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Article

Cardiometabolic Indices after Weight Loss with Calcium or Dairy Foods: Secondary Analyses from a Randomized Trial with Overweight/Obese Postmenopausal Women

1
Institute for Successful Longevity, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
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School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA
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Department of Social Welfare, Pusan National University, Pusan 46241, Korea
4
GNC Holdings, LLC, Pittsburg, PA 15222, USA
5
Independent Researcher, Fremont, CA 94539, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Abderrahmane AIT KADDOUR, Sandra Abreu and Vicente Martinez Vizcaino
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051082
Received: 28 December 2021 / Revised: 25 February 2022 / Accepted: 2 March 2022 / Published: 4 March 2022
The role of dairy foods and calcium/vitamin D supplements in cardiometabolic diseases is unknown. The objective of this secondary analysis is to investigate cardiometabolic risk factors changes after a 6-month weight-loss intervention in overweight/obese postmenopausal women divided in three groups: Ca+vitamin D supplements (S); low-fat dairy foods (D; 4–5 servings/day); or control/placebo pills (C), as complements to hypocaloric diets. The original study focused on bone/body composition. This analysis included blood pressure (BP), and serum triglycerides, lipids (including apoproteins Apo1 and ApoB), adipokines, and C-reactive protein in n = 97 participants who finished with complete data points. Systolic BP decreased 5.1%, 4.8%, and 1.8% in S, D, and C groups, respectively (p < 0.05 for S and D vs. baseline and vs. C at 6 months). Reduction in triglycerides and ratio of total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) was the highest in S, while the reduction in TC and LDL-C was the highest in D group (all p < 0.05). Leptin and ApoB significantly decreased and adiponectin and ApoA1 increased in all groups. In conclusion, although the C group’s participants experienced an improvement in some of the cardiometabolic indices with weight loss, those in the S and D groups showed significantly better results in most of the outcomes, indicating the beneficial effects of low-fat dairy foods and/or Ca+vitamin D intake as complements to a hypocaloric diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium and vitamin D supplements; low-fat dairy foods; cardiometabolic risk factors; weight loss; blood pressure; serum apolipoproteins; adipokines; serum vitamin D calcium and vitamin D supplements; low-fat dairy foods; cardiometabolic risk factors; weight loss; blood pressure; serum apolipoproteins; adipokines; serum vitamin D
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ilich, J.Z.; Liu, P.-Y.; Shin, H.; Kim, Y.; Chi, Y. Cardiometabolic Indices after Weight Loss with Calcium or Dairy Foods: Secondary Analyses from a Randomized Trial with Overweight/Obese Postmenopausal Women. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1082. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051082

AMA Style

Ilich JZ, Liu P-Y, Shin H, Kim Y, Chi Y. Cardiometabolic Indices after Weight Loss with Calcium or Dairy Foods: Secondary Analyses from a Randomized Trial with Overweight/Obese Postmenopausal Women. Nutrients. 2022; 14(5):1082. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051082

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ilich, Jasminka Z., Pei-Yang Liu, Hyehyung Shin, Youjin Kim, and Yichih Chi. 2022. "Cardiometabolic Indices after Weight Loss with Calcium or Dairy Foods: Secondary Analyses from a Randomized Trial with Overweight/Obese Postmenopausal Women" Nutrients 14, no. 5: 1082. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051082

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