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Special Issue "GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Remote Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Gerard Lachapelle

University of Calgary, Department of Geomatics Engineering, Calgary, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 1 403 220 7104
Interests: outdoor/indoor positioning and navigation; kionematic carrier phase positioning
Guest Editor
Dr. Daniele Borio

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Varese, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: digital and wireless communications; location and navigation
Guest Editor
Dr. James T. Curran

European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: electrical engineering; telecommunications; global navigation satellite systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Countless developments continue to enhance GNSS accuracy, reliability and continuity performance and applicability. These include the development of new constellations, signal capture and aiding of sensors, and robust signal processing and integration algorithms. The parallel introduction of increasingly-performing smartphone sensors that are capable of aiding or replacing GNSS, in partly- or totally-denied environments, is resulting in nearly seamless outdoor/indoor navigation. The spectacular development of vehicle-borne, low-cost collision avoidance sensors is making drive-less vehicles an emerging reality.

This Special Issue intends to describe and interconnect these innovations, analyze their advantages and limitations, and demonstrate potential new applications. The main themes and keywords to guide potential authors are as follows:

Themes:

  1. Reliable positioning and navigation
  2. Navigation with smartphone and wearable sensors
  3. Driver-less vehicular navigation

Keywords:

Navigation, positioning, location, GNSS signal interference, jamming, spoofing, reliability, resilience, authentication, accuracy, continuity; inertial measuring units, accelerometer, gyro, barometer, compass, camera and other smartphone and wearable sensors; LiDAR, radar, visual and thermal infrared cameras, ultrasonic, collision avoidance V2V, vehicle-to-vehicle positioning, advanced driver assistance navigation systems, interference mitigation, null-steering, heading determination

Dr. Daniele Borio
Dr. James T. Curran
Dr. Gerard Lachapelle
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (28 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Methodology for Simulating 5G and GNSS High-Accuracy Positioning
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3220; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103220
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 24 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper focuses on the exploitation of fifth generation (5G) centimetre-wave (cmWave) and millimetre-wave (mmWave) transmissions for high-accuracy positioning, in order to complement the availability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) in harsh environments, such as urban canyons. Our goal is to present
[...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the exploitation of fifth generation (5G) centimetre-wave (cmWave) and millimetre-wave (mmWave) transmissions for high-accuracy positioning, in order to complement the availability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) in harsh environments, such as urban canyons. Our goal is to present a representative methodology to simulate and assess their hybrid positioning capabilities over outdoor urban, suburban and rural scenarios. A novel scenario definition is proposed to integrate the network density of 5G deployments with the visibility masks of GNSS satellites, which helps to generate correlated scenarios of both technologies. Then, a generic and representative modeling of the 5G and GNSS observables is presented for snapshot positioning, which is suitable for standard protocols. The simulations results indicate that GNSS drives the achievable accuracy of its hybridisation with 5G cmWave, because non-line-of-sight (NLoS) conditions can limit the cmWave localization accuracy to around 20 m. The 5G performance is significantly improved with the use of mmWave positioning with dominant line-of-sight (LoS) conditions, which can even achieve sub-meter localization with one or more base stations. Therefore, these results show that NLoS conditions need to be weighted in 5G localization, in order to complement and outperform GNSS positioning over urban environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle GNSS Trajectory Anomaly Detection Using Similarity Comparison Methods for Pedestrian Navigation
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3165; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093165
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
The urban setting is a challenging environment for GNSS receivers. Multipath and other anomalies typically increase the positioning error of the receiver. Moreover, the error estimate of the position is often unreliable. In this study, we detect GNSS trajectory anomalies by using similarity
[...] Read more.
The urban setting is a challenging environment for GNSS receivers. Multipath and other anomalies typically increase the positioning error of the receiver. Moreover, the error estimate of the position is often unreliable. In this study, we detect GNSS trajectory anomalies by using similarity comparison methods between a pedestrian dead reckoning trajectory, recorded using a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit, and the corresponding GNSS trajectory. During a normal walk, the foot-mounted inertial dead reckoning setup is trustworthy up to a few tens of meters. Thus, the differing GNSS trajectory can be detected using form similarity comparison methods. Of the eight tested methods, the Hausdorff distance (HD) and the accumulated distance difference (ADD) give slightly more consistent detection results compared to the rest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Benefits of Multi-Constellation/Multi-Frequency GNSS in a Tightly Coupled GNSS/IMU/Odometry Integration Algorithm
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3052; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093052
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Localization algorithms based on global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) play an important role in automotive positioning. Due to the advent of autonomously driving cars, their importance is expected to grow even further in the next years. Simultaneously, the performance requirements for these localization
[...] Read more.
