Next Article in Journal
The Effect of Ethyl Alcohol upon Pedestrian Trauma Sustained in Traffic Crashes
Previous Article in Journal
Changes in Major Global River Discharges Directed into the Ocean
Open AccessArticle

Menstrual Cycle Disorders in Professional Female Rhythmic Gymnasts

Chair of Woman’s Health, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Medyków 12, 40-752 Katowice, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081470
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
The aim of this research was to compare menstrual cycles, menstrual disorders, and the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in professional female gymnasts and their peers who donot practice any sport, and to identify factors causing a predisposition to premenstrual tension syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorders in both groups. The prospective study involved apopulation of 85 girls. The study group consisted of 45 professional female gymnasts (15–17 years of age) who lived inthe territory of Silesia, in the southern area of Poland. The control group consisted of 40 girls of the same age who lived in the same area but did not professionally practice any sport. The research tools included a questionnaire, a daily diary of PMS symptoms, a daily diary of PMDD symptoms, and a premenstrual symptom screening tool (PSST). The study showed that intensive physical activity undertaken by girls before their first menstruation is a menarche-delaying factor andthat competitive sport promotes premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. The risk factors for PMS and PMDD were also identified, andincluded alcohol and coffee consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: rhythmic gymnastics; menstruation disorders; premenstrual syndrome; premenstrual dysphoric disorder rhythmic gymnastics; menstruation disorders; premenstrual syndrome; premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Czajkowska, M.; Plinta, R.; Rutkowska, M.; Brzęk, A.; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V.; Drosdzol-Cop, A. Menstrual Cycle Disorders in Professional Female Rhythmic Gymnasts. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1470.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop