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Special Issue "Biological Processes and Fate of Chemical Pollutants in Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatments"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Wastewater Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (21 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Belén Rodelas

Department of Microbiology, University of Granada, Spain
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: Microbial ecology of wastewater treatment
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Clementina Pozo

Department of Microbiology, University of Granada, Spain
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: Bioremediation of contaminated environments
Guest Editor
Prof. Alejandro Gonzalez-Martinez

University of Granada
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Phone: +3495824980
Interests: molecular biology; biotechnology; applied microbiology; next-generation sequencing; biological wastewater treatment
Guest Editor
Dr. Paula Maza-Márquez

Department of Microbiology, University of Granada, Spain
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: Structure and function of microbial communities in wastewater treatment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water bodies harbour thousands of chemical pollutans of anthropogenic origin, which often occur at low concentrations, but nevertheless pose substantial health and environmental risks either due to their their persistance, high rates of introduction into the environment, or high biological activity. Among these, chemicals of proven hazardous nature are classified as priority contaminants and their discharge into the environment is regulated by the legislation in most countries, while the so-called emerging contaminants (also termed as micropollutants) are often not subjected to regulation, partly due to a lack of knowledge of their fate and impact in humans and the environment. One major source of micropollutants into water bodies is the discharge of effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which often fail to completely remove these compounds, since they were not specifically designed for this purpose. WWTPs effluents are also a primary source of micropollutants into drinking water systems. Optimization of wastewater treatments to improve micropollutant removal is an exciting challengue for the control of dissemination of these chemicals into the environment, and is becoming a topic of rising interest to the scientific community. Therefore, we would like to call for papers for this special issue under the title “Biological processes and fate of chemical pollutants in drinking water and wastewater treatments”. Potential topics for this special issue include but are not restricted to:

  • Ocurrence and sources of chemical pollutants in drinking water and wastewaters.
  • Fate and behavior of priority contaminants and micropollutants in wastewater treatment processess.
  • Removal of micropollutants from municipal and industrial wastewaters by conventional and advanced biological treatment processes.
  • Ecology and diversity of microbial communities involved in the removal of priority contaminants and micropolluntants in wastewater treatment systems.
  • Advances in analytical methods for the monitoring of chemical pollutants in drinking water and wastewaters.
  • Control strategies for chemical contamination of drinking water.
  • Environmental and health risks assessment of chemical pollutants in drinking water and wastewaters.

Prof. Belén Rodelas
Assoc. Prof. Clementina Pozo
Assist. Prof. Alejandro González-Martínez
Dr. Paula Maza-Márquez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Micropollutants
  • Priority contaminants
  • Emerging contaminants
  • Drinking water
  • Biological wastewater treatment
  • Environmental risk assessment