Localization algorithms based on global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) play an important role in automotive positioning. Due to the advent of autonomously driving cars, their importance is expected to grow even further in the next years. Simultaneously, the performance requirements for these localization algorithms will increase because they are no longer used exclusively for navigation, but also for control of the vehicle’s movement. These requirements cannot be met with GNSS alone. Instead, algorithms for sensor data fusion are needed. While the combination of GNSS receivers with inertial measurements units (IMUs) is a common approach, it is traditionally executed in a single-frequency/single-constellation architecture, usually with the Global Positioning System’s (GPS) L1 C/A signal. With the advent of new GNSS constellations and civil signals on multiple frequencies, GNSS/IMU integration algorithm performance can be improved by utilizing these new data sources. To achieve this, we upgraded a tightly coupled GNSS/IMU integration algorithm to process measurements from GPS (L1 C/A, L2C, L5) and Galileo (E1, E5a, E5b). After investigating various combination strategies, we chose to preferably work with ionosphere-free combinations of L5-L1 C/A and E5a-E1 pseudo-ranges. L2C-L1 C/A and E5b-E1 combinations as well as single-frequency pseudo-ranges on L1 and E1 serve as backup when no L5/E5a measurements are available. To be able to process these six types of pseudo-range observations simultaneously, the differential code biases (DCBs) of the employed receiver need to be calibrated. Time-differenced carrier-phase measurements on L1 and E1 provide the algorithm with pseudo-range-rate observations. To provide additional aiding, information about the vehicle’s velocity obtained by an odometry model fed with angular velocities from all four wheels as well as the steering wheel angle is incorporated into the algorithm. To evaluate the performance improvement provided by these new data sources, two sets of measurement data are collected and the resulting navigation solutions are compared to a higher-grade reference system, consisting of a geodetic GNSS receiver for real-time kinematic positioning (RTK) and a navigation grade IMU. The multi-frequency/multi-constellation algorithm with odometry aiding achieves a 3-D root mean square (RMS) position error of 3.6 m / 2.1 m in these data sets, compared to 5.2 m / 2.9 m for the single-frequency GPS algorithm without odometry aiding. Odometry is most beneficial to positioning accuracy when GNSS measurement quality is poor. This is demonstrated in data set 1, resulting in a reduction of the horizontal position error’s 95% quantile from 6.2 m without odometry aiding to 4.2 m with odometry aiding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle New Approaches to the Integration of Navigation Systems for Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles (UAV)
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3010; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093010
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
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Abstract
The article presents an overview of the theoretical and experimental work related to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) motion parameters estimation based on the integration of video measurements obtained by the on-board optoelectronic camera and data from the UAV’s own inertial navigation system (INS).
[...] Read more.
The article presents an overview of the theoretical and experimental work related to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) motion parameters estimation based on the integration of video measurements obtained by the on-board optoelectronic camera and data from the UAV’s own inertial navigation system (INS). The use of various approaches described in the literature which show good characteristics in computer simulations or in fairly simple conditions close to laboratory ones demonstrates the sufficient complexity of the problems associated with adaption of camera parameters to the changing conditions of a real flight. In our experiments, we used computer simulation methods applying them to the real images and processing methods of videos obtained during real flights. For example, it was noted that the use of images that are very different in scale and in the aspect angle from the observed images in flight makes it very difficult to use the methodology of singular points. At the same time, the matching of the observed and reference images using rectilinear segments, such as images of road sections and the walls of the buildings look quite promising. In addition, in our experiments we used the projective transformation matrix computation from frame to frame, which together with the filtering estimates for the coordinate and angular velocities provides additional possibilities for estimating the UAV position. Data on the UAV position determining based on the methods of video navigation obtained during real flights are presented. New approaches to video navigation obtained using the methods of conjugation rectilinear segments, characteristic curvilinear elements and segmentation of textured and colored regions are demonstrated. Also the application of the method of calculating projective transformations from frame-to-frame is shown which gives estimates of the displacements and rotations of the apparatus and thereby serves to the UAV position estimation by filtering. Thus, the aim of the work was to analyze various approaches to UAV navigation using video data as an additional source of information about the position and velocity of the vehicle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Characterization of GNSS/IMU/DVL Integration under Real Maritime Jamming Conditions
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2954; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092954
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
Currently Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) are the primary source for the determination of absolute position, navigation, and time (PNT) for merchant vessel navigation. Nevertheless, the performance of GNSSs can strongly degrade due to space weather events, jamming, and spoofing. Especially the increasing
[...] Read more.
Currently Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) are the primary source for the determination of absolute position, navigation, and time (PNT) for merchant vessel navigation. Nevertheless, the performance of GNSSs can strongly degrade due to space weather events, jamming, and spoofing. Especially the increasing availability and adoption of low cost jammers lead to the question of how a continuous provision of PNT data can be realized in the vicinity of these devices. In general, three possible solutions for that challenge can be seen: (i) a jamming-resistant GNSS receiver; (ii) the usage of a terrestrial backup system; or (iii) the integration of GNSS with other onboard navigation sensors such as a speed log, a gyrocompass, and inertial sensors (inertial measurement unit—IMU). The present paper focuses on the third option by augmenting a classical IMU/GNSS sensor fusion scheme with a Doppler velocity log. Although the benefits of integrated IMU/GNSS navigation system have been already demonstrated for marine applications, a performance evaluation of such a multi-sensor system under real jamming conditions on a vessel seems to be still missing. The paper evaluates both loosely and tightly coupled fusion strategies implemented using an unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated using the civilian maritime jamming testbed in the Baltic Sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle An Integrated Dead Reckoning with Cooperative Positioning Solution to Assist GPS NLOS Using Vehicular Communications
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2895; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092895
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), the Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) paradigm based on the WAVE IEEE 802.11p standard is the main alternative for inter-vehicle communications. Recently, many protocols, applications, and services have been developed with a wide range of objectives, ranging from
[...] Read more.
