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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 18, Issue 2 (February 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Five missense point mutations occurring near the nucleotide-binding pocket are associated with [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Next-Generation Sequencing Approach in Methylation Analysis of HNF1B and GATA4 Genes: Searching for Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020474
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1849 | PDF Full-text (2595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
DNA methylation is well-known to be associated with ovarian cancer (OC) and has great potential to serve as a biomarker in monitoring response to therapy and for disease screening. The purpose of this study was to investigate methylation of HNF1B and GATA4 and [...] Read more.
DNA methylation is well-known to be associated with ovarian cancer (OC) and has great potential to serve as a biomarker in monitoring response to therapy and for disease screening. The purpose of this study was to investigate methylation of HNF1B and GATA4 and correlate detected methylation with clinicopathological characteristic of OC patients. The study group consisted of 64 patients with OC and 35 control patients. To determine the most important sites of HNF1B and GATA4, we used next-generation sequencing. For further confirmation of detected methylation of selected regions, we used high-resolution melting analysis and methylation-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Selected regions of HNF1B and GATA4 were completely methylation free in all control samples, whereas methylation-positive pattern was observed in 32.8% (HNF1B) and 45.3% (GATA4) of OC samples. Evaluating both genes together, we were able to detect methylation in 65.6% of OC patients. We observed a statistically significant difference in HNF1B methylation between samples with different stages of OC. We also detected subtype specific methylation in GATA4 and a decrease of methylation in late stages of OC. The combination of unmethylated HNF1B and methylated GATA4 was associated with longer overall survival. In our study, we employed innovative approach of methylation analysis of HNF1B and GATA4 to search for possible epigenetic biomarkers. We confirmed the significance of the HNF1B and GATA4 hypermethylation with emphasis on the need of selecting the most relevant sites for analysis. We suggest selected CpGs to be further examined as a potential positive prognostic factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessReview
Current Insights into Long Non-Coding RNAs (LncRNAs) in Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020473
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2311 | PDF Full-text (496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The importance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathogenesis of various malignancies has been uncovered over the last few years. Their dysregulation often contributes to or is a result of tumour progression. In prostate cancer, the most common malignancy in men, lncRNAs [...] Read more.
The importance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathogenesis of various malignancies has been uncovered over the last few years. Their dysregulation often contributes to or is a result of tumour progression. In prostate cancer, the most common malignancy in men, lncRNAs can promote castration resistance, cell proliferation, invasion, and metastatic spread. Expression patterns of lncRNAs often change during tumour progression; their expression levels may constantly rise (e.g., HOX transcript antisense RNA, HOTAIR), or steadily decrease (e.g., downregulated RNA in cancer, DRAIC). In prostate cancer, lncRNAs likewise have diagnostic (e.g., prostate cancer antigen 3, PCA3), prognostic (e.g., second chromosome locus associated with prostate-1, SChLAP1), and predictive (e.g., metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1, MALAT-1) functions. Considering their dynamic role in prostate cancer, lncRNAs may also serve as therapeutic targets, helping to prevent development of castration resistance, maintain stable disease, and prohibit metastatic spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
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Open AccessReview
The Importance of Endophenotypes to Evaluate the Relationship between Genotype and External Phenotype
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020472
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 2 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2424 | PDF Full-text (1064 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the exception of a few Mendelian traits, almost all phenotypes (traits) in livestock science are quantitative or complex traits regulated by the expression of many genes. For most of the complex traits, differential expression of genes, rather than genomic variation in the [...] Read more.
With the exception of a few Mendelian traits, almost all phenotypes (traits) in livestock science are quantitative or complex traits regulated by the expression of many genes. For most of the complex traits, differential expression of genes, rather than genomic variation in the gene coding sequences, is associated with the genotype of a trait. The expression profiles of the animal’s transcriptome, proteome and metabolome represent endophenotypes that influence/regulate the externally-observed phenotype. These expression profiles are generated by interactions between the animal’s genome and its environment that range from the cellular, up to the husbandry environment. Thus, understanding complex traits requires knowledge about not only genomic variation, but also environmental effects that affect genome expression. Gene products act together in physiological pathways and interaction networks (of pathways). Due to the lack of annotation of the functional genome and ontologies of genes, our knowledge about the various biological systems that contribute to the development of external phenotypes is sparse. Furthermore, interaction with the animals’ microbiome, especially in the gut, greatly influences the external phenotype. We conclude that a detailed understanding of complex traits requires not only understanding of variation in the genome, but also its expression at all functional levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the Genotype–Phenotype Map to Explain Complex Traits)
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Open AccessArticle
Gomisin N Inhibits Melanogenesis through Regulating the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways in Melanocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020471
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2694 | PDF Full-text (3145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gomisin N, one of the lignan compounds found in Schisandra chinensis has been shown to possess anti-oxidative, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-inflammatory activities in various studies. Here we report, for the first time, the anti-melenogenic efficacy of Gomisin N in mammalian cells as well as [...] Read more.
