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Sensors, Volume 18, Issue 8 (August 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Device Management and Data Transport in IoT Networks Based on Visible Light Communication
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2741; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082741
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
LED-based Visible Light Communication (VLC) has been proposed as the IEEE 802.15.7 standard and is regarded as a new wireless access medium in the Internet-of-Things (IoT) environment. With this trend, many works have already been made to improve the performance of VLC. However,
[...] Read more.
LED-based Visible Light Communication (VLC) has been proposed as the IEEE 802.15.7 standard and is regarded as a new wireless access medium in the Internet-of-Things (IoT) environment. With this trend, many works have already been made to improve the performance of VLC. However, the effectively integration of VLC services into IoT networks has not yet been sufficiently studied. In this paper, we propose a scheme for device management and data transport in IoT networks using VLC. Specifically, we discuss how to manage VLC transmitters and receivers, and to support VLC data transmission in IoT networks. The proposed scheme considers uni-directional VLC transmissions from transmitter to receivers for delivery of location-based VLC data. The backward transmission from VLC receivers will be made by using platform server and aggregation agents in the network. For validation and performance analysis, we implemented the proposed scheme with VLC-capable LED lights and open sources of oneM2M. From the experimental results for virtual museum services, we see that the VLC data packets can be exchanged within 590 ms, and the handover between VLC transmitters can be completed within 210 ms in the testbed network. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Approach to Unwanted-Object Detection in GNSS/LiDAR-Based Navigation
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2740; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082740
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we develop new methods to assess safety risks of an integrated GNSS/LiDAR navigation system for highly automated vehicle (HAV) applications. LiDAR navigation requires feature extraction (FE) and data association (DA). In prior work, we established an FE and DA risk
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we develop new methods to assess safety risks of an integrated GNSS/LiDAR navigation system for highly automated vehicle (HAV) applications. LiDAR navigation requires feature extraction (FE) and data association (DA). In prior work, we established an FE and DA risk prediction algorithm assuming that the set of extracted features matched the set of mapped landmarks. This paper addresses these limiting assumptions by incorporating a Kalman filter innovation-based test to detect unwanted object (UO). UO include unmapped, moving, and wrongly excluded landmarks. An integrity risk bound is derived to account for the risk of not detecting UO. Direct simulations and preliminary testing help quantify the impact on integrity and continuity of UO monitoring in an example GNSS/LiDAR implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle EEG-Based Emotion Recognition Using Quadratic Time-Frequency Distribution
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2739; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082739
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Accurate recognition and understating of human emotions is an essential skill that can improve the collaboration between humans and machines. In this vein, electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition is considered an active research field with challenging issues regarding the analyses of the nonstationary EEG
[...] Read more.
Accurate recognition and understating of human emotions is an essential skill that can improve the collaboration between humans and machines. In this vein, electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition is considered an active research field with challenging issues regarding the analyses of the nonstationary EEG signals and the extraction of salient features that can be used to achieve accurate emotion recognition. In this paper, an EEG-based emotion recognition approach with a novel time-frequency feature extraction technique is presented. In particular, a quadratic time-frequency distribution (QTFD) is employed to construct a high resolution time-frequency representation of the EEG signals and capture the spectral variations of the EEG signals over time. To reduce the dimensionality of the constructed QTFD-based representation, a set of 13 time- and frequency-domain features is extended to the joint time-frequency-domain and employed to quantify the QTFD-based time-frequency representation of the EEG signals. Moreover, to describe different emotion classes, we have utilized the 2D arousal-valence plane to develop four emotion labeling schemes of the EEG signals, such that each emotion labeling scheme defines a set of emotion classes. The extracted time-frequency features are used to construct a set of subject-specific support vector machine classifiers to classify the EEG signals of each subject into the different emotion classes that are defined using each of the four emotion labeling schemes. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated using a publicly available EEG dataset, namely the DEAPdataset. Moreover, we design three performance evaluation analyses, namely the channel-based analysis, feature-based analysis and neutral class exclusion analysis, to quantify the effects of utilizing different groups of EEG channels that cover various regions in the brain, reducing the dimensionality of the extracted time-frequency features and excluding the EEG signals that correspond to the neutral class, on the capability of the proposed approach to discriminate between different emotion classes. The results reported in the current study demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed QTFD-based approach in recognizing different emotion classes. In particular, the average classification accuracies obtained in differentiating between the various emotion classes defined using each of the four emotion labeling schemes are within the range of 73.8 % 86.2 % . Moreover, the emotion classification accuracies achieved by our proposed approach are higher than the results reported in several existing state-of-the-art EEG-based emotion recognition studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Signal and Information Processing)
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Open AccessArticle A Wearable Wrist Band-Type System for Multimodal Biometrics Integrated with Multispectral Skin Photomatrix and Electrocardiogram Sensors
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2738; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082738
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Multimodal biometrics are promising for providing a strong security level for personal authentication, yet the implementation of a multimodal biometric system for practical usage need to meet such criteria that multimodal biometric signals should be easy to acquire but not easily compromised. We
[...] Read more.