In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), the Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) paradigm based on the WAVE IEEE 802.11p standard is the main alternative for inter-vehicle communications. Recently, many protocols, applications, and services have been developed with a wide range of objectives, ranging from comfort to security. Most of these services rely on location systems and require different levels of accuracy for their full operation. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is an off-the-shelf solution for localization in VANETs and ITS. However, GPS systems present problems regarding inaccuracy and unavailability in dense urban areas, multilevel roads, and tunnels, posing a challenge for protocols, applications, and services that rely on localization. With this motivation, we carried out a characterization of the problems of inaccuracy and unavailability of GPS systems from real datasets, and regions around tunnels were selected. Since the nodes of the vehicular network are endowed with wireless communication, processing and storage capabilities, an integrated Dead Reckoning aided Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP)-based Cooperative Positioning solution was developed and evaluated. Leveraging the potential of vehicular sensors, such as odometers, gyroscopes, and digital compasses, vehicles share their positions and kinematics information using vehicular communication to improve their location estimations. With the assistance of a digital map, vehicles adjust the final estimated position using the road geometry. The situations of GPS unavailability characterized in the datasets were reproduced in a simulation environment to validate the proposed localization solution. The simulation results show average gains in Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between 97% to 98% in comparison with the stand-alone GPS solution, and 83.00% to 88.00% against the GPS and Dead Reckoning (DR) only solution. The average absolute RMSE was reduced to the range of 3 to 5 m by vehicle. In addition, the proposed solution was shown to support 100% of the GPS unavailability zones on the evaluated scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Improving the Performance of Multi-GNSS Time and Frequency Transfer Using Robust Helmert Variance Component Estimation
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2878; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092878
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
The combination of multiple Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) may improve the performance of time and frequency transfers by increasing the number of available satellites and improving the time dilution of precision. However, the receiver clock estimation is easily affected by the inappropriate
[...] Read more.
The combination of multiple Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) may improve the performance of time and frequency transfers by increasing the number of available satellites and improving the time dilution of precision. However, the receiver clock estimation is easily affected by the inappropriate weight of multi-GNSSs due to the different characteristics of individual GNSS signals as well as the outliers from observations. Thus, we utilised a robust Helmert variance component estimation (RVCE) approach to determine the appropriate weights of different GNSS observations, and to control for the influence of outliers in these observation in multi-GNSS time and frequency transfer. In order to validate the effectiveness of this approach, four time links were employed. Compared to traditional solutions, the mean improvement of smoothed residuals is 3.43% using the RVCE approach. With respect to the frequency stability of the time links, the RVCE solution outperforms the traditional solution, particularly in the short-term, and the mean improvement is markedly high at 14.89%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A New Approach to Unwanted-Object Detection in GNSS/LiDAR-Based Navigation
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2740; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082740
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we develop new methods to assess safety risks of an integrated GNSS/LiDAR navigation system for highly automated vehicle (HAV) applications. LiDAR navigation requires feature extraction (FE) and data association (DA). In prior work, we established an FE and DA risk
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we develop new methods to assess safety risks of an integrated GNSS/LiDAR navigation system for highly automated vehicle (HAV) applications. LiDAR navigation requires feature extraction (FE) and data association (DA). In prior work, we established an FE and DA risk prediction algorithm assuming that the set of extracted features matched the set of mapped landmarks. This paper addresses these limiting assumptions by incorporating a Kalman filter innovation-based test to detect unwanted object (UO). UO include unmapped, moving, and wrongly excluded landmarks. An integrity risk bound is derived to account for the risk of not detecting UO. Direct simulations and preliminary testing help quantify the impact on integrity and continuity of UO monitoring in an example GNSS/LiDAR implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Particle Filter Weight for Bayesian Direct Position Estimation in a GNSS Receiver
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2736; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082736
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Direct Position Estimation (DPE) is a rather new Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technique to estimate the user position, velocity and time (PVT) directly from correlation values of the received GNSS signal with receiver internal replica signals. If combined with Bayesian nonlinear filters—like
[...] Read more.
Direct Position Estimation (DPE) is a rather new Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technique to estimate the user position, velocity and time (PVT) directly from correlation values of the received GNSS signal with receiver internal replica signals. If combined with Bayesian nonlinear filters—like particle filters—the method allows for coping with multi-modal probability distributions and avoids the linearization step to convert correlation values into pseudoranges. The measurement update equation (particle weight update) is derived from a standard GNSS signal model, but we show that it cannot be used directly in a receiver implementation. The numerical evaluation of the formulas needs to be carried out in a logarithmic scale including various normalizations. Furthermore, the residual user range errors (coming from orbit, satellite clock, multipath or ionospheric errors) need to be included from the very beginning in the stochastic signal model. With these modifications, sensible probability functions can be derived from the GNSS multi-correlator values. The occurrence of multipath yields a natural widening of the probability density function. The approach is demonstrated with simulated and real-world Binary Phase Shift Keying signals with 1.023 MHz code rate (BPSK(1)) within the context of a real-time software based Bayesian DPE receiver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Design of a Multiband Global Navigation Satellite System Radio Frequency Interference Monitoring Front-End with Synchronized Secondary Sensors
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2594; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082594
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper investigates the challenges of developing a multi-frequency radio frequency interference (RFI) monitoring and characterization system that is optimized for ease of deployment and operation as well as low per unit cost. To achieve this, we explore the design and development of
[...] Read more.