Gomisin N, one of the lignan compounds found in Schisandra chinensis has been shown to possess anti-oxidative, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-inflammatory activities in various studies. Here we report, for the first time, the anti-melenogenic efficacy of Gomisin N in mammalian cells as well as in zebrafish embryos. Gomisin N significantly reduced the melanin content without cellular toxicity. Although it was not capable of modulating the catalytic activity of mushroom tyrosinase in vitro, Gomisin N downregulated the expression levels of key proteins that function in melanogenesis. Gomisin N downregulated melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), adenylyl cyclase 2, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2). In addition, Gomisin N-treated Melan-A cells exhibited increased p-Akt and p-ERK levels, which implies that the activation of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways may function to inhibit melanogenesis. We also validated that Gomisin N reduced melanin production by repressing the expression of MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 in mouse and human cells as well as in developing zebrafish embryos. Collectively, we conclude that Gomisin N inhibits melanin synthesis by repressing the expression of MITF and melanogenic enzymes, probably through modulating the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemistry and Mechanisms of Melanogenesis)
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Open AccessArticle
An Automated Micro-Total Immunoassay System for Measuring Cancer-Associated α2,3-linked Sialyl N-Glycan-Carrying Prostate-Specific Antigen May Improve the Accuracy of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020470
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 18 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1914 | PDF Full-text (3652 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The low specificity of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) is a major issue worldwide. The aim of this study to examine whether the serum PCa-associated α2,3-linked sialyl N-glycan-carrying PSA (S2,3PSA) ratio measured by automated micro-total immunoassay [...] Read more.
The low specificity of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) is a major issue worldwide. The aim of this study to examine whether the serum PCa-associated α2,3-linked sialyl N-glycan-carrying PSA (S2,3PSA) ratio measured by automated micro-total immunoassay systems (μTAS system) can be applied as a diagnostic marker of PCa. The μTAS system can utilize affinity-based separation involving noncovalent interaction between the immunocomplex of S2,3PSA and Maackia amurensis lectin to simultaneously determine concentrations of free PSA and S2,3PSA. To validate quantitative performance, both recombinant S2,3PSA and benign-associated α2,6-linked sialyl N-glycan-carrying PSA (S2,6PSA) purified from culture supernatant of PSA cDNA transiently-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells were used as standard protein. Between 2007 and 2016, fifty patients with biopsy-proven PCa were pair-matched for age and PSA levels, with the same number of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients used to validate the diagnostic performance of serum S2,3PSA ratio. A recombinant S2,3PSA- and S2,6PSA-spiked sample was clearly discriminated by μTAS system. Limit of detection of S2,3PSA was 0.05 ng/mL and coefficient variation was less than 3.1%. The area under the curve (AUC) for detection of PCa for the S2,3PSA ratio (%S2,3PSA) with cutoff value 43.85% (AUC; 0.8340) was much superior to total PSA (AUC; 0.5062) using validation sample set. Although the present results are preliminary, the newly developed μTAS platform for measuring %S2,3PSA can achieve the required assay performance specifications for use in the practical and clinical setting and may improve the accuracy of PCa diagnosis. Additional validation studies are warranted. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Potential Modes of Intercellular α-Synuclein Transmission
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020469
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2826 | PDF Full-text (750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intracellular aggregates of the α-synuclein protein result in cell loss and dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease and atypical Parkinsonism, such as multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies. Each of these neurodegenerative conditions, known collectively as α-synucleinopathies, may be characterized by a different [...] Read more.
Intracellular aggregates of the α-synuclein protein result in cell loss and dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease and atypical Parkinsonism, such as multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies. Each of these neurodegenerative conditions, known collectively as α-synucleinopathies, may be characterized by a different suite of molecular triggers that initiate pathogenesis. The mechanisms whereby α-synuclein aggregates mediate cytotoxicity also remain to be fully elucidated. However, recent studies have implicated the cell-to-cell spread of α-synuclein as the major mode of disease propagation between brain regions during disease progression. Here, we review the current evidence for different modes of α-synuclein cellular release, movement and uptake, including exocytosis, exosomes, tunneling nanotubes, glymphatic flow and endocytosis. A more detailed understanding of the major modes by which α-synuclein pathology spreads throughout the brain may provide new targets for therapies that halt the progression of disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuronal Protein Homeostasis in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Heat Shock Factor 1 Depletion Sensitizes A172 Glioblastoma Cells to Temozolomide via Suppression of Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020468
Received: 24 December 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2018 | PDF Full-text (3970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a transcription factor activated by various stressors, regulates proliferation and apoptosis by inducing expression of target genes, such as heat shock proteins and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) interacting cell death suppressor (BIS). HSF1 also directly interacts with BIS, [...] Read more.
Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a transcription factor activated by various stressors, regulates proliferation and apoptosis by inducing expression of target genes, such as heat shock proteins and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) interacting cell death suppressor (BIS). HSF1 also directly interacts with BIS, although it is still unclear whether this interaction is critical in the regulation of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). In this study, we examined whether small interfering RNA-mediated BIS knockdown decreased protein levels of HSF1 and subsequent nuclear localization under GSC-like sphere (SP)-forming conditions. Consistent with BIS depletion, HSF1 knockdown also reduced sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (SOX2) expression, a marker of stemness, accompanying the decrease in SP-forming ability and matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2) activity. When HSF1 or BIS knockdown was combined with temozolomide (TMZ) treatment, a standard drug used in glioblastoma therapy, apoptosis increased, as measured by an increase in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, whereas cancer stem-like properties, such as colony-forming activity and SOX2 protein expression, decreased. Taken together, our findings suggest that targeting BIS or HSF1 could be a viable therapeutic strategy for GSCs resistant to conventional TMZ treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Stem Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Exome Sequencing in a Family with Luminal-Type Breast Cancer Underpinned by Variation in the Methylation Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020467
Received: 2 January 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2242 | PDF Full-text (2660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Panel-based next generation sequencing (NGS) is currently preferred over whole exome sequencing (WES) for diagnosis of familial breast cancer, due to interpretation challenges caused by variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS). There is also no consensus on the selection criteria for WES. In [...] Read more.
