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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 16, Issue 8 (April-2 2019) – 168 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) As of 2015, nearly eight million US adults were current users (every day or some days) of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Different Associations between DC-SIGN Promoter-336G/A (rs4804803) Polymorphism with Severe Dengue in Asians and South-Central Americans: a Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081475 - 25 Apr 2019
Viewed by 889
Abstract
Objective: This study was conducted to identify the association between rs4804803 polymorphism in DC-SIGN with the susceptibility of severe dengue. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all eligible papers in PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), [...] Read more.
Objective: This study was conducted to identify the association between rs4804803 polymorphism in DC-SIGN with the susceptibility of severe dengue. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all eligible papers in PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Google Scholar. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to assess the association. Subgroup analyses were performed by ethnicity. Sensitivity analyses were performed through employing different statistical models (fixed versus random effect model). Results: A total of nine papers and 12 studies, with 1520 severe dengue and 1496 clinical dengue infection were included. The overall meta-analysis revealed significant associations between rs4804803 and severe dengue under the recession (GG versus GA/AA: OR = 0.44, 95%CI, 0.23–0.82) and a codominant model (GG versus AA: OR = 0.43, 95%CI, 0.23–0.81), but sensitivity analysis indicated that the significant pooled ORs were not robust. The subgroup analysis suggested that the carrier of G in rs4804803 was a risk factor for severe dengue under dominant (GG/GA versus AA: OR = 1.86,95%CI, 1.01–3.45), superdominant (GA versus GG/AA: OR = 1.81,95%CI, 1.02–3.21) and a codominant (GA versus AA: OR=1.82,95%CI, 1.02–3.26) models in Asians, while it was a protective factor for severe dengue in South-central Americans under recessive (GG versus GA/AA: OR = 0.27,95%CI, 0.10–0.70) and codominant (GG versus AA: OR=0.24,95%CI, 0.09–0.64) models. The results from subgroup analysis were robust. Conclusions: Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) promoter-336G/A (rs4804803) polymorphism is association with severe dengue, and it acts in different directions for Asians and South-central Americans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle
An Improved Ecological Services Valuation Model in Land Use Project
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081474 - 25 Apr 2019
Viewed by 795
Abstract
Natural ecosystems benefit human lives via providing fundamental life-support services and goods upon which human civilization depends. However, as nature provides those for free, many people believe that they are of little or no value and they exploit the land greedily and unreasonably, [...] Read more.
Natural ecosystems benefit human lives via providing fundamental life-support services and goods upon which human civilization depends. However, as nature provides those for free, many people believe that they are of little or no value and they exploit the land greedily and unreasonably, which makes serious ecological degradation. Concerning this issue, we present the ecological services valuation model (ESVM) to measure the cost of environmental degradation of land use cost, which is an evaluation model of environmental degradation cost. Environmental degradation cost refer to the cost of deterioration or compromise of natural environment through natural processes or human activities, which consists of opportunity cost and environmental damage cost. Land area is an important variable in the ESVM. Based on Osmotic system, we put forward the effective land area, which combines the scale factor and the impact of external environment. What is more, the Cobb–Douglas production function is modified to establish the model. Finally, we propose the calculation formula of the economic cost of land use projects. Analysis of effectiveness and sensitivity prove that ESVM was a relatively stable model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling a Supplementary Vaccination Program of Rubella Using the 2012–2013 Epidemic Data in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081473 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
From 2012–2013, Japan experienced a major epidemic of rubella, involving a total of 12,614 rubella cases and 45 confirmed cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). One of the contributory factors in this outbreak may have been that the majority of adult males remained [...] Read more.
From 2012–2013, Japan experienced a major epidemic of rubella, involving a total of 12,614 rubella cases and 45 confirmed cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). One of the contributory factors in this outbreak may have been that the majority of adult males remained unvaccinated. To plan for a supplementary immunization program (SIP) to elevate the herd immunity level, it is critical to determine the required amount of vaccine and identify the target age groups among males for the SIP. The present study aimed to answer these policy questions, employing a mathematical model and analyzing epidemiological datasets from 2012–2013. Our model allowed us to reconstruct the age- and sex-dependent transmission patterns, and the effective reproduction number during the exponential growth phase in 2013 was estimated to be 1.5. The computed next-generation matrix indicated that vaccinating adult males aged from 20–49 years in 2013, using at least 17 million doses, was considered essential to prevent a major epidemic in the future. The proposed model also indicated that, even with smaller doses of vaccine, the SIP in adult males could lead to a substantial reduction in the incidence of rubella, as well as CRS. Importantly, the present study endorses a substantial background risk of observing another major epidemic from 2018–2019, in which cases may be dominated by adult males aged from 25–54 years, that is, our identified age groups plus a five-year time lag from 2013 to 2018. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Re-Emergence of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Relationship between Well-Being and Living with a Dog for People with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Feasibility Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081472 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1353
Abstract
Chronic low back pain is a significant societal and personal burden that negatively impacts quality of life. Dog ownership has been associated with health benefits. This study evaluated the feasibility of surveying people with chronic low back pain to assess the relationship between [...] Read more.