This paper investigates the challenges of developing a multi-frequency radio frequency interference (RFI) monitoring and characterization system that is optimized for ease of deployment and operation as well as low per unit cost. To achieve this, we explore the design and development of a multiband global navigation satellite system (GNSS) front-end which is intrinsically capable of synchronizing side channel information from non-RF sensors, such as inertial measurement units and integrated power meters, to allow the simultaneous production of substantial amounts of sampled spectrum while also allowing low-cost, real-time monitoring and logging of detected RFI events. While the inertial measurement unit and barometer are not used in the RFI investigation discussed, the design features that provide for their precise synchronization with the RF sample stream are presented as design elements worth consideration. The designed system, referred to as Four Independent Tuners with Data-packing (FITWD), was utilized in a data collection campaign over multiple European and Scandinavian countries in support of the determination of the relative occurrence rates of L1/E1 and L5/E5a interference events and intensities where it proved itself a successful alternative to larger and more expensive commercial solutions. The dual conclusions reached were that it was possible to develop a compact low-cost, multi-channel radio frequency (RF) front-end that implicitly supported external data source synchronization, and that such monitoring systems or similar capabilities integrated within receivers are likely to be needed in the future due to the increasing occurrence rates of GNSS RFI events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Accurate Collaborative Globally-Referenced Digital Mapping with Standard GNSS
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2452; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082452
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 28 July 2018
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Abstract
Exchange of location and sensor data among connected and automated vehicles will demand accurate global referencing of the digital maps currently being developed to aid positioning for automated driving. This paper explores the limit of such maps’ globally-referenced position accuracy when the mapping
[...] Read more.
Exchange of location and sensor data among connected and automated vehicles will demand accurate global referencing of the digital maps currently being developed to aid positioning for automated driving. This paper explores the limit of such maps’ globally-referenced position accuracy when the mapping agents are equipped with low-cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers performing standard code-phase-based navigation, and presents a globally-referenced electro-optical simultaneous localization and mapping pipeline, called GEOSLAM, designed to achieve this limit. The key accuracy-limiting factor is shown to be the asymptotic average of the error sources that impair standard GNSS positioning. Asymptotic statistics of each GNSS error source are analyzed through both simulation and empirical data to show that sub-50-cm accurate digital mapping is feasible in the horizontal plane after multiple mapping sessions with standard GNSS, but larger biases persist in the vertical direction. GEOSLAM achieves this accuracy by (i) incorporating standard GNSS position estimates in the visual SLAM framework, (ii) merging digital maps from multiple mapping sessions, and (iii) jointly optimizing structure and motion with respect to time-separated GNSS measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Integrity and Collaboration in Dynamic Sensor Networks
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2400; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072400
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) deliver absolute position and velocity, as well as time information (P, V, T). However, in urban areas, the GNSS navigation performance is restricted due to signal obstructions and multipath. This is especially true for applications dealing with highly
[...] Read more.
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) deliver absolute position and velocity, as well as time information (P, V, T). However, in urban areas, the GNSS navigation performance is restricted due to signal obstructions and multipath. This is especially true for applications dealing with highly automatic or even autonomous driving. Subsequently, multi-sensor platforms including laser scanners and cameras, as well as map data are used to enhance the navigation performance, namely in accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability. Although well-established procedures for integrity monitoring exist for aircraft navigation, for sensors and fusion algorithms used in automotive navigation, these concepts are still lacking. The research training group i.c.sens, integrity and collaboration in dynamic sensor networks, aims to fill this gap and to contribute to relevant topics. This includes the definition of alternative integrity concepts for space and time based on set theory and interval mathematics, establishing new types of maps that report on the trustworthiness of the represented information, as well as taking advantage of collaboration by improved filters incorporating person and object tracking. In this paper, we describe our approach and summarize the preliminary results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Uncertainty Characterisation of Mobile Robot Localisation Techniques using Optical Surveying Grade Instruments
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2274; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072274
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Recent developments in localisation systems for autonomous robotic technology have been a driving factor in the deployment of robots in a wide variety of environments. Estimating sensor measurement noise is an essential factor when producing uncertainty models for state-of-the-art robotic positioning systems. In
[...] Read more.
Recent developments in localisation systems for autonomous robotic technology have been a driving factor in the deployment of robots in a wide variety of environments. Estimating sensor measurement noise is an essential factor when producing uncertainty models for state-of-the-art robotic positioning systems. In this paper, a surveying grade optical instrument in the form of a Trimble S7 Robotic Total Station is utilised to dynamically characterise the error of positioning sensors of a ground based unmanned robot. The error characteristics are used as inputs into the construction of a Localisation Extended Kalman Filter which fuses Pozyx Ultra-wideband range measurements with odometry to obtain an optimal position estimation, all whilst using the path generated from the remote tracking feature of the Robotic Total Station as a ground truth metric. Experiments show that the proposed method yields an improved positional estimation compared to the Pozyx systems’ native firmware algorithm as well as producing a smoother trajectory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Non-GNSS Smartphone Pedestrian Navigation Using Barometric Elevation and Digital Map-Matching
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2232; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072232
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
PDF Full-text (4729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pedestrian navigation in outdoor environments where global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are unavailable is a challenging problem. Existing technologies that have attempted to address this problemoften require external reference signals or specialized hardware, the extra size,weight, power, and cost of which are unsuitable
[...] Read more.
