptoms of anxiety or depression. These findings indicated that criminal police officers have poorer quality of life than the general adult population and that risk-oriented interventions should be implemented to improve the HRQoL of criminal police officers. Full article
Open AccessArticle Learning by Doing and Training Satisfaction: An Evaluation by Health Care Professionals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1397; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081397
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
As one of the training methodologies employed in the health care context, ‘Learning by Doing’ prioritizes the transference of competence, control, and workplace motivation. However, there are few published works that consider the opinions of health care professionals in relation to the effects [...] Read more.
As one of the training methodologies employed in the health care context, ‘Learning by Doing’ prioritizes the transference of competence, control, and workplace motivation. However, there are few published works that consider the opinions of health care professionals in relation to the effects of this kind of training on their workplace competence. The goal of this research was to evaluate the level of satisfaction and impact on quality of care, as perceived by the health care professionals that participated in this training program (Formative Focus). The evaluation utilized an online questionnaire that assessed professional satisfaction through five dimensions: The training methodology; the training program; its economic impact; perceived improvement in professional competence; and, perceived improvement in quality of care. A total of 364 health professionals took part in the training course and were asked to complete an online questionnaire. The variables that contemplated satisfaction were related to quality of care and preferences regarding the training methodology. Participants preferred interactive methods for learning with emphasis on practical contents. In terms of application of learning to their jobs, health care professionals found Learning by Doing skills more useful to transfer to their workplace. This experience of Learning by Doing training indicates an interesting potential for impact on improvement: Quality of health care, health care competence of professionals, and organizational development. Full article
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Open AccessReview Wuqinxi Qigong as an Alternative Exercise for Improving Risk Factors Associated with Metabolic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081396
Received: 9 March 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Background: The improvement of living standards has led to increases in the prevalence of hypokinetic diseases. In particular, multifactorial complex diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, are becoming more prevalent. Currently, developing effective methods to combat or prevent metabolic syndrome is of critical public [...] Read more.
Background: The improvement of living standards has led to increases in the prevalence of hypokinetic diseases. In particular, multifactorial complex diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, are becoming more prevalent. Currently, developing effective methods to combat or prevent metabolic syndrome is of critical public health importance. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the existing literature regarding the effects of Wuqinxi exercise on reducing risk factors related to metabolic syndrome. Methods: Both English- and Chinese-language databases were searched for randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of Wuqinxi on these outcomes. Meanwhile, we extracted usable data for computing pooled effect size estimates, along with the random-effects model. Results: The synthesized results showed positive effects of Wuqinxi exercise on systolic blood pressure (SBP, SMD = 0.62, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.85, p < 0.001, I2 = 24.06%), diastolic blood pressure (DBP, SMD = 0.62, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.00, p < 0.001, I2 = 61.28%), total plasma cholesterol (TC, SMD = 0.88, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.36, p < 0.001, I2 = 78.71%), triglyceride (TG, SMD = 0.87, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.24, p < 0.001, I2 = 67.22%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, SMD = 1.24, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.72, p < 0.001, I2 = 78.27%), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, SMD = 0.95, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.46, p < 0.001, I2 = 82.27%). In addition, regression results showed that longer-duration Wuqinxi intervention significantly improved DBP (β = 0.00016, Q = 5.72, df = 1, p = 0.02), TC (β = −0.00010, Q = 9.03, df = 1, p = 0.01), TG (β = 0.00012, Q = 6.23, df = 1, p = 0.01), and LDL (β = 0.00011, Q = 5.52, df = 1, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Wuqinxi may be an effective intervention to alleviate the cardiovascular disease risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mindfulness-Based Practice for Health Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle Classroom Furniture Mismatch and Back Pain Among Adolescent School-Children in Abha City, Southwestern Saudi Arabia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081395 (registering DOI)
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Objective: To explore the potential classroom furniture mismatch with students’ anthropometric measurements and back pain related to sitting for extended periods. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on all twelve male and female intermediate and secondary schools located in Abha city. [...] Read more.