Multimodal biometrics are promising for providing a strong security level for personal authentication, yet the implementation of a multimodal biometric system for practical usage need to meet such criteria that multimodal biometric signals should be easy to acquire but not easily compromised. We developed a wearable wrist band integrated with multispectral skin photomatrix (MSP) and electrocardiogram (ECG) sensors to improve the issues of collectability, performance and circumvention of multimodal biometric authentication. The band was designed to ensure collectability by sensing both MSP and ECG easily and to achieve high authentication performance with low computation, efficient memory usage, and relatively fast response. Acquisition of MSP and ECG using contact-based sensors could also prevent remote access to personal data. Personal authentication with multimodal biometrics using the integrated wearable wrist band was evaluated in 150 subjects and resulted in 0.2% equal error rate ( EER ) and 100% detection probability at 1% FAR (false acceptance rate) ( PD . 1 ), which is comparable to other state-of-the-art multimodal biometrics. An additional investigation with a separate MSP sensor, which enhanced contact with the skin, along with ECG reached 0.1% EER and 100% PD . 1 , showing a great potential of our in-house wearable band for practical applications. The results of this study demonstrate that our newly developed wearable wrist band may provide a reliable and easy-to-use multimodal biometric solution for personal authentication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Biomedical Sensors 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Integration of Underwater Radioactivity and Acoustic Sensors into an Open Sea Near Real-Time Multi-Parametric Observation System
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2737; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082737
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
This work deals with the installation of two smart in-situ sensors (for underwater radioactivity and underwater sound monitoring) on the Western 1-Mediterranean Moored Multisensor Array (W1-M3A) ocean observing system that is equipped with all appropriate modules for continuous, long-term and real-time operation. All
[...] Read more.
This work deals with the installation of two smart in-situ sensors (for underwater radioactivity and underwater sound monitoring) on the Western 1-Mediterranean Moored Multisensor Array (W1-M3A) ocean observing system that is equipped with all appropriate modules for continuous, long-term and real-time operation. All necessary tasks for their integration are described such as, the upgrade of the sensors for interoperable and power-efficient operation, the conversion of data in homogeneous and standard format, the automated pre-process of the raw data, the real-time integration of data and metadata (related to data processing and calibration procedure) into the controller of the observing system, the test and debugging of the developed algorithms in the laboratory, and the obtained quality-controlled data. The integration allowed the transmission of the acquired data in near-real time along with a complete set of typical ocean and atmospheric parameters. Preliminary analysis of the data is presented, providing qualitative information during rainfall periods, and combine gamma-ray detection rates with passive acoustic data. The analysis exhibits a satisfactory identification of rainfall events by both sensors according to the estimates obtained by the rain gauge operating on the observatory and the remote observations collected by meteorological radars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Ocean: Emerging Research Advances, Prospects and Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Particle Filter Weight for Bayesian Direct Position Estimation in a GNSS Receiver
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2736; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082736
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Direct Position Estimation (DPE) is a rather new Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technique to estimate the user position, velocity and time (PVT) directly from correlation values of the received GNSS signal with receiver internal replica signals. If combined with Bayesian nonlinear filters—like
[...] Read more.
Direct Position Estimation (DPE) is a rather new Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technique to estimate the user position, velocity and time (PVT) directly from correlation values of the received GNSS signal with receiver internal replica signals. If combined with Bayesian nonlinear filters—like particle filters—the method allows for coping with multi-modal probability distributions and avoids the linearization step to convert correlation values into pseudoranges. The measurement update equation (particle weight update) is derived from a standard GNSS signal model, but we show that it cannot be used directly in a receiver implementation. The numerical evaluation of the formulas needs to be carried out in a logarithmic scale including various normalizations. Furthermore, the residual user range errors (coming from orbit, satellite clock, multipath or ionospheric errors) need to be included from the very beginning in the stochastic signal model. With these modifications, sensible probability functions can be derived from the GNSS multi-correlator values. The occurrence of multipath yields a natural widening of the probability density function. The approach is demonstrated with simulated and real-world Binary Phase Shift Keying signals with 1.023 MHz code rate (BPSK(1)) within the context of a real-time software based Bayesian DPE receiver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Green Compressive Sampling Reconstruction in IoT Networks
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2735; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082735
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we address the problem of green Compressed Sensing (CS) reconstruction within Internet of Things (IoT) networks, both in terms of computing architecture and reconstruction algorithms. The approach is novel since, unlike most of the literature dealing with energy efficient gathering
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we address the problem of green Compressed Sensing (CS) reconstruction within Internet of Things (IoT) networks, both in terms of computing architecture and reconstruction algorithms. The approach is novel since, unlike most of the literature dealing with energy efficient gathering of the CS measurements, we focus on the energy efficiency of the signal reconstruction stage given the CS measurements. As a first novel contribution, we present an analysis of the energy consumption within the IoT network under two computing architectures. In the first one, reconstruction takes place within the IoT network and the reconstructed data are encoded and transmitted out of the IoT network; in the second one, all the CS measurements are forwarded to off-network devices for reconstruction and storage, i.e., reconstruction is off-loaded. Our analysis shows that the two architectures significantly differ in terms of consumed energy, and it outlines a theoretically motivated criterion to select a green CS reconstruction computing architecture. Specifically, we present a suitable decision function to determine which architecture outperforms the other in terms of energy efficiency. The presented decision function depends on a few IoT network features, such as the network size, the sink connectivity, and other systems’ parameters. As a second novel contribution, we show how to overcome classical performance comparison of different CS reconstruction algorithms usually carried out w.r.t. the achieved accuracy. Specifically, we consider the consumed energy and analyze the energy vs. accuracy trade-off. The herein presented approach, jointly considering signal processing and IoT network issues, is a relevant contribution for designing green compressive sampling architectures in IoT networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Communications and Networking for IoT)
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Open AccessArticle An Occlusion-Aware Framework for Real-Time 3D Pose Tracking
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2734; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082734
Received: 21 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Random forest-based methods for 3D temporal tracking over an image sequence have gained increasing prominence in recent years. They do not require object’s texture and only use the raw depth images and previous pose as input, which makes them especially suitable for textureless
[...] Read more.