Panel-based next generation sequencing (NGS) is currently preferred over whole exome sequencing (WES) for diagnosis of familial breast cancer, due to interpretation challenges caused by variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS). There is also no consensus on the selection criteria for WES. In this study, a pathology-supported genetic testing (PSGT) approach was used to select two BRCA1/2 mutation-negative breast cancer patients from the same family for WES. Homozygosity for the MTHFR 677 C>T mutation detected during this PSGT pre-screen step was considered insufficient to cause bilateral breast cancer in the index case and her daughter diagnosed with early-onset breast cancer (<30 years). Extended genetic testing using WES identified the RAD50 R385C missense mutation in both cases. This rare variant with a minor allele frequency (MAF) of <0.001 was classified as a VUS after exclusion in an affected cousin and extended genotyping in 164 unrelated breast cancer patients and 160 controls. Detection of functional polymorphisms (MAF > 5%) in the folate pathway in all three affected family members is consistent with inheritance of the luminal-type breast cancer in the family. PSGT assisted with the decision to pursue extended genetic testing and facilitated clinical interpretation of WES aimed at reduction of recurrence risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Sequencing for Clinical Application)
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Open AccessReview
The Temporal Pattern, Flux, and Function of Autophagy in Spinal Cord Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020466
Received: 25 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2370 | PDF Full-text (2107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous studies have indicated that autophagy plays a critical role in spinal cord injury (SCI), including traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) and ischemia-reperfusion spinal cord injury (IRSCI). However, while the understanding of mechanisms underlying autophagy in SCI has progressed, there remain several controversial [...] Read more.
Previous studies have indicated that autophagy plays a critical role in spinal cord injury (SCI), including traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) and ischemia-reperfusion spinal cord injury (IRSCI). However, while the understanding of mechanisms underlying autophagy in SCI has progressed, there remain several controversial points: (1) temporal pattern results of autophagic activation after SCI are not consistent across studies; (2) effect of accumulation of autophagosomes due to the blockade or enhancement of autophagic flux is uncertain; (3) overall effect of enhanced autophagy remains undefined, with both beneficial and detrimental outcomes reported in SCI literature. In this review, the temporal pattern of autophagic activation, autophagic flux, autophagic cell death, relationship between autophagy and apoptosis, and pharmacological intervention of autophagy in TSCI (contusion injury, compression injury and hemisection injury) and IRSCI are discussed. Types of SCI and severity appear to contribute to differences in outcomes regarding temporal pattern, flux, and function of autophagy. With future development of specific strategies on autophagy intervention, autophagy may play an important role in improving functional recovery in patients with SCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment 2016)
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Open AccessArticle
The Adverse Effects of Triptolide on the Reproductive System of Caenorhabditis elegans: Oogenesis Impairment and Decreased Oocyte Quality
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020464
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1214 | PDF Full-text (6466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Previous studies have revealed that Triptolide damages female reproductive capacity, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the effects of Triptolide on the germline and explore its possible mechanisms. Our data show that exposure for 4 [...] Read more.
Previous studies have revealed that Triptolide damages female reproductive capacity, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the effects of Triptolide on the germline and explore its possible mechanisms. Our data show that exposure for 4 h to 50 and 100 mg/L Triptolide reduced C. elegans fertility, led to depletion and inactivation of spermatids with the changes in the expression levels of related genes, and increased the number of unfertilized oocytes through damaging chromosomes and DNA damage repair mechanisms. After 24 and 48 h of the 4 h exposure to 50 and 100 mg/L Triptolide, we observed shrink in distal tip cells, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, a decrease in the number of mitotic germ cells and oocytes in diakinesis stage, and chromatin aggregates in −1 oocytes. Moreover, expression patterns of the genes associated with mitotic germ cell proliferation, apoptosis, and oocyte quality were altered after Triptolide exposure. Therefore, Triptolide may damage fertility of nematodes by hampering the development of oocytes at different developmental stages. Alterations in the expression patterns of genes involved in oocyte development may explain the corresponding changes in oocyte development in nematodes exposed to Triptolide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Cryptomphalus aspersa Mollusc Egg Extract Promotes Regenerative Effects in Human Dermal Papilla Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020463
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1699 | PDF Full-text (7601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of this study was to test, by an in vitro approach, whether a natural extract derived from eggs of the mollusc Cryptomphalus aspersa (e-CAF) that seems to present regenerative properties, can enhance the mobilization of human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs) [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to test, by an in vitro approach, whether a natural extract derived from eggs of the mollusc Cryptomphalus aspersa (e-CAF) that seems to present regenerative properties, can enhance the mobilization of human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs) and play a role on tissue repair and regeneration. We have tested HHDPCs proliferation by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay; cell migration by using a wound healing assay, as well as the modulation of the expression of cytoskeletal (F-actin and vimentin) and cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) (vinculin and P-FAK) proteins. We also explored whether e-CAF could lead HHDPCs to keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts by evaluating the expression of specific markers. We have compared these e-CAF effects with those induced by TGFβ1, implicated in regulation of cell proliferation and migration. e-CAF promotes proliferation and migration of HDDPCs cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner; it also increases the migratory behavior and the expression of adhesion molecules. These results support the fact that e-CAF could play a role on skin regeneration and be used for the prevention or repair of damaged tissue, either due to external causes or as a result of cutaneous aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle
Caffeic Acid Expands Anti-Tumor Effect of Metformin in Human Metastatic Cervical Carcinoma HTB-34 Cells: Implications of AMPK Activation and Impairment of Fatty Acids De Novo Biosynthesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020462
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1926 | PDF Full-text (3404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The efficacy of cancer treatments is often limited and associated with substantial toxicity. Appropriate combination of drug targeting specific mechanisms may regulate metabolism of tumor cells to reduce cancer cell growth and to improve survival. Therefore, we investigated the effects of anti-diabetic drug [...] Read more.