Objective: To explore the potential classroom furniture mismatch with students’ anthropometric measurements and back pain related to sitting for extended periods. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on all twelve male and female intermediate and secondary schools located in Abha city. Anthropometric and classroom furniture measurements were assessed, and the mismatch was determined using standardized methods. Students were also screened for back pain related to long sitting at school. Results: A total number of 879 students was selected. The study revealed seat height mismatch in both intermediate, and secondary school of 84.3%, and 75.6%, respectively. Seat depth mismatch was 74.0% in intermediate schools and reached 84.5% in secondary schools. The desk height was improper for 94.1%, and 82.3% of students in intermediate, and secondary schools, respectively. The levels of mismatch differ significantly by grade level and gender. A prevalence of 10.8% of back pain related to long sitting at school was found. In multivariable logistic regression, males, intermediate school children, and the presence of buttock-popliteal length/seat depth mismatch were significantly associated with pain. On the other hand, practicing exercise was a significant protective factor. Conclusions: There is a prevalent mismatch between students’ dimensions and existing schools’ furniture. School furniture providers should take in consideration the average Saudi students’ dimensions, while designing school furniture especially for males, and at intermediate schools, or provide schools with adjustable seats and desks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Open AccessArticle Physical Activity of Children with Physical Disabilities: Associations with Environmental and Behavioral Variables at Home and School
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081394
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity (PA) of children with physical disabilities (PD) and its associated environmental and behavioral factors at home and at school. One hundred and forty-seven Hong Kong children (mean age = 13.5 ± 2.5 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity (PA) of children with physical disabilities (PD) and its associated environmental and behavioral factors at home and at school. One hundred and forty-seven Hong Kong children (mean age = 13.5 ± 2.5 years) with PD from three special schools participated. We used BEACHES (Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children’s Health: Evaluation System) to assess their PA and associated variables at home (before dinner) and during four school settings (before classes, recess, lunch breaks, after classes) on four school days. Overall, the children were typically inactive and spent little time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), range = 6.3% to 17.0% across settings. At home, children were more active when fathers were present (p < 0.001). At school, prompts to be active contributed to their MVPA% before classes (p < 0.01) and during recess and lunch breaks (both p < 0.001). The presence of a child’s mother was positively associated with MVPA% before classes (p < 0.001) and the presence of other children was associated with MVPA% during recess and lunch breaks (both p < 0.05). With children with PD accruing small amounts of MVPA in both home and school settings, multifaceted interventions reflecting both contextual and personal factors should be considered in order to increase the health-enhancing PA of this population. Full article
Open AccessPerspective Flooding in Townsville, North Queensland, Australia, in February 2019 and Its Effects on Mosquito-Borne Diseases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081393
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
In February 2019, a major flooding event occurred in Townsville, North Queensland, Australia. Here we present a prediction of the occurrence of mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) after the flooding. We used a mathematical modelling approach based on mosquito population abundance, survival, and size as [...] Read more.
In February 2019, a major flooding event occurred in Townsville, North Queensland, Australia. Here we present a prediction of the occurrence of mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) after the flooding. We used a mathematical modelling approach based on mosquito population abundance, survival, and size as well as current infectiousness to predict the changes in the occurrences of MBDs due to flooding in the study area. Based on 2019 year-to-date number of notifiable MBDs, we predicted an increase in number of cases, with a peak at 104 by one-half month after the flood receded. The findings in this study indicate that Townsville may see an upsurge in the cases of MBDs in the coming days. However, the burden of diseases will go down again if the mosquito control program being implemented by the City Council continues. As our predictions focus on the near future, longer term effects of flooding on the occurrence of mosquito-borne diseases need to be studied further. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Are Daycare Workers at a Higher Risk of Parvovirus B19 Infection? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1392; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081392
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Objective: In this systematic review, we aimed to summarize the evidence on the association between being a daycare educator working with children and the possible increased risk of parvovirus B19 infection compared to the general population. Methods: The Medline and Embase [...] Read more.
Objective: In this systematic review, we aimed to summarize the evidence on the association between being a daycare educator working with children and the possible increased risk of parvovirus B19 infection compared to the general population. Methods: The Medline and Embase databases were searched using a defined search to find studies published since 2000. Two reviewers evaluated the search hits using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The resulting studies were extracted and were assessed in eight domains of bias. A pooled relative risk (RR) of parvovirus infection for daycare workers compared to the general population was calculated. Results: After evaluating the 7781 search hits and manual search, four methodologically-adequate studies were identified: three cross-sectional studies and one retrospective cohort study. Of the three studies investigating the risk of infection, one evaluated parvovirus B19 seroconversion rates for daycare workers. There was an indication for an increased risk for daycare workers compared to the unexposed population (RR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.98–1.27) using prevalence estimators. Furthermore, daycare workers had a higher seroconversion rate compared to the unexposed population (RR = 2.63, 95% 1.27–5.45) in the low risk of bias study. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a higher risk of parvovirus B19 infection for daycare workers compared to an unexposed comparison population, which necessitate preventative efforts. Considering the underestimation of the occupational seroconversion risk by prevalence-based estimators, parvovirus B19 infections among daycare workers might mostly be occupationally acquired. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
Open AccessArticle Modeling the Impact of an Indoor Air Filter on Air Pollution Exposure Reduction and Associated Mortality in Urban Delhi Household
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081391
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 14 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Indoor exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a prominent health concern. However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of long-term use of indoor air filters for reduction of PM2.5 exposure and associated decrease in adverse health impacts in urban [...] Read more.
Indoor exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a prominent health concern. However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of long-term use of indoor air filters for reduction of PM2.5 exposure and associated decrease in adverse health impacts in urban India. We conducted 20 simulations of yearlong personal exposure to PM2.5 in urban Delhi using the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s CONTAM program (NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). Simulation scenarios were developed to examine different air filter efficiencies, use schedules, and the influence of a smoker at home. We quantified associated mortality reductions with Household Air Pollution Intervention Tool (HAPIT, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA). Without an air filter, we estimated an annual mean PM2.5 personal exposure of 103 µg/m3 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 93, 112) and 137 µg/m3 (95% CI: 125, 149) for households without and with a smoker, respectively. All day use of a high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filter would reduce personal PM2.5 exposure to 29 µg/m3 and 30 µg/m3, respectively. The reduced personal PM2.5 exposure from air filter use is associated with 8–37% reduction in mortality attributable to PM2.5 pollution in Delhi. The findings of this study indicate that air filter may provide significant improvements in indoor air quality and result in health benefits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sounds of Nature in the City: No Evidence of Bird Song Improving Stress Recovery
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081390
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
: Noise from city traffic is one of the most significant environmental stressors. Natural soundscapes, such as bird songs, have been suggested to potentially mitigate or mask noise. All previous studies on masking noise use self-evaluation data rather than physiological data. In this [...] Read more.
: Noise from city traffic is one of the most significant environmental stressors. Natural soundscapes, such as bird songs, have been suggested to potentially mitigate or mask noise. All previous studies on masking noise use self-evaluation data rather than physiological data. In this study, while respondents (n = 117) watched a 360° virtual reality (VR) photograph of a park, they were exposed to different soundscapes and mild electrical shocks. The soundscapes—“bird song”, “bird song and traffic noise”, and “traffic noise”—were played during a 10 min recovery period while their skin conductance levels were assessed as a measure of arousal/stress. No significant difference in stress recovery was found between the soundscapes although a tendency for less stress in “bird song” and more stress in “traffic noise” was noted. All three soundscapes, however, significantly reduced stress. This result could be attributed to the stress-reducing effect of the visual VR environment, to the noise levels being higher than 47 dBA (a level known to make masking ineffective), or to the respondents finding bird songs stressful. Reduction of stress in cities using masking with natural sounds requires further studies with not only larger samples but also sufficient methods to detect potential sex differences. Full article
Open AccessArticle Relationship between Community or Home Gardening and Health of the Elderly: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Survey in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081389
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
There have been many reports indicating the relationship between gardening and health or healthy lifestyles among adults in developed countries all over the world. However, Japanese evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between community or home [...] Read more.