Random forest-based methods for 3D temporal tracking over an image sequence have gained increasing prominence in recent years. They do not require object’s texture and only use the raw depth images and previous pose as input, which makes them especially suitable for textureless objects. These methods learn a built-in occlusion handling from predetermined occlusion patterns, which are not always able to model the real case. Besides, the input of random forest is mixed with more and more outliers as the occlusion deepens. In this paper, we propose an occlusion-aware framework capable of real-time and robust 3D pose tracking from RGB-D images. To this end, the proposed framework is anchored in the random forest-based learning strategy, referred to as RFtracker. We aim to enhance its performance from two aspects: integrated local refinement of random forest on one side, and online rendering based occlusion handling on the other. In order to eliminate the inconsistency between learning and prediction of RFtracker, a local refinement step is embedded to guide random forest towards the optimal regression. Furthermore, we present an online rendering-based occlusion handling to improve the robustness against dynamic occlusion. Meanwhile, a lightweight convolutional neural network-based motion-compensated (CMC) module is designed to cope with fast motion and inevitable physical delay caused by imaging frequency and data transmission. Finally, experiments show that our proposed framework can cope better with heavily-occluded scenes than RFtracker and preserve the real-time performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Positioning and Navigation)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of CBERS-04, GF-1, and GF-2 Satellite Panchromatic Images for Mapping Quasi-Circular Vegetation Patches in the Yellow River Delta, China
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2733; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082733
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Vegetation in arid and semi-arid regions frequently exists in patches, which can be effectively mapped by remote sensing. However, not all satellite images are suitable to detect the decametric-scale vegetation patches because of low spatial resolution. This study compared the capability of the
[...] Read more.
Vegetation in arid and semi-arid regions frequently exists in patches, which can be effectively mapped by remote sensing. However, not all satellite images are suitable to detect the decametric-scale vegetation patches because of low spatial resolution. This study compared the capability of the first Gaofen Satellite (GF-1), the second Gaofen Satellite (GF-2), and China-Brazil Earth Resource Satellite 4 (CBERS-04) panchromatic images for mapping quasi-circular vegetation patches (QVPs) with K-Means (KM) and object-based example-based feature extraction with support vector machine classification (OEFE) in the Yellow River Delta, China. Both approaches provide relatively high classification accuracy with GF-2. For all five images, the root mean square errors (RMSEs) for area, perimeter, and perimeter/area ratio were smaller using the KM than the OEFE, indicating that the results from the KM are more similar to ground truth. Although the mapped results of the QVPs from finer-spatial resolution images appeared more accurate, accuracy improvement in terms of QVP area, perimeter, and perimeter/area ratio was limited, and most of the QVPs detected only by finer-spatial resolution imagery had a more than 40% difference with the actual QVPs in these three parameters. Compared with the KM approach, the OEFE approach performed better for vegetation patch shape description. Coupling the CBERS-04 with the OEFE approach could suitably map the QVPs (overall accuracy 75.3%). This is important for ecological protection managers concerned about cost-effectiveness between image spatial resolution and mapping the QVPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A High Precision Quality Inspection System for Steel Bars Based on Machine Vision
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2732; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082732
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Steel bars play an important role in modern construction projects and their quality enormously affects the safety of buildings. It is urgent to detect whether steel bars meet the specifications or not. However, the existing manual detection methods are costly, slow and offer
[...] Read more.
Steel bars play an important role in modern construction projects and their quality enormously affects the safety of buildings. It is urgent to detect whether steel bars meet the specifications or not. However, the existing manual detection methods are costly, slow and offer poor precision. In order to solve these problems, a high precision quality inspection system for steel bars based on machine vision is developed. We propose two algorithms: the sub-pixel boundary location method (SPBLM) and fast stitch method (FSM). A total of five sensors, including a CMOS, a level sensor, a proximity switch, a voltage sensor, and a current sensor have been used to detect the device conditions and capture image or video. The device could capture abundant and high-definition images and video taken by a uniform and stable smartphone at the construction site. Then data could be processed in real-time on a smartphone. Furthermore, the detection results, including steel bar diameter, spacing, and quantity would be given by a practical APP. The system has a rather high accuracy (as low as 0.04 mm (absolute error) and 0.002% (relative error) of calculating diameter and spacing; zero error in counting numbers of steel bars) when doing inspection tasks, and three parameters can be detected at the same time. None of these features are available in existing systems and the device and method can be widely used to steel bar quality inspection at the construction site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Signal Processing and Visual Computing)
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Open AccessArticle Distributed Egocentric Betweenness Measure as a Vehicle Selection Mechanism in VANETs: A Performance Evaluation Study
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2731; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082731
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
In the traditional approach for centrality measures, also known as sociocentric, a network node usually requires global knowledge of the network topology in order to evaluate its importance. Therefore, it becomes difficult to deploy such an approach in large-scale or highly dynamic networks.
[...] Read more.