Pedestrian navigation in outdoor environments where global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are unavailable is a challenging problem. Existing technologies that have attempted to address this problemoften require external reference signals or specialized hardware, the extra size,weight, power, and cost of which are unsuitable for many applications. This article presents a real-time, self-contained outdoor navigation application that uses only the existing sensors on a smartphone in conjunction with a preloaded digital elevation map. The core algorithm implements a particle filter, which fuses sensor data with a stochastic pedestrian motion model to predict the user’s position. The smartphone’s barometric elevation is then compared with the elevation map to constrain the position estimate. The system developed for this research was deployed on Android smartphones and tested in several terrains using a variety of elevation data sources. The results fromthese experiments showthe systemachieves positioning accuracies in the tens of meters that do not grow as a function of time Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle GNSS/INS Fusion with Virtual Lever-Arm Measurements
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2228; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072228
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
The navigation subsystem in most platforms is based on an inertial navigation system (INS). Regardless of the INS grade, its navigation solution drifts in time. To avoid such a drift, the INS is fused with external sensor measurements such as a global navigation
[...] Read more.
The navigation subsystem in most platforms is based on an inertial navigation system (INS). Regardless of the INS grade, its navigation solution drifts in time. To avoid such a drift, the INS is fused with external sensor measurements such as a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Recent publications showed that the lever-arm, defined as the relative position between the INS and aiding sensor, has a strong influence on navigation accuracy. Most research in this field is focused on INS/GNSS fusion with GNSS position or velocity updates while considering various maneuvers types. In this paper, we propose to employ virtual lever-arm (VLA) measurements to improve the accuracy and time to convergence of the observable INS error-states. In particular, we show that VLA measurements improve performance even in stationary conditions. In situations when maneuvering helps to improve state observability, VLA measurements manage to gain additional improvement in accuracy. These results are supported by simulation and field experiments with a vehicle mounted with a GNSS and an INS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Huber’s Non-Linearity for GNSS Interference Mitigation
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2217; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072217
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
Satellite-based navigation is prevalent in both commercial applications and critical infrastructures, providing precise position and time referencing. As a consequence, interference to such systems can have repercussions on a plethora of fields. Additionally, Privacy Preserving Devices (PPD)—jamming devices—are relatively inexpensive and easy to
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Satellite-based navigation is prevalent in both commercial applications and critical infrastructures, providing precise position and time referencing. As a consequence, interference to such systems can have repercussions on a plethora of fields. Additionally, Privacy Preserving Devices (PPD)—jamming devices—are relatively inexpensive and easy to obtain, potentially denying the service in a wide geographical area. Current jamming mitigation technology is based on interference cancellation approaches, requiring the detection and estimation of the interference waveform. Recently, the Robust Interference Mitigation (RIM) framework was proposed, which leverages results in robust statistics by treating the jamming signal as an outlier. It has the advantage of rejecting jamming signals without detecting or estimating its waveform. In this paper, we extend the framework to situations where the jammer is sparse in some transformed domain other than the time domain. Additionally, we analyse the use of Huber’s non-linearity within RIM and derive its loss of efficiency. We compare its performance to state-of-the-art techniques and to other RIM solutions, with both synthetic and real signals, showing remarkable results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A New Method of High-Precision Positioning for an Indoor Pseudolite without Using the Known Point Initialization
Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1977; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061977
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Due to the great influence of multipath effect, noise, clock and error on pseudorange, the carrier phase double difference equation is widely used in high-precision indoor pseudolite positioning. The initial position is determined mostly by the known point initialization (KPI) method, and then
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Due to the great influence of multipath effect, noise, clock and error on pseudorange, the carrier phase double difference equation is widely used in high-precision indoor pseudolite positioning. The initial position is determined mostly by the known point initialization (KPI) method, and then the ambiguities can be fixed with the LAMBDA method. In this paper, a new method without using the KPI to achieve high-precision indoor pseudolite positioning is proposed. The initial coordinates can be quickly obtained to meet the accuracy requirement of the indoor LAMBDA method. The detailed processes of the method follows: Aiming at the low-cost single-frequency pseudolite system, the static differential pseudolite system (DPL) method is used to obtain the low-accuracy positioning coordinates of the rover station quickly. Then, the ambiguity function method (AFM) is used to search for the coordinates in the corresponding epoch. The real coordinates obtained by AFM can meet the initial accuracy requirement of the LAMBDA method, so that the double difference carrier phase ambiguities can be correctly fixed. Following the above steps, high-precision indoor pseudolite positioning can be realized. Several experiments, including static and dynamic tests, are conducted to verify the feasibility of the new method. According to the results of the experiments, the initial coordinates with the accuracy of decimeter level through the DPL can be obtained. For the AFM part, both a one-meter search scope and two-centimeter or four-centimeter search steps are used to ensure the precision at the centimeter level and high search efficiency. After dealing with the problem of multiple peaks caused by the ambiguity cosine function, the coordinate information of the maximum ambiguity function value (AFV) is taken as the initial value of the LAMBDA, and the ambiguities can be fixed quickly. The new method provides accuracies at the centimeter level for dynamic experiments and at the millimeter level for static ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle GNSS Code Multipath Mitigation by Cascading Measurement Monitoring Techniques
Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061967