Chronic low back pain is a significant societal and personal burden that negatively impacts quality of life. Dog ownership has been associated with health benefits. This study evaluated the feasibility of surveying people with chronic low back pain to assess the relationship between dog ownership and well-being. A mail-out survey was sent to 210 adult patients with chronic low back pain. Measures of quality of life, pain, physical activity, emotional health, social ties and dog ownership were included. Feasibility was assessed by examining survey response rate, responses to established and newly developed measures, and the potential relationships between dog ownership and a number of key well-being variables in this patient population. There were 56 completed surveys returned (n = 36 non-dog owners and n = 20 dog owners). Established, adapted and newly developed scales revealed promising results. Dog owners reported fewer depression and anxiety symptoms, and more social ties than non-dog owners. Living with a dog may be associated with improved well-being for people with chronic pain. The findings from this feasibility study will inform a general population survey, to be conducted with a larger, more representative sample of people living with chronic pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psycho-Social Impact of Human-Animal Interactions)
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Ethyl Alcohol upon Pedestrian Trauma Sustained in Traffic Crashes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081471 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
Introduction: Every year more than 1.2 million people worldwide die due to trauma sustained in road crashes, with an additional number of people injured exceeding 50 million. To a large extent, this applies to so called “unprotected road users”, including pedestrians. The risk [...] Read more.
Introduction: Every year more than 1.2 million people worldwide die due to trauma sustained in road crashes, with an additional number of people injured exceeding 50 million. To a large extent, this applies to so called “unprotected road users”, including pedestrians. The risk involved in a traffic crash for pedestrians can result from many factors, one of which is participation in road traffic when under the influence of alcohol. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of alcohol use among pedestrians as unprotected road traffic participants, and the consequences of them being struck by motor vehicles. Material and methods: The source of data was the medical documentation of the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Medical University of Warsaw. The sample for this research consisted of 313 pedestrians who were victims of fatal road crashes resulting from a collision with a mechanical vehicle. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis using the STATISTICA version 12.5 program (StatSoft Polska, Cracow, Poland). Results: Male fatalities constituted the majority of the study sample. Nearly half of the fatal pedestrian victims were found to be under the influence of alcohol. The statistical analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between the gender and age of the victims, as well as between the place of the event, the place of death, the mechanism of the event, and the presence of alcohol in pedestrians. Conclusions: Among pedestrians, victims of road crashes who were under the influence of alcohol were predominantly drunk young males. Victims under the influence of alcohol were more likely to become fatalities in crashes where the mechanism of the incident was being struck by a passenger car, and when the place of the incident was a rural area, in these cases the rates of death directly at the scene were much more frequent. The eradication of alcohol consumption by all road users should be the overriding objective of all measures aimed at reducing the number of road crashes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Menstrual Cycle Disorders in Professional Female Rhythmic Gymnasts
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081470 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 931
Abstract
The aim of this research was to compare menstrual cycles, menstrual disorders, and the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in professional female gymnasts and their peers who donot practice any sport, and to identify factors causing a predisposition to [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to compare menstrual cycles, menstrual disorders, and the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in professional female gymnasts and their peers who donot practice any sport, and to identify factors causing a predisposition to premenstrual tension syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorders in both groups. The prospective study involved apopulation of 85 girls. The study group consisted of 45 professional female gymnasts (15–17 years of age) who lived inthe territory of Silesia, in the southern area of Poland. The control group consisted of 40 girls of the same age who lived in the same area but did not professionally practice any sport. The research tools included a questionnaire, a daily diary of PMS symptoms, a daily diary of PMDD symptoms, and a premenstrual symptom screening tool (PSST). The study showed that intensive physical activity undertaken by girls before their first menstruation is a menarche-delaying factor andthat competitive sport promotes premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. The risk factors for PMS and PMDD were also identified, andincluded alcohol and coffee consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Major Global River Discharges Directed into the Ocean
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081469 - 25 Apr 2019
Viewed by 747
Abstract
Under the influence of global climate change, the discharges of major global rivers directed into the ocean have undergone significant changes. To study the trends and causes in discharge variation, we selected 40 large rivers and analyzed their annual discharges near their estuaries [...] Read more.
Under the influence of global climate change, the discharges of major global rivers directed into the ocean have undergone significant changes. To study the trends and causes in discharge variation, we selected 40 large rivers and analyzed their annual discharges near their estuaries from 1960 to 2010. The method of runoff variation attribution analysis based on the Budyko hypothesis for large-scale basins was developed, in which influencing factors of human activities and glacial melting factors were added to the formula. The contribution rate of climate factors and human activities to changes in discharge were quantitatively identified. Climatic factors include precipitation, evapotranspiration and glacial melting. Human activity factors include underlying surface and artificial water transfer. The contribution rate is determined by the elastic coefficient, which is obtained by the ratio of change rate of each factor and the change rate of runoff. The results indicated that the discharges predominantly showed downward trends with a few upward trends. Rivers in North America and Africa showed downward trends, and those in Europe principally showed upward trends. Climate was the main influencing factor of discharges changes, and only approximately 25% of river discharges were greatly affected by human activities. River discharges in 75% of the basins which mainly contains subtropical monsoon humid climate and savanna climate zones showed upward trends. In the four basins which are mainly contains tropical rainforest climate and tropical monsoon climate, they all showed downward trends. The trend of discharges in the temperate monsoon climate, temperate continental climate, and temperate maritime climate cannot be accurately judged because of irregular variation. The discharges in the mid-high latitudinal zones predominantly showed upward trends, while those in the mid-low latitudinal zones with the influence of human activities showed downward trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts on Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Perceived Stress among Caregivers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A State-Wide Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081468 - 25 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1140
Abstract
Background: Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience increased stress and more significant negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There is a lack of studies specifically focusing on stress among caregivers with ASD children in Asian countries. The [...] Read more.