In the traditional approach for centrality measures, also known as sociocentric, a network node usually requires global knowledge of the network topology in order to evaluate its importance. Therefore, it becomes difficult to deploy such an approach in large-scale or highly dynamic networks. For this reason, another concept known as egocentric has been introduced, which analyses the social environment surrounding individuals (through the ego-network). In other words, this type of network has the benefit of using only locally available knowledge of the topology to evaluate the importance of a node. It is worth emphasizing that in this approach, each network node will have a sub-optimal accuracy. However, such accuracy may be enough for a given purpose, for instance, the vehicle selection mechanism (VSM) that is applied to find, in a distributed fashion, the best-ranked vehicles in the network after each topology change. In order to confirm that egocentric measures can be a viable alternative for implementing a VSM, in particular, a case study was carried out to validate the effectiveness and viability of that mechanism for a distributed information management system. To this end, we used the egocentric betweenness measure as a selection mechanism of the most appropriate vehicle to carry out the tasks of information aggregation and knowledge generation. Based on the analysis of the performance results, it was confirmed that a VSM is extremely useful for VANET applications, and two major contributions of this mechanism can be highlighted: (i) reduction of bandwidth consumption; and (ii) overcoming the issue of highly dynamic topologies. Another contribution of this work is a thorough study by implementing and evaluating how well egocentric betweenness performs in comparison to the sociocentric measure in VANETs. Evaluation results show that the use of the egocentric betweenness measure in highly dynamic topologies has demonstrated a high degree of similarity compared to the sociocentric approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithm and Distributed Computing for the Internet of Things)
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Open AccessArticle Robust Fusion of LiDAR and Wide-Angle Camera Data for Autonomous Mobile Robots
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2730; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082730
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Autonomous robots that assist humans in day to day living tasks are becoming increasingly popular. Autonomous mobile robots operate by sensing and perceiving their surrounding environment to make accurate driving decisions. A combination of several different sensors such as LiDAR, radar, ultrasound sensors
[...] Read more.
Autonomous robots that assist humans in day to day living tasks are becoming increasingly popular. Autonomous mobile robots operate by sensing and perceiving their surrounding environment to make accurate driving decisions. A combination of several different sensors such as LiDAR, radar, ultrasound sensors and cameras are utilized to sense the surrounding environment of autonomous vehicles. These heterogeneous sensors simultaneously capture various physical attributes of the environment. Such multimodality and redundancy of sensing need to be positively utilized for reliable and consistent perception of the environment through sensor data fusion. However, these multimodal sensor data streams are different from each other in many ways, such as temporal and spatial resolution, data format, and geometric alignment. For the subsequent perception algorithms to utilize the diversity offered by multimodal sensing, the data streams need to be spatially, geometrically and temporally aligned with each other. In this paper, we address the problem of fusing the outputs of a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) scanner and a wide-angle monocular image sensor for free space detection. The outputs of LiDAR scanner and the image sensor are of different spatial resolutions and need to be aligned with each other. A geometrical model is used to spatially align the two sensor outputs, followed by a Gaussian Process (GP) regression-based resolution matching algorithm to interpolate the missing data with quantifiable uncertainty. The results indicate that the proposed sensor data fusion framework significantly aids the subsequent perception steps, as illustrated by the performance improvement of a uncertainty aware free space detection algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Depth Sensors and 3D Vision)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis and Modeling Methodologies for Heat Exchanges of Deep-Sea In Situ Spectroscopy Detection System Based on ROV
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2729; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082729
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, cabled ocean observation technology has been increasingly used for deep sea in situ research. As sophisticated sensor or measurement system starts to be applied on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), it presents the requirement to maintain a stable condition of
[...] Read more.
In recent years, cabled ocean observation technology has been increasingly used for deep sea in situ research. As sophisticated sensor or measurement system starts to be applied on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), it presents the requirement to maintain a stable condition of measurement system cabin. In this paper, we introduce one kind of ROV-based Raman spectroscopy measurement system (DOCARS) and discuss the development characteristics of its cabin condition during profile measurement process. An available and straightforward modeling methodology is proposed to realize predictive control for this trend. This methodology is based on the Autoregressive Exogenous (ARX) model and is optimized through a series of sea-going test data. The fitting result demonstrates that during profile measurement processes this model can availably predict the development trends of DORCAS’s cabin condition during the profile measurement process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Absolute Position Coding Method for Angular Sensor—Single-Track Gray Codes
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2728; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082728
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
Single-track Gray codes (STGCs) is a type of absolute position coding method for novel angular sensors, because it has single-track property over traditional Gray codes and mono-difference over linear feedback shift register codes. However, given that the coding theory of STGCs is incomplete,
[...] Read more.
Single-track Gray codes (STGCs) is a type of absolute position coding method for novel angular sensors, because it has single-track property over traditional Gray codes and mono-difference over linear feedback shift register codes. However, given that the coding theory of STGCs is incomplete, STGC construction is still a challenging task even though it has been defined for more than 20 years. Published coding theories and results on STGCs are about two types of STGC, namely, necklace and self-dual necklace ordering, which are collectively called as k-spaced head STGCs. To find a new code, three constraints on generating sequences are proposed to accelerate the searching algorithm, and the complete searching result of length-6 STGCs is initially obtained. Among the entire 132 length-6 STGCs, two novel types of STGCs with non-k-spaced heads are found, and the basic structures of these codes with the general length n are proposed and defined as twin-necklace and triplet-necklace ordering STGCs. Furthermore, d-plet-necklace ordering STGC, which unifies all the known STGCs by changing the value of d, is also defined. Finally, a single-track absolute encoder prototype is designed to prove that STGCs are as convenient as the traditional position coding methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Sensors and Smart Structures)
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Open AccessArticle AOA-Based Three-Dimensional Multi-Target Localization in Industrial WSNs for LOS Conditions
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082727
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
High-precision and fast relative positioning of a large number of mobile sensor nodes (MSNs) is crucial for smart industrial wireless sensor networks (SIWSNs). However, positioning multiple targets simultaneously in three-dimensional (3D) space has been less explored. In this paper, we propose a new
[...] Read more.