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Bio-Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Galactomyces geotrichum KL20A
Water 2019, 11(2), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020282
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
The conventional treatments used to remove dyes produced as a result of different industrial activities are not completely effective. At times, some toxic by-products are generated, affecting aquatic ecosystems. In this article, an efficient use of microorganisms is presented as a biodegradation technique [...] Read more.
The conventional treatments used to remove dyes produced as a result of different industrial activities are not completely effective. At times, some toxic by-products are generated, affecting aquatic ecosystems. In this article, an efficient use of microorganisms is presented as a biodegradation technique that is a safe environmental alternative for the benefit of aquatic life. A strain of the yeast Galactomyces geotrichum KL20A isolated from Kumis (a Colombian natural fermented milk) was used for Methylene Blue (MB) bioremoval. Two parameters of the bioremediation process were studied at three different levels: initial dye concentration and growth temperature. The maximum time of MB exposure to the yeast was 48 h. Finally, a pseudo-first-order model was used to simulate the kinetics of the process. The removal percentages of MB, by action of G. geotrichum KL20A were greater than 70% under the best operating conditions and in addition, the kinetic simulation of the experimental results indicated that the constant rate of the process was 2.2 × 10-2 h−1 with a half time for biotransformation of 31.2 h. The cytotoxicity test based on the hemolytic reaction indicated that by-products obtained after the bioremoval process reached a much lower percentage of hemolysis (22%) compared to the hemolytic activity of the negative control (100%). All of these results suggest that the strain has the capacity to remove significant amounts of MB from wastewater effluents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Aluminium Salt Dosing on Activated Sludge Settleability Indicators: A New Settleability Model Development
Water 2019, 11(1), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010179
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been a significant rise in the use of aluminium salts (Al3+) for the chemical precipitation of phosphates in wastewater treatment plants due to growing stricter regulatory requirements for wastewater effluent release to the environment. The modelling of the settleability [...] Read more.
There has been a significant rise in the use of aluminium salts (Al3+) for the chemical precipitation of phosphates in wastewater treatment plants due to growing stricter regulatory requirements for wastewater effluent release to the environment. The modelling of the settleability of the resultant Al3+ sludge in present engineering practice for design and optimisation are still based on conventional sludge settleability models. This paper describes a novel activated sludge settleability model which is designed to analyse the effects of Al3+ dosing on activated sludge settleability indicators, zone settling velocity (ZSV), and stirred specific volume index (SSVI). The impact of Al3+ dosing concentrations on ZSV and SSVI of full scale activated sludge plant were analysed in the laboratory over a three years’ period and the exponential form of the Vesilind equation was optimised and validated to include alum chemical dosing parameters. The proposed model equation was found to effectively describe the settleability of Al3+ dosed sludge for dosing concentrations range of 0 to 100 mg/L. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Organic Carbon Addition on the Community Structure and Kinetics of Microcystin-Degrading Bacterial Consortia
Water 2018, 10(11), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111523
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
PDF Full-text (2379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Microcystin (MC), a hepatotoxin that is associated with cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater lakes, threatens the quality of drinking water resources. Biodegradation of MC using biofiltration is emerging as a cost-effective solution for drinking water treatment. This study reports isolation of five MC-degrading microbial [...] Read more.
Microcystin (MC), a hepatotoxin that is associated with cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater lakes, threatens the quality of drinking water resources. Biodegradation of MC using biofiltration is emerging as a cost-effective solution for drinking water treatment. This study reports isolation of five MC-degrading microbial consortia and investigation of their community structure and kinetics in the presence or absence of a readily-bioavailable organic carbon source. The results indicated that the presence of a bioavailable organic carbon source caused: (1) the proliferation of community members previously unobserved in each consortium cultured without ethanol; (2) a shift in abundance of representative taxa; (3) a fluctuation in genera affiliated with MC-biodegradation; and, (4) a unique response in simulated diversity among consortia. These changes to each microbial consortium were paralleled by a significant decline in MC degradation kinetics. Overall, this study highlights the importance of integrating environmental conditions into the design and operation of biofiltration systems for MC biodegradation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Trinitrogen Migration and Transformation in the Unsaturated Zone at a Desert Contaminant Site (NW China) Using HYDRUS-2D
Water 2018, 10(10), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101363
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The protection of an unsaturated zone is essential for groundwater-quality security. Neglecting pollutant changes in the saturated zone can affect the accuracy of groundwater-quality assessments. Unlike water sampling, the nonreproducibility of soil sampling complicates the observation of contaminant changes at different times in [...] Read more.
The protection of an unsaturated zone is essential for groundwater-quality security. Neglecting pollutant changes in the saturated zone can affect the accuracy of groundwater-quality assessments. Unlike water sampling, the nonreproducibility of soil sampling complicates the observation of contaminant changes at different times in the same location. The HYDRUS-2D model, coupled with the Richards equation and the convection-dispersion equation, was applied to simulate the migration and transformation of high ammonia concentrations in wastewater in an unsaturated zone. Long-term field observations were carried out for trinitrogen (NH4+, NO2, and NO3) from 2015 to 2018 at a wastewater discharge site located in a desert area in northwest China. Samples were collected twice a month. The model was calibrated and validated using statistics and observation data. Variations in trinitrogen concentrations were simulated using the model and fitted well with the measured values. Simulation results for trinitrogen migration and transformation demonstrated that there was no enrichment on the ground surface. Contaminants attenuated rapidly in the unsaturated zone after wastewater discharge stopped. NH4+ was oxidized to NO2 and NO3 under nitrification, except in the anoxic subclay lenses. Subclay lenses were not considered in previous research. These lenses had high enrichment with contaminants and prevented secondary nitrification, which might have led to extremely low NO3 concentrations. The removal rate of contaminants by the unsaturated zone in natural conditions is as high as 76%, and contaminants could be degraded to acceptable levels within 10 years (3650 days) without artificial interventions. This indicates that the unsaturated zone can delay migration and degrade contaminants, and should be taken into consideration in groundwater-quality assessments. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Biofouling Formation and Bacterial Community Structure in Hybrid Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor-Membrane Bioreactors: Influence of Salinity Concentration
Water 2018, 10(9), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091133
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
PDF Full-text (3755 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two pilot-scale hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactors were operated in parallel for the treatment of salinity-amended urban wastewater under 6 hours of hydraulic retention time and 2500 mg L−1 total solids concentration. Two salinity conditions were tested: the constant salinity of [...] Read more.
Two pilot-scale hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactors were operated in parallel for the treatment of salinity-amended urban wastewater under 6 hours of hydraulic retention time and 2500 mg L−1 total solids concentration. Two salinity conditions were tested: the constant salinity of 6.5 mS cm−1 electric conductivity (3.6 g L−1 NaCl) and the tidal-like variable salinity with maximum 6.5 mS cm−1 electric conductivity. An investigation was developed on the biofouling produced on the ultrafiltration membrane surface evaluating its bacterial community structure and its potential function in the fouling processes. The results showed that biofouling was clearly affected by salinity scenarios in terms of α-diversity and β-diversity and bacterial community structure, which confirms lower bacterial diversity under variable salinity conditions with Rhodanobacter and Dyella as dominant phylotypes. Microorganisms identified as bio-mineral formers belonged to genera Bacillus, Citrobacter, and Brevibacterium. These findings will be of help for the prevention and control of biofouling in saline wastewater treatment systems. Full article
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Graphical abstract

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