Background: Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience increased stress and more significant negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There is a lack of studies specifically focusing on stress among caregivers with ASD children in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and factors associated with it among caregivers in Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered to 227 caregivers of children with ASD. The caregivers were recruited from ASD databases in four tertiary hospitals in Kelantan and a meeting was set up during the child’s follow-up in the clinic. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress. Results: The mean total perceived stress score was 20.84 (4.72). This was considered higher than average. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers who live far from the health institution, caregivers who do not own transportation to bring the child to the treatment center, and caregivers who have an ASD child with a learning disability. Conclusion: Caregivers of an ASD child perceived significant stress while taking care of their children. Institutions should alleviate the factors that were predicted to increase the caregivers’ perceived stress to improve the quality of the lives of children and ASD families as a whole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
Open AccessArticle
Burnout Syndrome in Middle and Senior Management in the Industrial Manufacturing Sector of Mexico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081467 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Due to globalization and the accelerated growth of technology, ever more employees of companies are affected by burnout syndrome, the psychological nature of which requires a prolonged response to chronic interpersonal stressors in work environments. The present research aims to validate the operability [...] Read more.
Due to globalization and the accelerated growth of technology, ever more employees of companies are affected by burnout syndrome, the psychological nature of which requires a prolonged response to chronic interpersonal stressors in work environments. The present research aims to validate the operability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) using a sample of 378 professionals belonging to middle and senior management working in companies within the IMMEX sector (comprising the industrial-manufacturing, maquiladora and export services) located in the state of Baja California, Mexico. Firstly, an exploratory factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation was performed and the results revealed the existence of three factors representing more than 67 percent of the total variance. Secondly, a confirmatory factorial analysis was carried out performing appropriate results for the indices Chi-square goodness-of-fit model, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), Normed Fit Index (NFI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Relative Fit Index (RFI), Parsimony Ratio (PRATIO) and Parsimony Normed Fit Index (PNFI), which are highly recommended by literature in these types of studies. Additionally, construct validity was satisfactorily verified. The factorial solution coincided with the Maslach Burnout Inventory original proposal so that this instrument can be considered a valid and reliable option to analyze the burnout levels in people pertaining to middle and senior management in these types of industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Resiliency-Stressor Conceptual Framework for Informing Decision Support Tools and Addressing Environmental Injustice and Health Inequities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081466 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
While structural factors may drive health inequities, certain health-promoting attributes of one’s “place” known as salutogens may further moderate the cumulative impacts of exposures to socio-environmental stressors that behave as pathogens. Understanding the synergistic relationship between socio-environmental stressors and resilience factors is a [...] Read more.
While structural factors may drive health inequities, certain health-promoting attributes of one’s “place” known as salutogens may further moderate the cumulative impacts of exposures to socio-environmental stressors that behave as pathogens. Understanding the synergistic relationship between socio-environmental stressors and resilience factors is a critical component in reducing health inequities; however, the catalyst for this concept relies on community-engaged research approaches to ultimately strengthen resiliency and promote health. Furthermore, this concept has not been fully integrated into environmental justice and cumulative risk assessment screening tools designed to identify geospatial variability in environmental factors that may be associated with health inequities. As a result, we propose a hybrid resiliency-stressor conceptual framework to inform the development of environmental justice and cumulative risk assessment screening tools that can detect environmental inequities and opportunities for resilience in vulnerable populations. We explore the relationship between actual exposures to socio-environmental stressors, perceptions of stressors, and one’s physiological and psychological stress response to environmental stimuli, which collectively may perpetuate health inequities by increasing allostatic load and initiating disease onset. This comprehensive framework expands the scope of existing screening tools to inform action-based solutions that rely on community-engaged research efforts to increase resiliency and promote positive health outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Difference of Airborne Particulate Matter Concentration in Urban Space with Different Green Coverage Rates in Baoji, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1465; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081465 - 25 Apr 2019
Viewed by 997
Abstract
With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, the problem of airborne particulate pollution has become more and more serious. Green areas in urban spaces with different green coverage rates in Baoji City were selected to quantitatively compare the effects and differences of month, [...] Read more.
With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, the problem of airborne particulate pollution has become more and more serious. Green areas in urban spaces with different green coverage rates in Baoji City were selected to quantitatively compare the effects and differences of month, time, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, vegetation structure, and area of site on PM2.5 and PM10 concentration. The results showed that increasing the urban green coverage rate will help to improve the green area’s reduction of airborne particulate matter concentration and the selected factors affecting the green area’s reduction ability were discrepant in urban spaces with different green coverage rates. With the decrease of the green coverage rate, the purification effect of green area itself on air particles was weakened, and other factors, such as meteorological conditions and human activities, became the dominant influencing factors. Vegetation structure only had significant effects on the concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 in green areas of urban space with a green coverage rate greater than 75%. The concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 were lowest in the partly closed green area of one-layered coniferous trees and the closed green area of one-layered mixed trees. The research shows that green areas in urban spaces with different green coverage rates have different reduction effects on the concentration of airborne particles, which provides a theoretical basis and reference for the optimization of green area structures and to improve air quality effectively in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality Monitoring and Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Using Mobile Phones on Driver’s Control Behavior Based on Naturalistic Driving Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081464 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
Distracted driving behaviors are closely related to crash risk, with the use of mobile phones during driving being one of the leading causes of accidents. This paper attempts to investigate the impact of cell phone use while driving on drivers’ control behaviors. Given [...] Read more.