High-precision and fast relative positioning of a large number of mobile sensor nodes (MSNs) is crucial for smart industrial wireless sensor networks (SIWSNs). However, positioning multiple targets simultaneously in three-dimensional (3D) space has been less explored. In this paper, we propose a new approach, called Angle-of-Arrival (AOA) based Three-dimensional Multi-target Localization (ATML). The approach utilizes two anchor nodes (ANs) with antenna arrays to receive the spread spectrum signals broadcast by MSNs. We design a multi-target single-input-multiple-output (MT-SIMO) signal transmission scheme and a simple iterative maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) to estimate the 2D AOAs of multiple MSNs simultaneously. We further adopt the skew line theorem of 3D geometry to mitigate the AOA estimation errors in determining locations. We have conducted extensive simulations and also developed a testbed of the proposed ATML. The numerical and field experiment results have verified that the proposed ATML can locate multiple MSNs simultaneously with high accuracy and efficiency by exploiting the spread spectrum gain and antenna array gain. The ATML scheme does not require extra hardware or synchronization among nodes, and has good capability in mitigating interference and multipath effect in complicated industrial environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Direct Detection of Toxic Contaminants in Minimally Processed Food Products Using Dendritic Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2726; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082726
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
We present a method for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based detection of toxic contaminants in minimally processed liquid food products, through the use of a dendritic silver nanostructure, produced through electrokinetic assembly of nanoparticles from solution. The dendritic nanostructure is produced on the
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We present a method for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based detection of toxic contaminants in minimally processed liquid food products, through the use of a dendritic silver nanostructure, produced through electrokinetic assembly of nanoparticles from solution. The dendritic nanostructure is produced on the surface of a microelectrode chip, connected to an AC field with an imposed DC bias. We apply this chip for the detection of thiram, a toxic fruit pesticide, in apple juice, to a limit of detection of 115 ppb, with no sample preprocessing. We also apply the chip for the detection of melamine, a toxic contaminant/food additive, to a limit of detection of 1.5 ppm in milk and 105 ppb in infant formula. All the reported limits of detection are below the recommended safe limits in food products, rendering this technique useful as a screening method to identify liquid food with hazardous amounts of toxic contaminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Activity Recognition Invariant to Wearable Sensor Unit Orientation Using Differential Rotational Transformations Represented by Quaternions
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2725; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082725
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
Wearable motion sensors are assumed to be correctly positioned and oriented in most of the existing studies. However, generic wireless sensor units, patient health and state monitoring sensors, and smart phones and watches that contain sensors can be differently oriented on the body.
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Wearable motion sensors are assumed to be correctly positioned and oriented in most of the existing studies. However, generic wireless sensor units, patient health and state monitoring sensors, and smart phones and watches that contain sensors can be differently oriented on the body. The vast majority of the existing algorithms are not robust against placing the sensor units at variable orientations. We propose a method that transforms the recorded motion sensor sequences invariantly to sensor unit orientation. The method is based on estimating the sensor unit orientation and representing the sensor data with respect to the Earth frame. We also calculate the sensor rotations between consecutive time samples and represent them by quaternions in the Earth frame. We incorporate our method in the pre-processing stage of the standard activity recognition scheme and provide a comparative evaluation with the existing methods based on seven state-of-the-art classifiers and a publicly available dataset. The standard system with fixed sensor unit orientations cannot handle incorrectly oriented sensors, resulting in an average accuracy reduction of 31.8%. Our method results in an accuracy drop of only 4.7% on average compared to the standard system, outperforming the existing approaches that cause an accuracy degradation between 8.4 and 18.8%. We also consider stationary and non-stationary activities separately and evaluate the performance of each method for these two groups of activities. All of the methods perform significantly better in distinguishing non-stationary activities, our method resulting in an accuracy drop of 2.1% in this case. Our method clearly surpasses the remaining methods in classifying stationary activities where some of the methods noticeably fail. The proposed method is applicable to a wide range of wearable systems to make them robust against variable sensor unit orientations by transforming the sensor data at the pre-processing stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Analytics and Applications of the Wearable Sensors in Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Deployment of FiWi Networks Using Heuristic Method for Integration Microgrids with Smart Metering
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2724; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082724
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
The unpredictable increase in electrical demand affects the quality of the energy throughout the network. A solution to the problem is the increase of distributed generation units, which burn fossil fuels. While this is an immediate solution to the problem, the ecosystem is
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The unpredictable increase in electrical demand affects the quality of the energy throughout the network. A solution to the problem is the increase of distributed generation units, which burn fossil fuels. While this is an immediate solution to the problem, the ecosystem is affected by the emission of CO2. A promising solution is the integration of Distributed Renewable Energy Sources (DRES) with the conventional electrical system, thus introducing the concept of Smart Microgrids (SMG). These SMGs require a safe, reliable and technically planned two-way communication system. This paper presents a heuristic based on planning capable of providing a bidirectional communication that is near optimal. The model follows the structure of a hybrid Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) network with the purpose of obtaining information of electrical parameters that help us to manage the use of energy by integrating conventional electrical system with SMG. The optimization model is based on clustering techniques, through the construction of balanced conglomerates. The method is used for the development of the clusters along with the Nearest-Neighbor Spanning Tree algorithm (N-NST). Additionally, the Optimal Delay Balancing (ODB) model will be used to minimize the end to end delay of each grouping. In addition, the heuristic observes real design parameters such as: capacity and coverage. Using the Dijkstra algorithm, the routes are built following the shortest path. Therefore, this paper presents a heuristic able to plan the deployment of Smart Meters (SMs) through a tree-like hierarchical topology for the integration of SMG at the lowest cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Tracking Ground Targets with a Road Constraint Using a GMPHD Filter
