Next Article in Journal
Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Tumor Expression Is Associated with a Better Prognosis and Diabetic Disease in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients
Previous Article in Journal
Antibiotic Resistance Determinant-Focused Acinetobacter baumannii Vaccine Designed Using Reverse Vaccinology
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 357;

Silencing of Two Insulin Receptor Genes Disrupts Nymph-Adult Transition of Alate Brown Citrus Aphid

Key Laboratory of Entomology and Pest Control Engineering, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: T. G. Emyr Davies
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2820 KB, uploaded 21 February 2017]   |  


Insulin receptors play key roles in growth, development, and polymorphism in insects. Here, we report two insulin receptor genes (AcInR1 and AcInR2) from the brown citrus aphid, Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus. Transcriptional analyses showed that AcInR1 increased during the nymph–adult transition in alate aphids, while AcInR2 had the highest expression level in second instar nymphs. AcInR1 is important in aphid development from fourth instar nymphs to adults as verified by dsRNA feeding mediated RNAi. The silencing of AcInR1 or/and AcInR2 produced a variety of phenotypes including adults with normal wings, malformed wings, under-developed wings, and aphids failing to develop beyond the nymphal stages. Silencing of AcInR1 or AcInR2 alone, and co-silencing of both genes, resulted in 73% or 60%, and 87% of aphids with problems in the transition from nymph to normal adult. The co-silencing of AcInR1 and AcInR2 resulted in 62% dead nymphs, but no mortality occurred by silencing of AcInR1 or AcInR2 alone. Phenotypes of adults in the dsInR1 and dsInR2 were similar. The results demonstrate that AcInR1 and AcInR2 are essential for successful nymph–adult transition in alate aphids and show that RNAi methods may be useful for the management of this pest. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus; insulin receptor genes; RNAi; development Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus; insulin receptor genes; RNAi; development

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ding, B.-Y.; Shang, F.; Zhang, Q.; Xiong, Y.; Yang, Q.; Niu, J.-Z.; Smagghe, G.; Wang, J.-J. Silencing of Two Insulin Receptor Genes Disrupts Nymph-Adult Transition of Alate Brown Citrus Aphid. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 357.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top