Distracted driving behaviors are closely related to crash risk, with the use of mobile phones during driving being one of the leading causes of accidents. This paper attempts to investigate the impact of cell phone use while driving on drivers’ control behaviors. Given the limitation of driving simulators in an unnatural setting, a sample of 134 cases related to cell phone use during driving were extracted from Shanghai naturalistic driving study data, which provided massive unobtrusive data to observe actual driving process. The process of using mobile phones was categorized into five operations, including dialing, answering, talking and listening, hanging up, and viewing information. Based on the concept of moving time window, the variation of the intensity of control activity, the sensitivity of control operation, and the stability of control state in each operation were analyzed. The empirical results show strong correlation between distracted operations and driving control behavior. The findings contribute to a better understanding of drivers’ natural behavior changes with using mobiles, and can provide useful information for transport safety management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Attitudes and Practice Regarding Disposal for Unwanted Medications among Young Adults and Elderly People in China from an Ecopharmacovigilance Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081463 - 25 Apr 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
Due to the expensive cost and uncertain effectiveness of environmental management options in eliminating pharmaceutical residues, recently, decreasing the emission of pharmaceutical pollutants from a drug administration perspective has been considered a hot area of research. As a kind of drug administration for [...] Read more.
Due to the expensive cost and uncertain effectiveness of environmental management options in eliminating pharmaceutical residues, recently, decreasing the emission of pharmaceutical pollutants from a drug administration perspective has been considered a hot area of research. As a kind of drug administration for the environment, ecopharmacovigilance (EPV) emphasizes the source control of pharmaceutical pollutants. Disposal of unwanted medicines has been considered as the easiest target for source control of pharmaceutical contamination. Here, we focused on public attitudes and practice regarding disposal of unwanted medicines from the EPV perspective among 365 Chinese university young adults and 206 elderly retirement home residents. The results showed that the majority of respondents had positive attitudes, but exhibited inadequate awareness and poor practice. In addition, the young-adult respondents were found to pay more attention to the environmental problems posed by pharmaceutical residues, and be more supportive of the EPV intervention predominantly performed by pharmaceutical industries and pharmacists. Therefore, it is urgent to establish the standard medicine disposal protocols and educate the general public on the best way for medication disposal under the principle of EPV in China, and efforts on environmentally-preferred drug disposal under EPV should target for the specific demographics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Health-Related Quality of Life Profiles among Patients with Different Road Traffic Injuries in an Urban Setting of Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081462 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
Road traffic injuries (RTIs) cause a substantial disease burden in Vietnam. Evaluating health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients having a diversity of RTIs informs an integral part of treatment effectiveness. This study aims to examine HRQOL of patients suffering different RTIs in [...] Read more.
Road traffic injuries (RTIs) cause a substantial disease burden in Vietnam. Evaluating health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients having a diversity of RTIs informs an integral part of treatment effectiveness. This study aims to examine HRQOL of patients suffering different RTIs in Vietnam’s urban areas. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 408 patients from October to December 2018 in six hospitals in Thai Binh. The EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) and visual analog scale (VAS) were used to assess the HRQOL of patients. Multivariable Tobit regression was applied to measure the difference of HRQOL among different kinds of injuries. The mean EQ-5D-5L and VAS score was 0.40–0.66, respectively. Mean EQ-5D-5L index was lowest in patients with oral and facial injuries (0.22) and fracture injuries (0.23), while patients having hand injuries had the highest EQ-5D-5L index (0.54). EQ-5D-5L index had a negative association with oral, facial, and fracture injuries. Meanwhile, patients with brain, fracture, and multiple injuries tended to have lower VAS score. Poor HRQOL among patients injured in road traffic were observed. Pain management, early rehabilitation, and mental health counseling services should be considered during treatment time, especially among those having the brain, oral and facial trauma, fracture, and multiple injuries. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Recent Status and Methodological Quality of Return-to-Work Rates of Cancer Patients Reported in Japan: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081461 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
Cancer patients’ return-to-work rates in Japan and their methodological quality have been little reported. We conducted a systematic review to explore the recent return-to-work rates and to assess the methodological quality of the existing literature. We selected 13 papers (2 in English and [...] Read more.
Cancer patients’ return-to-work rates in Japan and their methodological quality have been little reported. We conducted a systematic review to explore the recent return-to-work rates and to assess the methodological quality of the existing literature. We selected 13 papers (2 in English and 11 in Japanese) published between 2005 and 2017. The return-to-work rates ranged from 53.8% to 95.2%. Of the selected papers, 12 papers employed a cross-sectional design, possessing high risk of selection bias due to participant selection. A total of 8 papers did not fully report the subjects’ sex, age, employment status at cancer diagnosis, cancer site, stage, and treatment, suggesting high risk of selection bias due to confounding variables. High or unclear risk of attrition bias due to incomplete outcome data was detected in 12 papers in which data on return to work were not collected from all participants. High risk of reporting bias due to selective outcome reporting was pointed out in 6 studies in which the subjects’ employment status at return to work or the duration between cancer diagnosis and assessment of return to work was unclear. Future studies must reduce the risk of selection, attrition, and reporting biases for specifying accurate return-to-work rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Return to Work and Occupational Health Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Hospital Ownership and Hospital Institutional Change: A Qualitative Study in Guizhou Province, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081460 - 24 Apr 2019
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Objectives: To qualitatively compare the influence of different ownership which is considered as a kind of institutional environment in public hospitals, private hospitals, and mixed-ownership hospitals on hospital governance structure and organizational behavior. Design: Qualitative descriptive study, using semi-structured, in-depth interviews [...] Read more.