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2723; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082723
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
The Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density (GMPHD) filter is applied to the problem of tracking ground moving targets in clutter due to its excellent multitarget tracking performance, such as avoiding measurement-to-track association, and its easy implementation. For the existing GMPHD-based ground target tracking
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The Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density (GMPHD) filter is applied to the problem of tracking ground moving targets in clutter due to its excellent multitarget tracking performance, such as avoiding measurement-to-track association, and its easy implementation. For the existing GMPHD-based ground target tracking algorithm (the GMPHD filter incorporating map information using a coordinate transforming method, CT-GMPHD), the predicted probability density of its target state is given in road coordinates, while its target state update needs to be performed in Cartesian ground coordinates. Although the algorithm can improve the filtering performance to a certain extent, the coordinate transformation process increases the complexity of the algorithm and reduces its computational efficiency. To address this issue, this paper proposes two non-coordinate transformation roadmap fusion algorithms: directional process noise fusion (DNP-GMPHD) and state constraint fusion (SC-GMPHD). The simulation results show that, compared with the existing algorithms, the two proposed roadmap fusion algorithms are more accurate and efficient for target estimation performance on straight and curved roads in a cluttered environment. The proposed methods are additionally applied using a cardinalized PHD (CPHD) filter and a labeled multi-Bernoulli (LMB) filter. It is found that the PHD filter performs less well than the CPHD and LMB filters, but that it is also computationally cheaper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Joint Design of Space-Time Transmit and Receive Weights for Colocated MIMO Radar
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2722; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082722
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
Compared with single-input multiple-output (SIMO) radar, colocated multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar can detect moving targets better by adopting waveform diversity. When the colocated MIMO radar transmits a set of orthogonal waveforms, the transmit weights are usually set equal to one, and the receive
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Compared with single-input multiple-output (SIMO) radar, colocated multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar can detect moving targets better by adopting waveform diversity. When the colocated MIMO radar transmits a set of orthogonal waveforms, the transmit weights are usually set equal to one, and the receive weights are adaptively adjusted to suppress clutter based on space-time adaptive processing technology. This paper proposes the joint design of space-time transmit and receive weights for colocated MIMO radar. The approach is based on the premise that all possible moving targets are detected by setting a lower threshold. In each direction where there may be moving targets, the space-time transmit and receive weights can be iteratively updated by using the proposed approach to improve the output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR), which is helpful to improve the precision of target detection. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method improves the output SINR by greater than 13 dB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Signal and Information Processing)
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Open AccessArticle IMU Signal Generator Based on Dual Quaternion Interpolation for Integration Simulation
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2721; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082721
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper focuses on the problem of high-update-rate and high accuracy inertial measurement unit signal generation. In order to be in accordance with the vehicle’s kinematic and dynamic characteristics as well as the characteristics of pseudorange of post-processed global navigation satellite system and
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This paper focuses on the problem of high-update-rate and high accuracy inertial measurement unit signal generation. In order to be in accordance with the vehicle’s kinematic and dynamic characteristics as well as the characteristics of pseudorange of post-processed global navigation satellite system and their rate measurements, a novel dual quaternion interpolation and analytic integration algorithm based on actual flight data is proposed. The proposed method can simplify the piecewise analytical expressions of angular rates, angular increments and specific force integral increments. Norm corrections are adopted as constraint conditions to guarantee the accuracy of the signals. Numerical simulations are conducted to validate the method’s performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Sensitivity-Based Fault Detection and Isolation Algorithm for Road Vehicle Chassis Sensors
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2720; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082720
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
Vehicle control systems such as ESC (electronic stability control), MDPS (motor-driven power steering), and ECS (electronically controlled suspension) improve vehicle stability, driver comfort, and safety. Vehicle control systems such as ACC (adaptive cruise control), LKA (lane-keeping assistance), and AEB (autonomous emergency braking) have
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Vehicle control systems such as ESC (electronic stability control), MDPS (motor-driven power steering), and ECS (electronically controlled suspension) improve vehicle stability, driver comfort, and safety. Vehicle control systems such as ACC (adaptive cruise control), LKA (lane-keeping assistance), and AEB (autonomous emergency braking) have also been actively studied in recent years as functions that assist drivers to a higher level. These DASs (driver assistance systems) are implemented using vehicle sensors that observe vehicle status and send signals to the ECU (electronic control unit). Therefore, the failure of each system sensor affects the function of the system, which not only causes discomfort to the driver but also increases the risk of accidents. In this paper, we propose a new method to detect and isolate faults in a vehicle control system. The proposed method calculates the constraints and residuals of 12 systems by applying the model-based fault diagnosis method to the sensor of the chassis system. To solve the inaccuracy in detecting and isolating sensor failure, we applied residual sensitivity to a threshold that determines whether faults occur. Moreover, we applied a sensitivity analysis to the parameters semi-correlation table to derive a fault isolation table. To validate the FDI (fault detection and isolation) algorithm developed in this study, fault signals were injected and verified in the HILS (hardware-in-the-loop simulation) environment using an RCP (rapid control prototyping) device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Fault Detection)
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Open AccessArticle Point Pair Feature-Based Pose Estimation with Multiple Edge Appearance Models (PPF-MEAM) for Robotic Bin Picking
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2719; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082719
Received: 14 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