There have been many reports indicating the relationship between gardening and health or healthy lifestyles among adults in developed countries all over the world. However, Japanese evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between community or home gardening and health status or a healthy lifestyle using a web-based survey with Japanese elderly living in the community. A survey was conducted to gather data from 500 gardeners and 500 nongardeners aged 60 to 69. As a result, significant relationships were shown between community gardening and exercise habits, physical activity, eating vegetables, and connections with neighbors. Moreover, the significant relationships between home gardening and the following items were indicated: Subjective happiness, exercise habits, physical activity, sitting time, eating breakfast, eating vegetables, eating balanced meals, and connections with neighbors. No item demonstrated a significant relationship with gardening frequency. A significant relationship was demonstrated between gardening duration and health problems affecting everyday life. Further significant relationships were shown between gardening with others and subjective happiness, having a reason for living. In conclusion, promising positive relationships between community or home gardening and health or healthy lifestyles were indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Health Behaviors, Risk Factors, NCDs and Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle Temporal and Cartographic Analyses of the Distribution within Spain of Mortality Due to Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (1984–2016)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081388
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
The aim is to conduct a descriptive, population-based study in order to assess temporal and spatial changes in mortality due to granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) in Spain from 1984 to 2016. Mortality data were obtained from the Spanish Annual Death Registry. Deaths in [...] Read more.
The aim is to conduct a descriptive, population-based study in order to assess temporal and spatial changes in mortality due to granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) in Spain from 1984 to 2016. Mortality data were obtained from the Spanish Annual Death Registry. Deaths in which GPA was the underlying cause were selected using the 446.4 and M31.3 codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th revision. Annual average age at death and age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated. Geographic analysis was performed at municipality and district level. Variations in mortality according to the type of municipality (urban, agro-urban or rural), district and geographic location (degrees of latitude) were assessed using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and smoothed-SMRs. Over the whole period, 620 deaths due to GPA were identified. Age at death increased at an average annual rate of 0.78% over the period 1987–2016 (p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality rates increased by an annual average of 20.58% from 1984 to 1992, after which they fell by 1.91% a year (p < 0.05). The agro-urban category had the highest percentage (4.57%) of municipalities with a significantly higher GPA mortality rate than expected. Geographic analysis revealed four districts with a higher risk of death due to GPA, two in the North of Spain and two in the South. This population-based study revealed an increase in the age at death attributed to GPA. Age-adjusted mortality rates went up sharply until 1992, after which they started to decline until the end of the study period. Geographic differences in mortality risk were identified but further studies will be necessary to ascertain the reasons for the distribution of GPA disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Open AccessArticle Systemic Barriers and Equitable Interventions to Improve Vegetable and Fruit Intake in Children: Interviews with National Food System Actors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081387
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 14 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is declining in New Zealand, and over half of New Zealand’s children do not meet the recommendation of two serves of fruit and three serves of vegetables daily (with even lower adherence among children in high-deprivation neighbourhoods). The [...] Read more.
Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is declining in New Zealand, and over half of New Zealand’s children do not meet the recommendation of two serves of fruit and three serves of vegetables daily (with even lower adherence among children in high-deprivation neighbourhoods). The aim of this study was to map the potential causal pathways explaining this decline and possible actions to reverse it. Semi-structured interviews were held in April–May 2018 with 22 national actors from the produce industry, food distribution and retail sector, government, and NGO health organisations. The qualitative systems dynamics method of cognitive mapping was used to explore causal relationships within the food system that result in low FV intake among children. Barriers and solutions identified by participants were analysed using thematic analysis and according to a public health intervention framework. Participants were in agreement with the goal of improving FV intake for health and economic outcomes, and that health promotion strategies had been ineffectual to date due to multiple systemic barriers. Common barriers discussed were poverty, high food prices, low skills/knowledge, unhealthy food environments, climate change, and urbanization. Solutions with the strongest evidence of efficacy identified by the participants were subsidizing FVs and early childhood interventions to improve FV exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Influences on Food Behaviour)
Open AccessArticle Surgical Risk on Patients with Coagulopathies: Guidelines on Hemophiliac Patients for Oro-Maxillofacial Surgery
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081386
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Background: Haemophilia is a disease of genetic origin, which causes a defect in blood coagulation. Under normal conditions, in the case of leakage from the blood vessels, the blood forms a clot that reduces or blocks the bleeding. This process involves the activation [...] Read more.