Objectives: To qualitatively compare the influence of different ownership which is considered as a kind of institutional environment in public hospitals, private hospitals, and mixed-ownership hospitals on hospital governance structure and organizational behavior. Design: Qualitative descriptive study, using semi-structured, in-depth interviews and thematic template analysis, theoretically informed by critical realism. Participants: 27 key informants including national policymakers in charge of the health sector, influential researchers, local administrators responsible for implementing policies, and hospital managers who are experienced in institutional change. Results: Hospital ownership has a significant influence on hospitals in terms of decision-making power allocation, residual ownership allocation, market entry level, accountability, and social functions. These five aspects in hospital organizational structure incentivize hospitals to adapt to the internal and external environment of the hospital organization—such as market environment, governance, and financing arrangements—affect the behavior of the hospital organization, and ultimately affect the efficiency of hospital operation and quality of service. The incentives under the public system are relatively distorted. Private hospitals have poor performance in failing their social functions due to their insufficient development ability. Compared to them, mixed ownership hospitals have a better performance in terms of incentive mechanism and organizational development. Conclusion: Public hospitals should improve the governance environment and decision-making structure, so as to balance their implementation of social functions and achieve favorable organizational development. For private hospitals, in addition to the optimization of the policy environment, attempts should be made to strengthen their supervision. The development of mixed-ownership hospitals should be oriented towards socialized governance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Care Sciences & Services)
Open AccessCase Report
Intracellular Aluminium in Inflammatory and Glial Cells in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A Case Report
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081459 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5581
Abstract
(1) Introduction: In 2006, we reported on very high levels of aluminium in brain tissue in an unusual case of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The individual concerned had been exposed to extremely high levels of aluminium in their potable water due to a [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: In 2006, we reported on very high levels of aluminium in brain tissue in an unusual case of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The individual concerned had been exposed to extremely high levels of aluminium in their potable water due to a notorious pollution incident in Camelford, Cornwall, in the United Kingdom. The recent development of aluminium-specific fluorescence microscopy has now allowed for the location of aluminium in this brain to be identified. (2) Case Summary: We used aluminium-specific fluorescence microscopy in parallel with Congo red staining and polarised light to identify the location of aluminium and amyloid in brain tissue from an individual who had died from a rare and unusual case of CAA. Aluminium was almost exclusively intracellular and predominantly in inflammatory and glial cells including microglia, astrocytes, lymphocytes and cells lining the choroid plexus. Complementary staining with Congo red demonstrated that aluminium and amyloid were not co-located in these tissues. (3) Discussion: The observation of predominantly intracellular aluminium in these tissues was novel and something similar has only previously been observed in cases of autism. The results suggest a strong inflammatory component in this case and support a role for aluminium in this rare and unusual case of CAA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Benefit Coordination of Supply Chain Network Based on Green Development
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081458 - 24 Apr 2019
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Based on Stackelberg’s master–slave game theory and green index decision-making conditions, this paper studies the benefit coordination of a supply chain network composed of a business flow network and logistics network, discusses the decision-making behavior of the main body of the supply chain [...] Read more.
Based on Stackelberg’s master–slave game theory and green index decision-making conditions, this paper studies the benefit coordination of a supply chain network composed of a business flow network and logistics network, discusses the decision-making behavior of the main body of the supply chain network under the performance of green contracts or speculative behavior, respectively, and further constructs the supply chain network collaborative benefit coordination model under the guidance of a manufacturer considering a green development index. The supply chain network interest coordination model analyzes the relationship between the dominant manufacturer behavior and the supply chain network green index and network profit. The results show that fulfilling green contracts helps improve the profitability and sustainability of supply chain networks. A counter-intuitive but interesting result is that the dominant manufacturers increase the cost-sharing ratio or penalties of the logistics network, which will reduce the profit level and green index of the logistics network, and increase the cost-sharing ratio or punishment of the suppliers. Strength will increase the profitability and green index of the logistics network. Finally, we validate the relevant conclusions of the model through numerical simulation analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Open AccessEditorial
The Next Frontier in Health Geography: Context and Implications for Interventions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081457 - 24 Apr 2019
Viewed by 689
Abstract
During an opening panel of the 2018 International Health Congress in Oxford, a question was raised as to how protection could be offered to young researchers in particular who explore new ideas [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Relation between Psychological Restorativeness and Lifestyle, Quality of Life, Resilience, and Stress-Coping in Forest Settings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081456 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Previous research has mainly dealt with the physiological and psychological restorative effects of the forest environment. However, comparatively few studies have focused on how the traits and attributes of individuals (individual traits) affect the restorative effects of the forest environment. In this study, [...] Read more.