The efficacy of cancer treatments is often limited and associated with substantial toxicity. Appropriate combination of drug targeting specific mechanisms may regulate metabolism of tumor cells to reduce cancer cell growth and to improve survival. Therefore, we investigated the effects of anti-diabetic drug Metformin (Met) and a natural compound caffeic acid (trans-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, CA) alone and in combination to treat an aggressive metastatic human cervical HTB-34 (ATCC CRL­1550) cancer cell line. CA at concentration of 100 µM, unlike Met at 10 mM, activated 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). What is more, CA contributed to the fueling of mitochondrial tricarboxylic acids (TCA) cycle with pyruvate by increasing Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDH) activity, while Met promoted glucose catabolism to lactate. Met downregulated expression of enzymes of fatty acid de novo synthesis, such as ATP Citrate Lyase (ACLY), Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS), Fatty Acyl-CoA Elongase 6 (ELOVL6), and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 (SCD1) in cancer cells. In conclusion, CA mediated reprogramming of glucose processing through TCA cycle via oxidative decarboxylation. The increased oxidative stress, as a result of CA treatment, sensitized cancer cells and, acting on cell biosynthesis and bioenergetics, made HTB-34 cells more susceptible to Met and successfully inhibited neoplastic cells. The combination of Metformin and caffeic acid to suppress cervical carcinoma cells by two independent mechanisms may provide a promising approach to cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gynecologic Oncology: From Molecular Mechanisms to Targeted Therapies)
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Open AccessReview
Effects and Side Effects of Using Sorafenib and Sunitinib in the Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020461
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2524 | PDF Full-text (563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, targeted therapies have proven beneficial in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) sorafenib and sunitinib are included in international clinical guidelines as first-line [...] Read more.
In recent years, targeted therapies have proven beneficial in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) sorafenib and sunitinib are included in international clinical guidelines as first-line and second-line therapy in mRCC. Hypertension is an adverse effect of these drugs and the degree of hypertension associates with the anti-tumour effect. Studies have compared newer targeted drugs to sorafenib and sunitinib in terms of PFS, OS, quality of life and safety profiles. Phase III studies presented promising response rates and acceptable safety profiles of axitinib and tivozanib compared to sorafenib, and a phase II study reported greater efficacy using a combination of bevacizumab and IFN-α compared to sunitinib. Treatment with nintedanib exhibited a notably low prevalence of hypertension compared to sunitinib. The use of sorafenib and sunitinib are challenged by new drugs, but do not appear likely to be substituted in the near future. To clarify whether newer targeted drugs should replace sorafenib and sunitinib, more research is needed. This manuscript reviews the current utility and adverse effects of sorafenib and sunitinib and newer targeted therapies in the treatment of mRCC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of CCAR1, a Coactivator of β-Catenin, Suppresses the Proliferation and Migration of Gastric Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020460
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1954 | PDF Full-text (4006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aberrant activation of Wnt signaling has been implicated in a variety of human cancers, including gastric cancer. Given the current hypothesis that cancer arises from cancer stem cells (CSCs), targeting the critical signaling pathways that support CSC self-renewal appears to be a [...] Read more.
The aberrant activation of Wnt signaling has been implicated in a variety of human cancers, including gastric cancer. Given the current hypothesis that cancer arises from cancer stem cells (CSCs), targeting the critical signaling pathways that support CSC self-renewal appears to be a useful approach for cancer therapy. Cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1) is a transcriptional coactivator which has been shown to be a component of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and which plays an important role in transcriptional regulation by β-catenin. However, the function and clinical significance of CCAR1 in gastric cancer have not been elucidated. Here, we show that elevated CCAR1 nuclear expression correlates with the occurrence of gastric cancer. In addition, RNAi-mediated CCAR1 reduction not only suppressed the cell growth and increased apoptosis in AGS and MKN28 cells, but also reduced the migration and invasion ability of these cells. Furthermore, an in vivo xenograft assay revealed that the expression level of CCAR1 was critical for tumorigenesis. Our data demonstrates that CCAR1 contributes to carcinogenesis in gastric cancer and is required for the survival of gastric cancer cells. Moreover, CCAR1 may serve as a diagnostic marker and a potential therapeutic target. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Programmed Cell Death and Apoptosis)
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Open AccessCommunication
Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Tumor Expression Is Associated with a Better Prognosis and Diabetic Disease in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020459
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2904 | PDF Full-text (1603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Triple Negative Breast Cancers (TNBC) subtype is an aggressive disease with poor clinical outcome. The only treatment available is surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a trans-membrane protein expressed on a wide variety of cells including immune cells, [...] Read more.
Triple Negative Breast Cancers (TNBC) subtype is an aggressive disease with poor clinical outcome. The only treatment available is surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a trans-membrane protein expressed on a wide variety of cells including immune cells, epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. Recently, PD-1/PD-L1 pathway signaling was described as an adaptive immune resistance mechanism enacted by the tumor cells to evade the immune response. Its presence on tumor cell membranes, acquired for this reason, through time, is an important prognostic value. However, data available in the literature about PD-L1 immunohistochemical expression in breast cancer are often discordant and not uniform, probably for the use of different antibodies clones and the high molecular heterogeneity of the different tumor types. The absence of target therapies, in particular for TNBC, has shifted the clinical attention mainly on the role of PD-L1 in this subtype of breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated tumor and TIL (tumor infiltrating lymphocytes) PDL-1 expression in a series of TNBC, included in Tissue Micro Arrays (TMAs), to define its real prognostic value, optimizing immunohistochemistry method with an “approved for diagnostic assay” antibody. PD-L1 expression directly correlated with proliferation index (Ki-67), glycemia, the presence of diabetes and indirectly with menopausal status, presence of lymph node metastasis and relapse. The analysis of Kaplan–Meier showed that an increased PD-L1 expression was strongly associated with better disease-free survival (DFS) but not correlated with overall survival (OS). Our data confirmed that PD-L1 could be an important marker for prognostic stratification and for planning immune checkpoint inhibitors therapies in patients with TNBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibiotic Resistance Determinant-Focused Acinetobacter baumannii Vaccine Designed Using Reverse Vaccinology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020458
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2811 | PDF Full-text (1989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
As one of the most influential and troublesome human pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) has emerged with many multidrug-resistant strains. After collecting 33 complete A. baumannii genomes and 84 representative antibiotic resistance determinants, we used the Vaxign reverse vaccinology approach to [...] Read more.
As one of the most influential and troublesome human pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) has emerged with many multidrug-resistant strains. After collecting 33 complete A. baumannii genomes and 84 representative antibiotic resistance determinants, we used the Vaxign reverse vaccinology approach to predict classical type vaccine candidates against A. baumannii infections and new type vaccine candidates against antibiotic resistance. Our genome analysis identified 35 outer membrane or extracellular adhesins that are conserved among all 33 genomes, have no human protein homology, and have less than 2 transmembrane helices. These 35 antigens include 11 TonB dependent receptors, 8 porins, 7 efflux pump proteins, and 2 fimbrial proteins (FilF and CAM87009.1). CAM86003.1 was predicted to be an adhesin outer membrane protein absent from 3 antibiotic-sensitive strains and conserved in 21 antibiotic-resistant strains. Feasible anti-resistance vaccine candidates also include one extracellular protein (QnrA), 3 RND type outer membrane efflux pump proteins, and 3 CTX-M type β-lactamases. Among 39 β-lactamases, A. baumannii CTX-M-2, -5, and -43 enzymes are predicted as adhesins and better vaccine candidates than other β-lactamases to induce preventive immunity and enhance antibiotic treatments. This report represents the first reverse vaccinology study to systematically predict vaccine antigen candidates against antibiotic resistance for a microbial pathogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reverse Vaccinology)
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Open AccessArticle
Sex-Specificity of Mineralocorticoid Target Gene Expression during Renal Development, and Long-Term Consequences
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020457
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1229 | PDF Full-text (2553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sex differences have been identified in various biological processes, including hypertension. The mineralocorticoid signaling pathway is an important contributor to early arterial hypertension, however its sex-specific expression has been scarcely studied, particularly with respect to the kidney. Basal systolic blood pressure (SBP) and [...] Read more.
Sex differences have been identified in various biological processes, including hypertension. The mineralocorticoid signaling pathway is an important contributor to early arterial hypertension, however its sex-specific expression has been scarcely studied, particularly with respect to the kidney. Basal systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in adult male and female mice. Renal gene expression studies of major players of mineralocorticoid signaling were performed at different developmental stages in male and female mice using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and were compared to those of the same genes in the lung, another mineralocorticoid epithelial target tissue that regulates ion exchange and electrolyte balance. The role of sex hormones in the regulation of these genes was also investigated in differentiated KC3AC1 renal cells. Additionally, renal expression of the 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2) protein, a regulator of mineralocorticoid specificity, was measured by immunoblotting and its activity was indirectly assessed in the plasma using liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem (LC-MSMS) method. SBP and HR were found to be significantly lower in females compared to males. This was accompanied by a sex- and tissue-specific expression profile throughout renal development of the mineralocorticoid target genes serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (Sgk1) and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein (Gilz), together with Hsd11b2, Finally, the implication of sex hormones in this sex-specific expression profile was demonstrated in vitro, most notably for Gilz mRNA expression. We demonstrate a tissue-specific, sex-dependent and developmentally-regulated pattern of expression of the mineralocorticoid pathway that could have important implications in physiology and pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Hypertension)
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Open AccessArticle
The Application of a Modified d-ROMs Test for Measurement of Oxidative Stress and Oxidized High-Density Lipoprotein
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020454
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 4 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2132 | PDF Full-text (2296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. ROS-derived hydroperoxides, as an indicator of ROS production, have been measured by using the diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) test, which requires iron-containing transferrin in the reaction mixture. In this [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. ROS-derived hydroperoxides, as an indicator of ROS production, have been measured by using the diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) test, which requires iron-containing transferrin in the reaction mixture. In this study we developed a modified d-ROMs test, termed the Fe-ROMs test, where iron ions were exogenously added to the reaction mixture. This modification is expected to exclude the assay variation that comes from different blood iron levels in individuals. In addition, this Fe-ROMs test was helpful for determining the class of plasma lipoproteins that are hydroperoxidized. Low-density lipoprotein/very low-density lipoprotein (LDL/VLDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were purified by use of an LDL/VLDL purification kit and the dextran sulfate-Mg2+ precipitation method, respectively; their hydroperoxide contents were assessed by performing the Fe-ROMs test. The majority of the hydroperoxides were detected only in the HDL fraction, not in the LDL/VLDL. Further detailed analysis of HDLs by size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the hydroperoxide-containing molecules were small-sized HDLs. Because HDL was shown to be the principal vehicle for the plasma hydroperoxides, this Fe-ROMs test is a beneficial method for the assessment of oxidized-HDL levels. Indeed, Fe-ROMs levels were strongly associated with the levels of oxidized HDL, which were determined by performing the malondialdehyde-modified HDL enzyme immunoassay. In conclusion, the Fe-ROMs test using plasma itself or the HDL fraction after dextran sulfate-Mg2+ precipitation is useful to assess the functionality of HDL, because the oxidation of HDL impairs its antiatherogenic capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle
Vegfa Impacts Early Myocardium Development in Zebrafish
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020444
Received: 14 January 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1894 | PDF Full-text (3102 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) signaling regulates cardiovascular development. However, the cellular mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in early cardiogenesis remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to understand the differential functions and mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in cardiac development. A loss-of-function approach [...] Read more.
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) signaling regulates cardiovascular development. However, the cellular mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in early cardiogenesis remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to understand the differential functions and mechanisms of Vegfa signaling in cardiac development. A loss-of-function approach was utilized to study the effect of Vegfa signaling in cardiogenesis. Both morphants and mutants for vegfaa display defects in cardiac looping and chamber formation, especially the ventricle. Vegfa regulates the heart morphogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the initial fusion of the bilateral myocardium population is delayed rather than endocardium. The results demonstrate that Vegfa signaling plays a direct impact on myocardium fusion, indicating that it is the initial cause of the heart defects. The heart morphogenesis is regulated by Vegfa in a dose-dependent manner, and later endocardium defects may be secondary to impaired myocardium–endocardium crosstalk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Silencing of Two Insulin Receptor Genes Disrupts Nymph-Adult Transition of Alate Brown Citrus Aphid
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020357
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1633 | PDF Full-text (2820 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Insulin receptors play key roles in growth, development, and polymorphism in insects. Here, we report two insulin receptor genes (AcInR1 and AcInR2) from the brown citrus aphid, Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus. Transcriptional analyses showed that AcInR1 increased during the [...] Read more.
Insulin receptors play key roles in growth, development, and polymorphism in insects. Here, we report two insulin receptor genes (AcInR1 and AcInR2) from the brown citrus aphid, Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus. Transcriptional analyses showed that AcInR1 increased during the nymph–adult transition in alate aphids, while AcInR2 had the highest expression level in second instar nymphs. AcInR1 is important in aphid development from fourth instar nymphs to adults as verified by dsRNA feeding mediated RNAi. The silencing of AcInR1 or/and AcInR2 produced a variety of phenotypes including adults with normal wings, malformed wings, under-developed wings, and aphids failing to develop beyond the nymphal stages. Silencing of AcInR1 or AcInR2 alone, and co-silencing of both genes, resulted in 73% or 60%, and 87% of aphids with problems in the transition from nymph to normal adult. The co-silencing of AcInR1 and AcInR2 resulted in 62% dead nymphs, but no mortality occurred by silencing of AcInR1 or AcInR2 alone. Phenotypes of adults in the dsInR1 and dsInR2 were similar. The results demonstrate that AcInR1 and AcInR2 are essential for successful nymph–adult transition in alate aphids and show that RNAi methods may be useful for the management of this pest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Improves Functional Recovery by Enhancing Neurogenesis and Activating BDNF/TrkB Signaling in Ischemic Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020455
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2224 | PDF Full-text (4895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has rapidly become an attractive therapeutic approach for stroke. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate whether high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery mediated by enhanced neurogenesis and activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related [...] Read more.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has rapidly become an attractive therapeutic approach for stroke. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate whether high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery mediated by enhanced neurogenesis and activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) pathway and to compare the effect of conventional 20 Hz rTMS and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) on ischemic rats. Rats after rTMS were sacrificed seven and 14 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), following evaluation of neurological function. Neurogenesis was measured using specific markers: Ki67, Nestin, doublecortin (DCX), NeuN and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the expression levels of BDNF were visualized by Western blotting and RT-PCR analysis. Both high-frequency rTMS methods significantly improved neurological function and reduced infarct volume. Moreover, 20 Hz rTMS and iTBS significantly promoted neurogenesis, shown by an increase of Ki67/DCX, Ki67/Nestin, and Ki67/NeuN-positive cells in the peri-infarct striatum. These beneficial effects were accompanied by elevated protein levels of BDNF and phosphorylated-TrkB. In conclusion, high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery possibly by enhancing neurogenesis and activating BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway and conventional 20 Hz rTMS is better than iTBS at enhancing neurogenesis in ischemic rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessReview
Bioinformatics Approaches for Fetal DNA Fraction Estimation in Noninvasive Prenatal Testing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020453
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 11 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3257 | PDF Full-text (475 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA molecules in plasma of pregnant women has created a paradigm shift in noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Circulating cell-free DNA in maternal plasma has been increasingly recognized as an important proxy to detect fetal abnormalities in a noninvasive [...] Read more.
The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA molecules in plasma of pregnant women has created a paradigm shift in noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Circulating cell-free DNA in maternal plasma has been increasingly recognized as an important proxy to detect fetal abnormalities in a noninvasive manner. A variety of approaches for NIPT using next-generation sequencing have been developed, which have been rapidly transforming clinical practices nowadays. In such approaches, the fetal DNA fraction is a pivotal parameter governing the overall performance and guaranteeing the proper clinical interpretation of testing results. In this review, we describe the current bioinformatics approaches developed for estimating the fetal DNA fraction and discuss their pros and cons. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Precision Medicine—From Bench to Bedside)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020452
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1466 | PDF Full-text (442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan). GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS [...] Read more.
The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan). GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS determination of phenolic content, and the determination of 12 elements using AAS spectrometry were performed to give more detailed insight into the samples. Ninety-five percent of terpene composition was elucidated, with zingiberene as the most abundant sesquiterpene (37.9%); the quantification of gingerols and shogaols was performed, showing the highest contribution of 6-gingerol (268.3 mg/kg); a significant K (43,963 mg/kg of dry mass) and Mn (758.4 mg/kg of dry mass) content was determined in the elemental analysis of the rhizomes and low concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Ni and Pb) remaining below the safe level values recommended by European Commission Directives. The main phenolic compound was (6)-gingerol, which is characteristic of fresh rhizomes and is responsible for their taste and aroma. Surprisingly, high amounts of (6)-shogaol were determined, even though this phenolic compound usually occurs in old or processed material and not in fresh rhizomes. Sesquiterpenes were the major fraction of volatiles. The highest concentrations were determined for α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, (E,E)-α-farnesene, geranial, and ar-curcumene. The volatiles composition of ginger cultivated on Shikoku Island is specific and strongly differs from plants cultivated in China, Nigeria, or Australia. The elemental composition of ginger rhizomes grown in ecological plantations is more beneficial for human health compared to products grown in normal cultivars, as the products contain high amounts of potassium and manganese and are characterized by low sodium content and lower levels of toxic heavy metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Techniques in Plant and Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Determination of Stilbenoids and Dihydroisocoumarins in Shorea roxburghii and Evaluation of Their Hepatoprotective Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020451
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1722 | PDF Full-text (1141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A simultaneous quantitative analytical method for 13 stilbenoids including (−)-hopeaphenol (1), (+)-isohopeaphenol (2), hemsleyanol D (3), (−)-ampelopsin H (4), vaticanols A (5), E (6), and G (7), (+)-α-viniferin ( [...] Read more.
A simultaneous quantitative analytical method for 13 stilbenoids including (−)-hopeaphenol (1), (+)-isohopeaphenol (2), hemsleyanol D (3), (−)-ampelopsin H (4), vaticanols A (5), E (6), and G (7), (+)-α-viniferin (8), pauciflorol A (9), hopeafuran (10), (−)-balanocarpol (11), (−)-ampelopsin A (12), and trans-resveratrol 10-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (13), and two dihydroisocoumarins, phayomphenols A1 (14) and A2 (15) in the extract of Shorea roxburghii (dipterocarpaceae) was developed. According to the established protocol, distributions of these 15 polyphenols (115) in the bark and wood parts of S. roxburghii and a related plant Cotylelobium melanoxylon were evaluated. In addition, the principal polyphenols (1, 2, 8, 1315) exhibited hepatoprotective effects against d-galactosamine (d-galN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice at a dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o. To characterize the mechanisms of action, the isolates were examined in in vitro studies assessing their effects on (i) d-GalN-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes; (ii) LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse peritoneal macrophages; and (iii) tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced cytotoxicity in L929 cells. The mechanisms of action of these polyphenols (1, 2, and 8) were suggested to be dependent on the inhibition of LPS-induced macrophage activation and reduction of sensitivity of hepatocytes to TNF-α. However, none of the isolates reduced the cytotoxicity caused by d-GalN. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Interplay of LncRNA-H19 and Its Binding Partners in Physiological Process and Gastric Carcinogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020450
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2174 | PDF Full-text (2233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), a novel and effective modulator in carcinogenesis, has become a study hotspot in recent years. The imprinted oncofetal lncRNA H19 is one of the first identified imprinted lncRNAs with a high expression level in embryogenesis but is barely detectable [...] Read more.
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), a novel and effective modulator in carcinogenesis, has become a study hotspot in recent years. The imprinted oncofetal lncRNA H19 is one of the first identified imprinted lncRNAs with a high expression level in embryogenesis but is barely detectable in most tissues after birth. Aberrant alterations of H19 expression have been demonstrated in various tumors, including gastric cancer (GC), implicating a crucial role of H19 in cancer progression. As one of the top malignancies in the world, GC has already become a serious concern to public health with poor prognosis. The regulatory roles of H19 in gastric carcinogenesis have been explored by various research groups, which leads to the development of GC therapy. This review comprehensively summarizes the current knowledge of H19 in tumorigenesis, especially in GC pathogenesis, with emphasis on the underneath molecular mechanisms depicted from its functional partners. Furthermore, the accumulated knowledge of H19 will provide better understanding on targeted therapy of GC. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Alternative Splicing in Plant Genes: A Means of Regulating the Environmental Fitness of Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020432
Received: 24 December 2016 / Revised: 4 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2754 | PDF Full-text (3323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gene expression can be regulated through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Transcription in eukaryotes produces pre-mRNA molecules, which are processed and spliced post-transcriptionally to create translatable mRNAs. More than one mRNA may be produced from a single pre-mRNA by alternative splicing (AS); thus, AS [...] Read more.