Background: Haemophilia is a disease of genetic origin, which causes a defect in blood coagulation. Under normal conditions, in the case of leakage from the blood vessels, the blood forms a clot that reduces or blocks the bleeding. This process involves the activation of several plasma proteins in a cascade-like species. Two of these proteins, produced in the liver, factor VIII and factor IX, are deficient or present a functional defect in people with haemophilia. Because of this deficit, the haemophiliacs easily suffer external and internal bleeding. Surgical treatment of these patients is to be observed, and often their treatment is delayed due to unclear guidelines and risks in treating these patients. The aim is to provide clear guidelines in the case of surgical treatment of these patients. Methods: In this study, we have considered all the guidelines that refer to the gold-maxillofacial surgery, focusing on the literature of the last 10 years. Results: Surely, this collection of guidelines will favor the choice of the clinician towards safer and predictable protocols. This study does not want to create a guideline but evaluates the literature of the last 10 years, and highlights the latest for the treatment of these patients., with the aim of informing the pathology and at the same time making the surgical maneuvers safer. Conclusions: Despite the research of literature has produced few results, it was nevertheless possible to draw up a guideline thanks to additional information extrapolated from textbooks and other scientific articles. According to the guidelines, it is possible to proceed to the treatment of these patients, if with appropriate therapy in a safe and risk-free manner. Full article
Open AccessArticle Impact of the Global Budget Payment System on Expenditure of Cardiovascular Diseases: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis in Shanghai, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081385
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Since few studies evaluated the impact of the global budget payment system (GBPS) over time, and by expenditure type, this paper aims to evaluate the impact of the GBPS on expenditure of inpatients, and explores how hospitals curb the expenditure in patients with [...] Read more.
Since few studies evaluated the impact of the global budget payment system (GBPS) over time, and by expenditure type, this paper aims to evaluate the impact of the GBPS on expenditure of inpatients, and explores how hospitals curb the expenditure in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Shanghai. We built a time series model with the monthly expenditure of CVDs from 2009 to 2012. We evaluated the instant impact and trends impact of the GBPS and analyzed results based on medical expenditure types (e.g., drug, examination, cure, unclassified items), discharge number, and expenditure per capita. We found GBPS instantly dropped the medical expenditure by Chinese Yuan (CNY) 55.71 million (p < 0.001), and decreased the monthly increasing trend by CNY 4.23 million (p = 0.011). The discharge number had 10.4% instant reduction and 225.55 monthly decrease (p = 0.021) while the expenditure per capita experienced fewer changes. Moreover, the expenditure of drug and cure had an instant reduction of CNY 28.31 million and 16.28 million (p < 0.001). In conclusion, we considered the GBPS is an effective solution to control the expenditure of CVDs by decreasing the discharge number, and a focus on the drug and cure expenditures lead to greater spend reduction than other types of expenditures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Economics)
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Open AccessArticle Perceived Neighborhood Environment and Its Association with Health Screening and Exercise Participation amongst Low-Income Public Rental Flat Residents in Singapore
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081384
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Background: In Singapore, an Asian city-state, more than 80% live in public housing. While the majority (90%) own their homes, a needy minority lives in rental flats. Public rental flats are built in the same location as owner-occupied blocks. We evaluated factors [...] Read more.
Background: In Singapore, an Asian city-state, more than 80% live in public housing. While the majority (90%) own their homes, a needy minority lives in rental flats. Public rental flats are built in the same location as owner-occupied blocks. We evaluated factors associated with perceptions of the neighborhood environment and its association with exercise and health screening participation. Methods: Logistic regression was used to identify associations between perceptions of the neighborhood environment (overall perceived neighborhood disadvantage, safety, and convenience) and sociodemographic factors, as well as exercise and screening participation, amongst residents aged ≥60 years in two Singaporean public housing precincts in 2016. Results: Our response rate was 62.1% (528/800). Staying in a rental flat independently was associated with increased neighborhood disadvantage (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.06–2.35). Staying in a stand-alone block (as opposed to staying in a mixed block comprised of both rental and owner-occupied units) was associated with perceptions of a poorer physical environment (aOR = 1.81, 95%CI = 1.22–2.68) and lower perceived proximity to recreational areas (aOR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.04–1.25). Perceptions of neighborhood disadvantage were independently associated with reduced exercise participation (aOR = 0.67, 95%CI = 0.45–0.98) and reduced participation in diabetes screening (aOR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.41–0.95). Conclusion: Despite sharing the same built environment, differences in the perception of the neighborhood environment between low-socioeconomic status (SES) and high-SES communities persist. Perceived neighborhood disadvantage is associated with lower participation in regular exercise and diabetes screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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