Previous research has mainly dealt with the physiological and psychological restorative effects of the forest environment. However, comparatively few studies have focused on how the traits and attributes of individuals (individual traits) affect the restorative effects of the forest environment. In this study, we examined the relationships between the psychological restorative effects offered by perceived restorativeness of outdoor settings and the individual traits. Then, we investigated the relationships between the restorative indicators that are useful in examining the restorative properties (i.e., the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS); seven indicators in total), the psychological restorative effect (Profile of Mood States (POMS), Restorative Outcome Scale (ROS), positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS), and Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS); 10 indicators in total), and the individual trait indicators that could be used to investigate individual traits (Development of Health and Life Habit Inventory for lifestyle, Lazarus-type Stress Coping Inventory for stress coping, World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment 26 for quality of life (QOL), and Sukemune-Hiew Resilience test for resilience; 28 indicators in total) in forest and urban settings. Respondents consisted of 46 male students in their twenties. A short-term experiment was conducted using the same method in both environmental settings. We then analyzed the intrinsic restorative properties and the restorative effects of the settings and referred to prior research to determine the restorative effects. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between the restorative indicators and the individual trait indicators by correlation analysis and multiple regression (step-wise) analysis. These new findings were obtained: (1) the forest setting was a restorative environment with a higher restorative effect than the urban setting; (2) although the forest setting had a higher restorative effect than the urban setting, and the influence of individual traits was small; (3) in the forest setting, the relationship between the restorative indicators and individual traits indicators were arranged; (4) distancing (Stress coping), psychological health (QOL), and satisfaction with living environment (QOL) were likely important indicators that are related to the restorative effects in the forest setting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Analysis of Built Environment Risk for Respiratory Health and Its Implication for Urban Planning: A Case Study of Shanghai
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081455 - 24 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1295
Abstract
Urban planning has been proven and is expected to promote public health by improving the built environment. With a focus on respiratory health, this paper explores the impact of the built environment on the incidence of lung cancer and its planning implications. While [...] Read more.
Urban planning has been proven and is expected to promote public health by improving the built environment. With a focus on respiratory health, this paper explores the impact of the built environment on the incidence of lung cancer and its planning implications. While the occurrence of lung cancer is a complicated and cumulative process, it would be valuable to discover the potential risks of the built environment. Based on the data of 52,009 lung cancer cases in Shanghai, China from 2009 to 2013, this paper adopts spatial analytical methods to unravel the spatial distribution of lung cancer cases. With the assistance of geographic information system and Geo-Detector, this paper identifies certain built environments that are correlated with the distribution pattern of lung cancer cases in Shanghai, including the percentage of industrial land (which explains 28% of the cases), location factors (11%), and the percentages of cultivated land and green space (6% and 5%, respectively). Based on the quantitative study, this paper facilitates additional consideration and planning intervention measures for respiratory health such as green buffering. It is an ecological study to illustrate correlation that provides approaches for further study to unravel the causality of disease incidence and the built environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Time-Space Modeling of the Health Effects of Environment)
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Open AccessReview
Built Environment and Health Behaviors: Deconstructing the Black Box of Interactions—A Review of Reviews
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081454 - 24 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1332
Abstract
A review of reviews following a scoping review study design was conducted in order to deconstruct the black box of interactions between the built environment and human behaviors pertaining to physical activity and/or diet. In the qualitative analysis 107 records were included, 45 [...] Read more.
A review of reviews following a scoping review study design was conducted in order to deconstruct the black box of interactions between the built environment and human behaviors pertaining to physical activity and/or diet. In the qualitative analysis 107 records were included, 45 of which were also coded. Most review papers confirmed the influence of the built environment on the behaviors of interest with some noting that a same built environment feature could have different behavioral outcomes. The conceptual model developed sheds light on these mixed results and brings out the role of several personal and behavioral factors in the shift from the measured to the perceived built environment. This shift was found to shape individuals’ behaviors critically and to have the power of redefining the strength of every interaction. Apart from its theoretical relevance, this model has high practical relevance especially for the design and implementation of interventions with a behavioral component. Intervention researchers can use the model developed to identify and label the built environment and individual factors that can be measured objectively or perceived as facilitators, concurrent options and barriers, in order to develop comprehensive and multi-component intervention strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessReview
Factors Correlating to the Development of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Hemodialysis Patients—Findings Mainly from Asiatic Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081453 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 934
Abstract
Hemodialysis is an effective replacement therapy for chronic renal failure patients. In recent decades, the number of hemodialysis patients has grown rapidly and some measures for preventing blood-borne diseases have been implemented, but hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a significant problem. The [...] Read more.
Hemodialysis is an effective replacement therapy for chronic renal failure patients. In recent decades, the number of hemodialysis patients has grown rapidly and some measures for preventing blood-borne diseases have been implemented, but hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a significant problem. The meta-analysis published in 2009 on HCV infection-related factors was based on localized study objects, and some additional studies have been published since 2009; however, the contribution of these factors remains under dispute. Our study pooled the odds ratios (ORs) or mean standard deviations (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and analyzed sensitivity using Review Manager 5.1 software (5.1 version Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre; 2011) by searching data in the PubMed, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley, and EBSCO databases. Spearman correlation analysis was performed using the SPSS package. In our meta-analysis, 1715 HCV-infected hemodialysis patients and 7093 non-HCV-infected hemodialysis patients from 44 studies were analyzed. The pooled ORs with 95% CIs were: histories of blood transfusion, 4.30 (3.11, 5.96); weekly hemodialysis times > 2, 6.00 (3.25, 11.06); kidney transplantation, 5.80 (3.95, 8.52); hemodialysis units > 2, 6.90 (2.42, 19.68); shared hemodialysis devices, 5.00 (2.35, 10.65); and drug addiction, 4.73 (1.54, 14.47). The pooled MDs with 95% CIs were duration of hemodialysis (months) 27.48 (21.67, 33.30). There was a positive correlation between duration of hemodialysis and the HCV infection rate (p < 0.01). Hemodialysis patients, especially from Asia, with shared hemodialysis devices, hemodialysis units > 2, blood transfusion, kidney transplantation, and drug addiction were at increased risk of HCV infection. The HCV infection rate increased with the duration of hemodialysis. High-risk hemodialysis patients should be monitored and receive timely screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Machine Learning Methods to Predict Social Media Disaster Rumor Refuters
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081452 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
This research provides a general methodology for distinguishing disaster-related anti-rumor spreaders from a non-ignorant population base, with strong connections in their social circle. Several important influencing factors are examined and illustrated. User information from the most recent posted microblog content of 3793 Sina [...] Read more.