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Various measurement monitoring techniques are investigated to mitigate the effect of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) code multipath through error correction, stochastic weighting of measurements and detection and exclusion (or de-weighting) of affected measurements. Following a comprehensive review of each approach, the paper
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Various measurement monitoring techniques are investigated to mitigate the effect of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) code multipath through error correction, stochastic weighting of measurements and detection and exclusion (or de-weighting) of affected measurements. Following a comprehensive review of each approach, the paper focuses on detection/exclusion and detection/de-weighting techniques where several single and dual-frequency monitoring metrics are employed in a combination with time-averaging and the M of N detection strategy. A new Geometry-Free (GF) detection metric is proposed given its capability to be combined with a preceding Code-Minus-Carrier (CMC)-based error correction to reduce the number of excluded or de-weighted measurements and thus preserve the measurement geometry. Three geometry-based algorithms, namely measurement subset testing, consecutive exclusion and iterative change of measurement weights are investigated to address multipath scenarios with multiple simultaneously affected measurements. Experimental results are provided using GPS L1, L2C and L5 data collected in multipath environments for static and kinematic scenarios. For GPS L1, the proposed combined method shows more than 38% improvement over a conventional Carrier-to-Noise-density ratio (C/N0)-based Least-Squares (LS) solution in all but deep urban canyons. Lower performance was observed for L2C and L5 frequencies with a limited number of satellites in view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Real-Time Monitoring for BDS Signal-In-Space Anomalies Using Ground Observation Data
Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061816
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
Signal-in-space (SIS) User Range Error (URE) is one of the major error sources for BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) applications and can reach tens of meters or even more. Therefore, real-time monitoring of SIS anomalies has a great realistic significance to guarantee the
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Signal-in-space (SIS) User Range Error (URE) is one of the major error sources for BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) applications and can reach tens of meters or even more. Therefore, real-time monitoring of SIS anomalies has a great realistic significance to guarantee the safety of users. According to an analysis of the BDS navigation messages, it showed that the User Range Accuracy (URA) index could not reflect the change of URE when it was abnormal. The conventional models using the relationship between URA and URE to monitor SIS anomalies are not suitable to the present BDS. Therefore, we use a prior information of SIS URE derived from ground observational data instead of URA to monitor BDS SIS anomalies. In order to realize the corresponding functions, we analysed the distribution of SIS UREs and obtained their prior models. Then, the monitoring threshold is determined using the prior models and a confidence interval instead of URA. The scheme was tested by applying to BDS SIS anomalies monitoring based on 13 ground tracking stations. The performance of this method was assessed by comparison with the satellite-health indicators from broadcast ephemeris. The results confirm that the method developed in this paper can rightly and timely detect abnormal SIS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Energy Efficient GNSS Signal Acquisition Using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD)
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1586; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051586
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
A significant challenge in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal processing is a requirement for a very high sampling rate. The recently-emerging compressed sensing (CS) theory makes processing GNSS signals at a low sampling rate possible if the signal has a sparse representation
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A significant challenge in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal processing is a requirement for a very high sampling rate. The recently-emerging compressed sensing (CS) theory makes processing GNSS signals at a low sampling rate possible if the signal has a sparse representation in a certain space. Based on CS and SVD theories, an algorithm for sampling GNSS signals at a rate much lower than the Nyquist rate and reconstructing the compressed signal is proposed in this research, which is validated after the output from that process still performs signal detection using the standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) parallel frequency space search acquisition. The sparse representation of the GNSS signal is the most important precondition for CS, by constructing a rectangular Toeplitz matrix (TZ) of the transmitted signal, calculating the left singular vectors using SVD from the TZ, to achieve sparse signal representation. Next, obtaining the M-dimensional observation vectors based on the left singular vectors of the SVD, which are equivalent to the sampler operator in standard compressive sensing theory, the signal can be sampled below the Nyquist rate, and can still be reconstructed via 1 minimization with accuracy using convex optimization. As an added value, there is a GNSS signal acquisition enhancement effect by retaining the useful signal and filtering out noise by projecting the signal into the most significant proper orthogonal modes (PODs) which are the optimal distributions of signal power. The algorithm is validated with real recorded signals, and the results show that the proposed method is effective for sampling, reconstructing intermediate frequency (IF) GNSS signals in the time discrete domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Speed Consistency in the Smart Tachograph
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051583
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
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Abstract
In the transportation sector, safety risks can be significantly reduced by monitoring the behaviour of drivers and by discouraging possible misconducts that entail fatigue and can increase the possibility of accidents. The Smart Tachograph (ST), the new revision of the Digital Tachograph (DT),
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In the transportation sector, safety risks can be significantly reduced by monitoring the behaviour of drivers and by discouraging possible misconducts that entail fatigue and can increase the possibility of accidents. The Smart Tachograph (ST), the new revision of the Digital Tachograph (DT), has been designed with this purpose: to verify that speed limits and compulsory rest periods are respected by drivers. In order to operate properly, the ST periodically checks the consistency of data from different sensors, which can be potentially manipulated to avoid the monitoring of the driver behaviour. In this respect, the ST regulation specifies a test procedure to detect motion conflicts originating from inconsistencies between Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and odometry data. This paper provides an experimental evaluation of the speed verification procedure specified by the ST regulation. Several hours of data were collected using three vehicles and considering light urban and highway environments. The vehicles were equipped with an On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) data reader and a GPS/Galileo receiver. The tests prescribed by the regulation were implemented with specific focus on synchronization aspects. The experimental analysis also considered aspects such as the impact of tunnels and the presence of data gaps. The analysis shows that the metrics selected for the tests are resilient to data gaps, latencies between GNSS and odometry data and simplistic manipulations such as data scaling. The new ST forces an attacker to falsify data from both sensors at the same time and in a coherent way. This makes more difficult the implementation of frauds in comparison to the current version of the DT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Impact Assessment of GNSS Spoofing Attacks on INS/GNSS Integrated Navigation System