Automation of the bin picking task with robots entails the key step of pose estimation, which identifies and locates objects so that the robot can pick and manipulate the object in an accurate and reliable way. This paper proposes a novel point pair
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Automation of the bin picking task with robots entails the key step of pose estimation, which identifies and locates objects so that the robot can pick and manipulate the object in an accurate and reliable way. This paper proposes a novel point pair feature-based descriptor named Boundary-to-Boundary-using-Tangent-Line (B2B-TL) to estimate the pose of industrial parts including some parts whose point clouds lack key details, for example, the point cloud of the ridges of a part. The proposed descriptor utilizes the 3D point cloud data and 2D image data of the scene simultaneously, and the 2D image data could compensate the missing key details of the point cloud. Based on the descriptor B2B-TL, Multiple Edge Appearance Models (MEAM), a method using multiple models to describe the target object, is proposed to increase the recognition rate and reduce the computation time. A novel pipeline of an online computation process is presented to take advantage of B2B-TL and MEAM. Our algorithm is evaluated against synthetic and real scenes and implemented in a bin picking system. The experimental results show that our method is sufficiently accurate for a robot to grasp industrial parts and is fast enough to be used in a real factory environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Node-Identification-Based Secure Time Synchronization in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2718; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082718
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
Time synchronization is critical for wireless sensors networks in industrial automation, e.g., event detection and process control of industrial plants and equipment need a common time reference. However, cyber-physical attacks are enormous threats causing synchronization protocols to fail. This paper studies the algorithm
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Time synchronization is critical for wireless sensors networks in industrial automation, e.g., event detection and process control of industrial plants and equipment need a common time reference. However, cyber-physical attacks are enormous threats causing synchronization protocols to fail. This paper studies the algorithm design and analysis in secure time synchronization for resource-constrained industrial wireless sensor networks under Sybil attacks, which cannot be well addressed by existing methods. A node-identification-based secure time synchronization (NiSTS) protocol is proposed. The main idea of this protocol is to utilize the timestamp correlation among different nodes and the uniqueness of a node’s clock skew to detect invalid information rather than isolating suspicious nodes. In the detection process, each node takes the relative skew with respect to its public neighbor as the basis to determine whether the information is reliable and to filter invalid information. The information filtering mechanism renders NiSTS resistant to Sybil attacks and message manipulation attacks. As a completely distributed protocol, NiSTS is not sensitive to the number of Sybil attackers. Extensive simulations were conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of NiSTS and compare it with existing protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Bragg-Grating-Based Photonic Strain and Temperature Sensor Foils Realized Using Imprinting and Operating at Very Near Infrared Wavelengths
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2717; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082717
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
Thin and flexible sensor foils are very suitable for unobtrusive integration with mechanical structures and allow monitoring for example strain and temperature while minimally interfering with the operation of those structures. Electrical strain gages have long been used for this purpose, but optical
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Thin and flexible sensor foils are very suitable for unobtrusive integration with mechanical structures and allow monitoring for example strain and temperature while minimally interfering with the operation of those structures. Electrical strain gages have long been used for this purpose, but optical strain sensors based on Bragg gratings are gaining importance because of their improved accuracy, insusceptibility to electromagnetic interference, and multiplexing capability, thereby drastically reducing the amount of interconnection cables required. This paper reports on thin polymer sensor foils that can be used as photonic strain gage or temperature sensors, using several Bragg grating sensors multiplexed in a single polymer waveguide. Compared to commercially available optical fibers with Bragg grating sensors, our planar approach allows fabricating multiple, closely spaced sensors in well-defined directions in the same plane realizing photonic strain gage rosettes. While most of the reported Bragg grating sensors operate around a wavelength of 1550 nm, the sensors in the current paper operate around a wavelength of 850 nm, where the material losses are the lowest. This was accomplished by imprinting gratings with pitches 280 nm, 285 nm, and 290 nm at the core-cladding interface of an imprinted single mode waveguide with cross-sectional dimensions 3 × 3 µm2. We show that it is possible to realize high-quality imprinted single mode waveguides, with gratings, having only a very thin residual layer which is important to limit bend losses or cross-talk with neighboring waveguides. The strain and temperature sensitivity of the Bragg grating sensors was found to be 0.85 pm/µε and −150 pm/°C, respectively. These values correspond well with those of previously reported sensors based on the same materials but operating around 1550 nm, taking into account that sensitivity scales with the wavelength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Sensors 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Discrimination of Milks with a Multisensor System Based on Layer-by-Layer Films
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2716; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082716
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
A nanostructured electrochemical bi-sensor system for the analysis of milks has been developed using the layer-by-layer technique. The non-enzymatic sensor [CHI+IL/CuPcS]2, is a layered material containing a negative film of the anionic sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuPcS) acting
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A nanostructured electrochemical bi-sensor system for the analysis of milks has been developed using the layer-by-layer technique. The non-enzymatic sensor [CHI+IL/CuPcS]2, is a layered material containing a negative film of the anionic sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuPcS) acting as electrocatalytic material, and a cationic layer containing a mixture of an ionic liquid (IL) (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) that enhances the conductivity, and chitosan (CHI), that facilitates the enzyme immobilization. The biosensor ([CHI+IL/CuPcS]2-GAO) results from the immobilization of galactose oxidase on the top of the LbL layers. FTIR, UV–vis, and AFM have confirmed the proposed structure and cyclic voltammetry has demonstrated the amplification caused by the combination of materials in the film. Sensors have been combined to form an electronic tongue for milk analysis. Principal component analysis has revealed the ability of the sensor system to discriminate between milk samples with different lactose content. Using a PLS-1 calibration models, correlations have been found between the voltammetric signals and chemical parameters measured by classical methods. PLS-1 models provide excellent correlations with lactose content. Additional information about other components, such as fats, proteins, and acidity, can also be obtained. The method developed is simple, and the short response time permits its use in assaying milk samples online. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Chemistry for Sensors Application)