This research provides a general methodology for distinguishing disaster-related anti-rumor spreaders from a non-ignorant population base, with strong connections in their social circle. Several important influencing factors are examined and illustrated. User information from the most recent posted microblog content of 3793 Sina Weibo users was collected. Natural language processing (NLP) was used for the sentiment and short text similarity analyses, and four machine learning techniques, i.e., logistic regression (LR), support vector machines (SVM), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) were compared on different rumor refuting microblogs; after which a valid and robust distinguishing XGBoost model was trained and validated to predict who would retweet disaster-related rumor refuting microblogs. Compared with traditional prediction variables that only access user information, the similarity and sentiment analyses of the most recent user microblog contents were found to significantly improve prediction precision and robustness. The number of user microblogs also proved to be a valuable reference for all samples during the prediction process. This prediction methodology could be possibly more useful for WeChat or Facebook as these have relatively stable closed-loop communication channels, which means that rumors are more likely to be refuted by acquaintances. Therefore, the methodology is going to be further optimized and validated on WeChat-like channels in the future. The novel rumor refuting approach presented in this research harnessed NLP for the user microblog content analysis and then used the analysis results of NLP as additional prediction variables to identify the anti-rumor spreaders. Therefore, compared to previous studies, this study presents a new and effective decision support for rumor countermeasures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Big Data Analytics and Intelligence)
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Open AccessArticle
A Meta-Analysis of the Rates of Suicide Ideation, Attempts and Deaths in People with Epilepsy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081451 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1096
Abstract
This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between epilepsy and suicide. We systematically searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science for studies that reported the prevalence of suicidality in the form of suicide ideation, attempts and deaths among people with epilepsy (PWE). [...] Read more.
This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between epilepsy and suicide. We systematically searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science for studies that reported the prevalence of suicidality in the form of suicide ideation, attempts and deaths among people with epilepsy (PWE). Studies were included if they reported the numbers of patients who died by suicide and concurrently suffered from epilepsy, assessed suicide ideation, or studied suicide attempts in PWE by validated instruments or diagnostic interviews. We used the random effects model to calculate the pooled odds ratios (OR) and standard mean differences (SMDs). We performed subgroup analyses. Seven case-control studies were included in the comparison of rates of suicide attempts between PWE and controls, with a total of 821,594 participants. Our analyses demonstrated a positive association between epilepsy and suicide attempts (pooled OR = 3.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.69–3.92, p < 0.001), indicating that PWE have an elevated risk of suicide. The pooled prevalence for suicide ideation (24 studies) and suicide attempts (18 studies) were 23.2% (95% CI: 0.176–0.301) and 7.4% (95% CI: 0.031–0.169) respectively. The pooled rate of death due to suicide (10 studies) was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.002–0.016). Meta-regression showed that mean age and proportion of male gender were significant moderators for prevalence of suicide attempts and death due to suicide in PWE. Young PWE could be triggered by relationship problems and male PWE might use more lethal methods to attempt suicide. This meta-analysis provides the most up-to-date information on the prevalence of suicide among people with epilepsy and guidance on strategies to improve current psychiatric services provided for this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Affecting HIV Testing among Youth in Kenya
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081450 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
With the high prevalence of HIV among youth in sub-Saharan Africa, it is vital to better understand factors affecting HIV testing among this population; this is the first step in the HIV treatment cascade. The purpose of this study was to examine factors [...] Read more.
With the high prevalence of HIV among youth in sub-Saharan Africa, it is vital to better understand factors affecting HIV testing among this population; this is the first step in the HIV treatment cascade. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to behavioral intentions regarding HIV testing using existing pre-test data from the HIV SEERs (Stigma-reduction via Education, Empowerment, and Research) Project, a community-based participatory research program targeting 13–24-year-olds in Kenya. It was hypothesized that HIV knowledge, social support, subjective well-being, and mental health (depression, anxiety, and stress) would serve as facilitators to HIV testing while projected stigma and substance use would serve as barriers to HIV testing. In partial support of our hypotheses, findings from logistic regression analyses revealed that HIV knowledge, substance use, depression, and social support were significant predictors of HIV testing intentions. However, HIV knowledge and substance use served as facilitators while depression and social support served as barriers. While projected stigma was correlated with HIV testing intentions, it was not a significant predictor in the regression analysis. Subjective well-being, anxiety, and stress were not significant predictors in the regression analysis. These findings have important implications for HIV testing initiatives designed for youth in Kenya as well as future research on HIV testing with this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Prevention: Approaches Towards Elimination)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Working Conditions to Promote Worker Safety, Health, and Wellbeing for Low-Wage Workers: The Workplace Organizational Health Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081449 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1908
Abstract
This paper addresses a significant gap in the literature by describing a study that tests the feasibility and efficacy of an organizational intervention to improve working conditions, safety, and wellbeing for low-wage food service workers. The Workplace Organizational Health Study tests the hypothesis [...] Read more.