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051433
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 22 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
In the face of emerging Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) spoofing attacks, there is a need to give a comprehensive analysis on how the inertial navigation system (INS)/GNSS integrated navigation system responds to different kinds of spoofing attacks. A better understanding of the
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In the face of emerging Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) spoofing attacks, there is a need to give a comprehensive analysis on how the inertial navigation system (INS)/GNSS integrated navigation system responds to different kinds of spoofing attacks. A better understanding of the integrated navigation system’s behavior with spoofed GNSS measurements gives us valuable clues to develop effective spoofing defenses. This paper focuses on an impact assessment of GNSS spoofing attacks on the integrated navigation system Kalman filter’s error covariance, innovation sequence and inertial sensor bias estimation. A simple and straightforward measurement-level trajectory spoofing simulation framework is presented, serving as the basis for an impact assessment of both unsynchronized and synchronized spoofing attacks. Recommendations are given for spoofing detection and mitigation based on our findings in the impact assessment process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle New-Generation BeiDou (BDS-3) Experimental Satellite Precise Orbit Determination with an Improved Cycle-Slip Detection and Repair Algorithm
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051402
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
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Abstract
Currently, five new-generation BeiDou (BDS-3) experimental satellites are working in orbit and broadcast B1I, B3I, and other new signals. Precise satellite orbit determination of the BDS-3 is essential for the future global services of the BeiDou system. However, BDS-3 experimental satellites are mainly
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Currently, five new-generation BeiDou (BDS-3) experimental satellites are working in orbit and broadcast B1I, B3I, and other new signals. Precise satellite orbit determination of the BDS-3 is essential for the future global services of the BeiDou system. However, BDS-3 experimental satellites are mainly tracked by the international GNSS Monitoring and Assessment Service (iGMAS) network. Under the current constraints of the limited data sources and poor data quality of iGMAS, this study proposes an improved cycle-slip detection and repair algorithm, which is based on a polynomial prediction of ionospheric delays. The improved algorithm takes the correlation of ionospheric delays into consideration to accurately estimate and repair cycle slips in the iGMAS data. Moreover, two methods of BDS-3 experimental satellite orbit determination, namely, normal equation stacking (NES) and step-by-step (SS), are designed to strengthen orbit estimations and to make full use of the BeiDou observations in different tracking networks. In addition, a method to improve computational efficiency based on a matrix eigenvalue decomposition algorithm is derived in the NES. Then, one-year of BDS-3 experimental satellite precise orbit determinations were conducted based on iGMAS and Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) networks. Furthermore, the orbit accuracies were analyzed from the discrepancy of overlapping arcs and satellite laser range (SLR) residuals. The results showed that the average three-dimensional root-mean-square error (3D RMS) of one-day overlapping arcs for BDS-3 experimental satellites (C31, C32, C33, and C34) acquired by NES and SS are 31.0, 36.0, 40.3, and 50.1 cm, and 34.6, 39.4, 43.4, and 55.5 cm, respectively; the RMS of SLR residuals are 55.1, 49.6, 61.5, and 70.9 cm and 60.5, 53.6, 65.8, and 73.9 cm, respectively. Finally, one month of observations were used in four schemes of BDS-3 experimental satellite orbit determination to further investigate the reliability and advantages of the improved methods. It was suggested that the scheme with improved cycle-slip detection and repair algorithm based on NES was optimal, which improved the accuracy of BDS-3 experimental satellite orbits by 34.07%, 41.05%, 72.29%, and 74.33%, respectively, compared with the widely-used strategy. Therefore, improved methods for the BDS-3 experimental satellites proposed in this study are very beneficial for the determination of new-generation BeiDou satellite precise orbits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Low-Ambiguity Signal Waveform for Pseudolite Positioning Systems Based on Chirp
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051326
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
Signal modulation is an essential design factor of a positioning system, which directly impacts the system’s potential performance. Chirp compressions have been widely applied in the fields of communication, radar, and indoor positioning owing to their high compression gain and good resistance to
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Signal modulation is an essential design factor of a positioning system, which directly impacts the system’s potential performance. Chirp compressions have been widely applied in the fields of communication, radar, and indoor positioning owing to their high compression gain and good resistance to narrowband interferences and multipath fading. Based on linear chirp, we present a modulation method named chirped pseudo-noise (ChPN). The mathematical model of the ChPN signal is provided with its auto-correlation function (ACF) and the power spectrum density (PSD) derived. The ChPN with orthogonal chirps is also discussed, which has better resistance to near-far effect. Then the generation and detection methods as well as the performances of ChPN are discussed by theoretical analysis and simulation. The results show that, for ChPN signals with the same main-lobe bandwidth (MLB), generally, the signal with a larger sweep bandwidth has better tracking precision and multipath resistance. ChPN yields slighter ACF peaks ambiguity due to its lower ACF side-peaks, although its tracking precision is a little worse than that of a binary offset carrier (BOC) with the same MLB. Moreover, ChPN provides better overall anti-multipath performance than BOC. For the ChPN signals with the same code rate, a signal with a larger sweep bandwidth has better performance in most aspects. In engineering practice, a ChPN receiver can be implemented by minor modifications of a BOC receiver. Thus, ChPN modulation shows promise for future positioning applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Spoofing Detection Using GNSS/INS/Odometer Coupling for Vehicular Navigation
Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051305
Received: 18 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
Location information is one of the most vital information required to achieve intelligent and context-aware capability for various applications such as driverless cars. However, related security and privacy threats are a major holdback. With increasing focus on using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)
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Location information is one of the most vital information required to achieve intelligent and context-aware capability for various applications such as driverless cars. However, related security and privacy threats are a major holdback. With increasing focus on using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for autonomous navigation and related applications, it is important to provide robust navigation solutions, yet signal spoofing for illegal or covert transportation and misleading receiver timing is increasing and now frequent. Hence, detection and mitigation of spoofing attacks has become an important topic. Several contributions on spoofing detection have been made, focusing on different layers of a GNSS receiver. This paper focuses on spoofing detection utilizing self-contained sensors, namely inertial measurement units (IMUs) and vehicle odometer outputs. A spoofing detection approach based on a consistency check between GNSS and IMU/odometer mechanization is proposed. To detect a spoofing attack, the method analyses GNSS and IMU/odometer measurements independently during a pre-selected observation window and cross checks the solutions provided by GNSS and inertial navigation solution (INS)/odometer mechanization. The performance of the proposed method is verified in real vehicular environments. Mean spoofing detection time and detection performance in terms of receiver operation characteristics (ROC) in sub-urban and dense urban environments are evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Implementation of an RTK-Based Vector Phase Locked Loop
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030845
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
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Abstract
This paper introduces a novel double-differential vector phase-locked loop (DD-VPLL) for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) that leverages carrier phase position solutions as well as base station measurements in the estimation of rover tracking loop parameters. The use of double differencing alleviates the
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This paper introduces a novel double-differential vector phase-locked loop (DD-VPLL) for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) that leverages carrier phase position solutions as well as base station measurements in the estimation of rover tracking loop parameters. The use of double differencing alleviates the need for estimating receiver clock dynamics and atmospheric delays; therefore, the navigation filter consists of the baseline dynamic states only. It is shown that using vector processing for carrier phase tracking leads to a significant enhancement in the receiver sensitivity compared to using the conventional scalar-based tracking loop (STL) and vector frequency locked loop (VFLL). The sensitivity improvement of 8 to 10 dB compared to STL, and 7 to 8 dB compared to VFLL, is obtained based on the test cases reported in the paper. Also, an increased probability of ambiguity resolution in the proposed method results in better availability for real time kinematic (RTK) applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Research into Kinect/Inertial Measurement Units Based on Indoor Robots
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030839
Received: 13 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
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Abstract
As indoor mobile navigation suffers from low positioning accuracy and accumulation error, we carried out research into an integrated location system for a robot based on Kinect and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). In this paper, the close-range stereo images are used to
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As indoor mobile navigation suffers from low positioning accuracy and accumulation error, we carried out research into an integrated location system for a robot based on Kinect and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). In this paper, the close-range stereo images are used to calculate the attitude information and the translation amount of the adjacent positions of the robot by means of the absolute orientation algorithm, for improving the calculation accuracy of the robot’s movement. Relying on the Kinect visual measurement and the strap-down IMU devices, we also use Kalman filtering to obtain the errors of the position and attitude outputs, in order to seek the optimal estimation and correct the errors. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to improve the positioning accuracy and stability of the indoor mobile robot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle High-Precision Ionosphere Monitoring Using Continuous Measurements from BDS GEO Satellites
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030714
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 25 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
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Abstract
The current constellation of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) consists of five geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites, five inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit (IGSO) satellites, and four medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites. The advantage of using GEO satellites to monitor the ionosphereis the
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The current constellation of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) consists of five geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites, five inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit (IGSO) satellites, and four medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites. The advantage of using GEO satellites to monitor the ionosphereis the almost motionless ionospheric pierce point (IPP), which is analyzed in comparison with the MEO and IGSO satellites. The results from the analysis of the observations using eight tracking sites indicate that the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) sequence derived from each GEO satellite at their respective fixed IPPs is always continuous. The precision of calculated vertical TEC (VTEC) using BDS B1/B2, B1/B3, and B2/B3 dual-frequency combinationsis compared and analyzed. The VTEC12 precision based on the B1/B2 dual-frequency measurements using the smoothed code and the raw code combination is 0.69 and 5.54 TECU, respectively, which is slightly higher than VTEC13 and much higher than VTEC23. Furthermore, the ionospheric monitoring results of site JFNG in the northern hemisphere, and CUT0 in the southern hemisphere during the period from 1 January to 31 December 2015 are presented and discussed briefly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS and Fusion with Other Sensors)
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