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Open AccessArticle A Contactless Sensor for Pacemaker Pulse Detection: Design Hints and Performance Assessment
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2715; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082715
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
Continuous monitoring of pacemaker activity can provide valuable information to improve patients’ follow-up. Concise information is stored in some types of pacemakers, whereas ECG can provide more detailed information, but requires electrodes and cannot be used for continuous monitoring. This study highlights the
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Continuous monitoring of pacemaker activity can provide valuable information to improve patients’ follow-up. Concise information is stored in some types of pacemakers, whereas ECG can provide more detailed information, but requires electrodes and cannot be used for continuous monitoring. This study highlights the possibility of a continuous monitoring of pacemaker pulses by sensing magnetic field variations due to the current pulses. This can be achieved by means of a sensor coil positioned near the patient’s thorax without any need for physical contact. A simplified model of coil response to pacemaker pulses is presented in this paper, along with circuits suitable for pulse detection. In vitro tests were carried out using real pacemakers immersed in saline solution; experimental data were used to assess the accuracy of the model and to evaluate the sensor performance. It was found that the coil signal amplitude decreases with increasing distance from the pacemaker lead wire. The sensor was able to easily perform pacemaker spike detection up to a distance of 12 cm from the pacemaker leads. The stimulation rate can be measured in real time with high accuracy. Since any electromagnetic pulse triggers the same coil response, EMI may corrupt sensor measurements and thus should be discriminated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Reliability Modeling for Humidity Sensors Subject to Multiple Dependent Competing Failure Processes with Self-Recovery
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2714; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082714
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
Recent developments in humidity sensors have heightened the need for reliability. Seeing as many products such as humidity sensors experience multiple dependent competing failure processes (MDCFPs) with self-recovery, this paper proposes a new general reliability model. Previous research into MDCFPs has primarily focused
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Recent developments in humidity sensors have heightened the need for reliability. Seeing as many products such as humidity sensors experience multiple dependent competing failure processes (MDCFPs) with self-recovery, this paper proposes a new general reliability model. Previous research into MDCFPs has primarily focused on the processes of degradation and random shocks, which are appropriate for most products. However, the existing reliability models for MDCFPs cannot fully characterize the failure processes of products such as humidity sensors with significant self-recovery, leading to an underestimation of reliability. In this paper, the effect of self-recovery on degradation was analyzed using a conditional probability. A reliability model for soft failure with self-recovery was obtained. Then, combined with the model of hard failure due to random shocks, a general reliability model with self-recovery was established. Finally, reliability tests of the humidity sensors were presented to verify the proposed reliability model. Reliability modeling for products subject to MDCFPs with considering self-recovery can provide a better understanding of the mechanism of failure and offer an alternative method to predict the reliability of products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Automatic Groove Measurement and Evaluation with High Resolution Laser Profiling Data
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2713; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082713
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Grooving is widely used to improve airport runway pavement skid resistance during wet weather. However, runway grooves deteriorate over time due to the combined effects of traffic loading, climate, and weather, which brings about a potential safety risk at the time of the
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Grooving is widely used to improve airport runway pavement skid resistance during wet weather. However, runway grooves deteriorate over time due to the combined effects of traffic loading, climate, and weather, which brings about a potential safety risk at the time of the aircraft takeoff and landing. Accordingly, periodic measurement and evaluation of groove performance are critical for runways to maintain adequate skid resistance. Nevertheless, such evaluation is difficult to implement due to the lack of sufficient technologies to identify shallow or worn grooves and slab joints. This paper proposes a new strategy to automatically identify airport runway grooves and slab joints using high resolution laser profiling data. First, K-means clustering based filter and moving window traversal algorithm are developed to locate the deepest point of the potential dips (including noises, true grooves, and slab joints). Subsequently the improved moving average filter and traversal algorithms are used to determine the left and right endpoint positions of each identified dip. Finally, the modified heuristic method is used to separate out slab joints from the identified dips, and then the polynomial support vector machine is introduced to distinguish out noises from the candidate grooves (including noises and true grooves), so that PCC slab-based runway safety evaluation can be performed. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with that of the other two methods, and findings indicate that the new method is more powerful in runway groove and joint identification, with the F-measure score of 0.98. This study would be beneficial in airport runway groove safety evaluation and the subsequent maintenance and rehabilitation of airport runway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Adhesive-Free Bonding of Monolithic Sapphire for Pressure Sensing in Extreme Environments
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2712; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082712
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a monolithic sapphire pressure sensor that is constructed from two commercially available sapphire wafers through a combination of reactive-ion etching and wafer bonding. A Fabry–Perot (FP) cavity is sealed fully between the adhesive-free bonded sapphire wafers and thus acts as
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This paper presents a monolithic sapphire pressure sensor that is constructed from two commercially available sapphire wafers through a combination of reactive-ion etching and wafer bonding. A Fabry–Perot (FP) cavity is sealed fully between the adhesive-free bonded sapphire wafers and thus acts as a pressure transducer. A combination of standard silica fiber, bonded sapphire wafers and free-space optics is proposed to couple the optical signal to the FP cavity of the sensor. The pressure in the FP cavity is measured by applying both white-light interferometry and diaphragm deflection theory over a range of 0.03 to 3.45 MPa at room temperature. With an all-sapphire configuration, the adhesive-free bonded sapphire sensor is expected to be suitable for in-situ pressure measurements in extreme harsh environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Materials for Harsh Environments)
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