Gene expression can be regulated through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Transcription in eukaryotes produces pre-mRNA molecules, which are processed and spliced post-transcriptionally to create translatable mRNAs. More than one mRNA may be produced from a single pre-mRNA by alternative splicing (AS); thus, AS serves to diversify an organism’s transcriptome and proteome. Previous studies of gene expression in plants have focused on the role of transcriptional regulation in response to environmental changes. However, recent data suggest that post-transcriptional regulation, especially AS, is necessary for plants to adapt to a changing environment. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of AS during plant development in response to environmental changes. We suggest that alternative gene splicing is a novel means of regulating the environmental fitness of plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pre-mRNA Splicing 2016)
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Open AccessArticle
Bifidobacterium adolescentis Exerts Strain-Specific Effects on Constipation Induced by Loperamide in BALB/c Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020318
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2243 | PDF Full-text (15786 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study was performed to determine whether Bifidobacterium adolescentis exerts inter-strain differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyze the main reasons for these differences. BALB/c mice underwent [...] Read more.
Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study was performed to determine whether Bifidobacterium adolescentis exerts inter-strain differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyze the main reasons for these differences. BALB/c mice underwent gavage with B. adolescentis (CCFM 626, 667, and 669) once per day for 17 days. The primary outcome measures included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures were the basic biological characteristics of the strains, the concentration changes of short-chain fatty acids in feces, and the changes in the fecal flora. B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 relieved constipation symptoms by adhering to intestinal epithelial cells, growing quickly in vitro and increasing the concentrations of propionic and butyric acids. The effect of B. adolescentis on the gut microbiota in mice with constipation was investigated via 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis. The results revealed that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus increased and the amount of Clostridium decreased in the B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 treatment groups. In conclusion, B. adolescentis exhibits strain-specific effects in the alleviation of constipation, mostly due to the strains’ growth rates, adhesive capacity and effects on the gut microbiome and microenvironment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Exhaled Breath Metabolomics for the Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Intubated and Mechanically-Ventilated Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-Patients
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020449
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 3 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 19 February 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2068 | PDF Full-text (3086 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia remains challenging. We hypothesized that analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath could be used to diagnose pneumonia or the presence of pathogens in the respiratory tract in intubated and mechanically-ventilated intensive care unit patients. In [...] Read more.
The diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia remains challenging. We hypothesized that analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath could be used to diagnose pneumonia or the presence of pathogens in the respiratory tract in intubated and mechanically-ventilated intensive care unit patients. In this prospective, single-centre, cross-sectional cohort study breath from mechanically ventilated patients was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potentially relevant VOCs were selected with a p-value < 0.05 and an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) above 0.7. These VOCs were used for principal component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). AUROC was used as a measure of accuracy. Ninety-three patients were included in the study. Twelve of 145 identified VOCs were significantly altered in patients with pneumonia compared to controls. In colonized patients, 52 VOCs were significantly different. Partial least square discriminant analysis classified patients with modest accuracy (AUROC: 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57–0.88) after leave-one-out cross-validation). For determining the colonization status of patients, the model had an AUROC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.57–0.82) after leave-one-out cross-validation. To conclude, exhaled breath analysis can be used to discriminate pneumonia from controls with a modest to good accuracy. Furthermore breath profiling could be used to predict the presence and absence of pathogens in the respiratory tract. These findings need to be validated externally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumonia: Pathogenesis, Diagnostics, Therapeutics, and Prevention)
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Open AccessReview
Integrating Pharmacoproteomics into Early-Phase Clinical Development: State-of-the-Art, Challenges, and Recommendations
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020448
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 19 February 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1776 | PDF Full-text (4326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pharmacoproteomics is the study of disease-modifying and toxicity parameters associated with therapeutic drug administration, using analysis of quantitative and temporal changes to specific, predetermined, and select proteins, or to the proteome as a whole. Pharmacoproteomics is a rapidly evolving field, with progress in [...] Read more.
Pharmacoproteomics is the study of disease-modifying and toxicity parameters associated with therapeutic drug administration, using analysis of quantitative and temporal changes to specific, predetermined, and select proteins, or to the proteome as a whole. Pharmacoproteomics is a rapidly evolving field, with progress in analytic technologies enabling processing of complex interactions of large number of unique proteins and effective use in clinical trials. Nevertheless, our analysis of clinicaltrials.gov and PubMed shows that the application of proteomics in early-phase clinical development is minimal and limited to few therapeutic areas, with oncology predominating. We review the history, technologies, current usage, challenges, and potential for future use, and conclude with recommendations for integration of pharmacoproteomic in early-phase drug development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacogenetics and Personalized Medicine 2016)
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Open AccessReview
Biomarkers in Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020447
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 19 February 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2574 | PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and [...] Read more.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and prediction of disease severity are critical for effectively managing individuals with CAP. To solve questionable cases, several biomarkers indicating the etiology and severity of CAP have been studied. Unfortunately, only a few studies have examined the roles of these biomarkers in pediatric practice. The main aim of this paper is to detail current knowledge regarding the use of biomarkers to diagnose and treat CAP in children, analyzing the most recently published relevant studies. Despite several attempts, the etiologic diagnosis of pediatric CAP and the estimation of the potential outcome remain unsolved problems in most cases. Among traditional biomarkers, procalcitonin (PCT) appears to be the most effective for both selecting bacterial cases and evaluating the severity. However, a precise cut-off separating bacterial from viral and mild from severe cases has not been defined. The three-host protein assay based on C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), plasma interferon-γ protein-10 (IP-10), and micro-array-based whole genome expression arrays might offer more advantages in comparison with former biomarkers. However, further studies are needed before the routine use of those presently in development can be recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pneumonia: Pathogenesis, Diagnostics, Therapeutics, and Prevention)
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