This paper addresses a significant gap in the literature by describing a study that tests the feasibility and efficacy of an organizational intervention to improve working conditions, safety, and wellbeing for low-wage food service workers. The Workplace Organizational Health Study tests the hypothesis that an intervention targeting the work organization and environment will result in improvements in workers’ musculoskeletal disorders and wellbeing. This ongoing study is being conducted in collaboration with a large food service company. Formative evaluation was used to prioritize outcomes, assess working conditions, and define essential intervention elements. The theory-driven intervention is being evaluated in a proof-of-concept trial, conducted to demonstrate feasibility and potential efficacy using a cluster randomized design. Ten worksites were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. The 13-month intervention uses a comprehensive systems approach to improve workplace policies and practices. Using principles of participatory engagement, the intervention targets safety and ergonomics; work intensity; and job enrichment. The evaluation will provide a preliminary assessment of estimates of the intervention effect on targeted outcomes and inform understanding of the intervention implementation across worksites. This study is expected to provide insights on methods to improve working conditions in support of the safety and wellbeing of low-wage workers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors toward Eating Disorders among Adolescents in Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081448 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1232
Abstract
The objectives of this survey were to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward eating disorders among adolescents in Italy. The survey was undertaken between May and June 2017 among a random sample of 420 adolescents aged 14–20 years. Data were collected through [...] Read more.
The objectives of this survey were to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward eating disorders among adolescents in Italy. The survey was undertaken between May and June 2017 among a random sample of 420 adolescents aged 14–20 years. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Only 22.8% correctly knew both the definition of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Female, overweight or obese individuals, and who had at least one parent with a college degree or higher level of education were more likely to have this knowledge. More than one third (38.8%) had a fear of getting fat. Female, overweight or obese individuals, who did not know the definition of anorexia and bulimia nervosa, who avoided eating when they were hungry, and who always and usually were engaged in dieting behavior were more likely to have a fear of getting fat. Only 10.1% and 11.9% always and usually were engaged in dieting behavior, and 40.8% never did so. Respondents who usually/always had a strong desire to be thinner and who had a fear of getting fat were more likely to be engaged in dieting behavior. There is an urgent need to inform Italian adolescents about eating disorders, and healthcare workers may play a crucial role in distributing eating disorder-related knowledge. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Future Work and Disability: Promoting Job Motivation in Special Employment Centers in Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081447 - 24 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1029
Abstract
The technological transition currently taking place in the labor market is having severe implications for people. One vulnerable group at risk of marketplace exclusion are employees with disabilities. This research explores their job motivation, including the moderated effect of self-efficacy. A 187 employees [...] Read more.
The technological transition currently taking place in the labor market is having severe implications for people. One vulnerable group at risk of marketplace exclusion are employees with disabilities. This research explores their job motivation, including the moderated effect of self-efficacy. A 187 employees from Special Employment Centers (SECs) in Spain with intellectual and physical disabilities completed the Internal Motivation Scale, the Psychological Critical States (PCS) and the self-efficacy sub-scale of the Psychological Processes Scale (PPS) tests. Following the International Tests Commission guidelines, the instruments were adapted to the special needs of the participants. We found differences depending on the kind of disability of employees. In employees with intellectual disabilities, their levels of self-efficacy moderated the effect of responsibility for outcomes and meaningfulness of work on motivation. In the case of employees with physical disabilities, the knowledge of results is a predictor of motivation when they had medium or high levels of self-efficacy. Additionally, in this group, responsibility for outcomes and meaningfulness of work had a direct effect on motivation, independently of their levels of self-efficacy. Employees with disabilities should be empowered to make choices and exercise control in their working lives. To do so, human resources managers should promote their wellbeing, taking into consideration the workforce diversity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Air Pollution Aggravation during Straw Burning in Hubei, Central China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081446 - 24 Apr 2019
Viewed by 769
Abstract
Crop straw burning frequently occurs in Central China, where agriculture is highly productive. We carried out a two-month observation on straw burning in Hubei Province from September 1 to October 31, 2015 to track the variations of air pollutants and comprehensively quantify their [...] Read more.
Crop straw burning frequently occurs in Central China, where agriculture is highly productive. We carried out a two-month observation on straw burning in Hubei Province from September 1 to October 31, 2015 to track the variations of air pollutants and comprehensively quantify their influence on regional air quality. Results showed that the concentration of suspended particles (particles smaller than 2.5 or 10 µm, i.e., PM2.5/PM10) and gas pollutants including ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) was significantly enhanced with the increasing number of fire spots. The average daily concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and O3 during the intensive burning period (from October 12 to 25) exceeded the daily limits published by the World Health Organization (WHO) by 101.8, 72.7 and 59.1 μg/m3, respectively. In the hourly distribution of pollutant concentration, PM10, PM2.5, O3, SO2, NO2 and CO were 63.49%, 46.29%, 65.56%, 64.40%, 48.57% and 13.49% higher during burning periods than during non-burning periods. Statistical results based on the air quality index (AQI) indicated that biomass burning was the key factor for the deterioration of local air quality, with a contribution ratio exceeding 41%. Additionally, the pollutants were more spatially homogeneous during the burning period than during the non-burning period. Straw burning not only worsened the local air quality but also raised the pollution level of surrounding regions due to the transport of air mass. Full article
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