Special Issue "Environmental Hydraulics Research"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Helena M. Ramos
Website1 Website2 SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Lisbon, IST –Tecnico Lisboa /CERIS, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1649-004, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: Hydropower; Hydraulic Transients; Energy efficiency; Eco-design projects; Pumped-storage; Water - Energy – Food nexus; Hybrid energy solutions; Renewable energy sources; Energy recovery; Hydrodynamics
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Prof. Armando Carravetta
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Architecture and Environmental Engineering, University Federico II of Naples, Naples, 80125, Italy
Interests: hydropower; efficiency of pumping systems; ecodesign of water pumps; water and energy nexus; fluid dynamics modeling
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Aonghus McNabola
Website
Guest Editor
Associate Professor in Energy & Environment, Dept of Civil, Structural & Environmental Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. D02 PN40
Interests: energy efficiency in water systems; hydropower; heat recovery; air pollution control; fluid dynamics modelling
Dr. Kemi Adeyeye
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architecture & Civil Engineering, University of Bath, UK
Interests: integrated design and planning; architectural technology; sustainability and resource efficiency (water); resilience in modern and heritage contexts; water resource efficiency; water, energy nexus
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to provide an international platform for the dissemination of research and engineering applications related to water and hydraulic problems. This issue welcomes papers in all topics of hydraulics, in particular, articles on sustainable water management, fluid–health issues, environmental hydraulics, ecohydraulics, water–food and energy nexus, systems efficiency. Safety and innovation issues are welcome too. Interdisciplinary problems and linkage of theory to experimental and field applications are particularly encouraged. Solutions of water problems are welcome in the form of prediction models, flow simulations, engineering systems, monitoring, management strategies covering scientific investigations and/or experimental or field studies of flow behaviour, hydrodynamics, and climate changes effects and adaptation, new design solutions, innovative approaches in the field of environment, hydraulics, techniques, methods, and analyses to address the new challenges in environmental hydraulics.

Prof. Helena M. Ramos
Prof. Armando Carravetta
Prof. Aonghus McNabola
Dr. Kemi Adeyeye
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • computational fluid dynamics
  • sustainability and efficiency
  • ecohydraulic engineering and ecosystem
  • new design solutions
  • hydrodynamics
  • urban water bodies
  • rural innovative solutions
  • integrated modelling
  • water systems flexibility with nature

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research

Open AccessEditorial
Environmental Hydraulics Research
Water 2020, 12(10), 2749; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102749 - 01 Oct 2020
Abstract
Environmental hydraulics research includes the different domains of hydrodynamics, such as the investigation and implementation of the physical and experimental applications, and research into the quantity, quality, modelling and simulation of the attributes associated with flowing water. This topic is studied both from [...] Read more.
Environmental hydraulics research includes the different domains of hydrodynamics, such as the investigation and implementation of the physical and experimental applications, and research into the quantity, quality, modelling and simulation of the attributes associated with flowing water. This topic is studied both from a technical and environmental point of view, with the objective of protecting and enhancing the quality of the environment. It is a cross-disciplinary field of study which comprises open channel/river flows and pressurised systems, combining, among others, new technological, social, and environmental hydraulic challenges. It provides researchers and engineers working in water-related fields with available information, new concepts and tools, new design solutions, eco-friendly technologies, and the advanced materials necessary to address the increasing challenges of ensuring a sustainable water environment—that is, a water environment effectively managed and adequated for generations to come by promoting the adaptation, flexibility, integration and sustainability of recognised environmental solutions. Using advanced numerical and physical models in field experiments, and tests in different types of laboratory set-ups, specialists in environmental hydraulics produce the best analyses, concepts, techniques, tools, and solutions to environmental hydraulic problems, as well as in relation to the water, energy and environmental nexus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)

Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Hybrid Pumped Hydro Storage Energy Solutions towards Wind and PV Integration: Improvement on Flexibility, Reliability and Energy Costs
Water 2020, 12(9), 2457; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092457 - 01 Sep 2020
Abstract
This study presents a technique based on a multi-criteria evaluation, for a sustainable technical solution based on renewable sources integration. It explores the combined production of hydro, solar and wind, for the best challenge of energy storage flexibility, reliability and sustainability. Mathematical simulations [...] Read more.
This study presents a technique based on a multi-criteria evaluation, for a sustainable technical solution based on renewable sources integration. It explores the combined production of hydro, solar and wind, for the best challenge of energy storage flexibility, reliability and sustainability. Mathematical simulations of hybrid solutions are developed together with different operating principles and restrictions. An electrical generating system composed primarily by wind and solar technologies, with pumped-storage hydropower schemes, is defined, predicting how much renewable power and storage capacity should be installed to satisfy renewables-only generation solutions. The three sources were combined considering different pump/turbine (P/T) capacities of 2, 4 and 6 MW, wind and PV solar powers of 4–5 MW and 0.54–1.60 MW, respectively and different reservoir volume capacities. The chosen hybrid hydro-wind and PV solar power solution, with installed capacities of 4, 5 and 0.54 MW, respectively, of integrated pumped storage and a reservoir volume of 378,000 m3, ensures 72% annual consumption satisfaction offering the best technical alternative at the lowest cost, with less return on the investment. The results demonstrate that technically the pumped hydro storage with wind and PV is an ideal solution to achieve energy autonomy and to increase its flexibility and reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of a Hydrostatic Pressure Machine with Caffa3d Solver: Numerical Model Characterization and Evaluation
Water 2020, 12(9), 2419; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092419 - 28 Aug 2020
Abstract
The Hydrostatic Pressure Machine (HPM) is a novel energy converter for micro and pico hydropower that becomes very suitable for installation in channels with very low head, where conventional hydraulic turbines are inadequate or too expensive. Although this technology has been studied through [...] Read more.
The Hydrostatic Pressure Machine (HPM) is a novel energy converter for micro and pico hydropower that becomes very suitable for installation in channels with very low head, where conventional hydraulic turbines are inadequate or too expensive. Although this technology has been studied through several experimental tests and also by numerical simulations, open source flow solvers have not been used yet. The research team on Computational Fluid Mechanics of IMFIA- Universidad de la República (Uruguay) has been developing a CFD open source solver named caffa3d, which has obtained great results in a few international challenges, although it has not been used yet for free surface flows or turbomachinery simulations. The present work shows the contributions made within caffa3d in order to enable its use for simulating a HPM. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method is used to model the turbulence structures of the flow. Sliding Mesh (SM) and Volume of Fluid (VOF) methods were chosen respectively to resolve the rotation of the wheel and the position of the free surface. The SM module was already validated in the past, but the VOF module needed to be validated in the present work through the simulation of free surface over a semicylindrical dam. Finally, the performance of a small 12-straight-blade HPM was simulated with caffa3d, with quite satisfactory results. Some issues of the solver yet need to be solved before other HPM with more complex designs could be studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceCommunication
Experimental Investigation of Erosion Characteristics of Fine-Grained Cohesive Sediments
Water 2020, 12(5), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051511 - 25 May 2020
Abstract
In this short communication, the erosion process of the fine, cohesive sediment collected from the upper River Taw in South West England was studied in a rotating annular flume located in the National Water Research Institute in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. This study is [...] Read more.
In this short communication, the erosion process of the fine, cohesive sediment collected from the upper River Taw in South West England was studied in a rotating annular flume located in the National Water Research Institute in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. This study is part of a research project that is underway to model the transport of fine sediment and the associated nutrients in that river system. The erosion experimental data show that the critical shear stress for erosion of the upper River Taw sediment is about 0.09 Pa and it did not depend on the age of sediment deposit. The eroded sediment was transported in a flocculated form and the agent of flocculation for the upper River Taw sediment may be due to the presence of fibrils from microorganisms and organic material in the system. The experimental data were analysed using a curve fitting approach of Krone and a mathematical model of cohesive sediment transport in rotating circular flumes developed by Krishnappan. The modelled and measured data were in good agreement. An evaluation of the physical significance of Krone’s fitting coefficients is presented. Variability of the fitting coefficients as a function of bed shear stress and age of sediment deposit indicate the key role these two factors play in the erosion process of fluvial cohesive sediment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Transient-Flow Induced Compressed Air Energy Storage (TI-CAES) System towards New Energy Concept
Water 2020, 12(2), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020601 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
In recent years, interest has increased in new renewable energy solutions for climate change mitigation and increasing the efficiency and sustainability of water systems. Hydropower still has the biggest share due to its compatibility, reliability and flexibility. This study presents one such technology [...] Read more.
In recent years, interest has increased in new renewable energy solutions for climate change mitigation and increasing the efficiency and sustainability of water systems. Hydropower still has the biggest share due to its compatibility, reliability and flexibility. This study presents one such technology recently examined at Instituto Superior Técnico based on a transient-flow induced compressed air energy storage (TI-CAES) system, which takes advantage of a compressed air vessel (CAV). The CAV can produce extra required pressure head, by compressing air, to be used for either hydropower generation using a water turbine in a gravity system or to be exploited in a pumping system. The results show a controlled behaviour of the system in storing the pressure surge as compressed air inside a vessel. Considerable power values are achieved as well, while the input work is practically neglected. Higher power values are attained for bigger air volumes. The TI-CAES offers an efficient and flexible solution that can be exploited in exiting water systems without putting the system at risk. The induced transients in the compressed air allow a constant outflow discharge characteristic, making the energy storage available in the CAV to be used as a pump storage hydropower solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Near-Wake Flow Structure of a Suspended Cylindrical Canopy Patch
Water 2020, 12(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010084 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Urban stormwater is an important environmental problem, especially for metropolitans worldwide. The most important issue behind this problem is the need to find green infrastructure solutions, which provide water treatment and retention. Floating treatment wetlands, which are porous patches that continue down from [...] Read more.
Urban stormwater is an important environmental problem, especially for metropolitans worldwide. The most important issue behind this problem is the need to find green infrastructure solutions, which provide water treatment and retention. Floating treatment wetlands, which are porous patches that continue down from the free-surface with a gap between the patch and bed, are innovative instruments for nutrient management in lakes, ponds, and slow-flowing waters. Suspended cylindrical vegetation patches in open channels affect the flow dramatically, which causes a deviation from the logarithmic law. This study considered the velocity measurements along the flow depth, at the axis of the patch, and at the near-wake region of the canopy, for different submerged ratios with different patch porosities. The results of this experimental study provide a comprehensive picture of the effects of different submergence ratios and different porosities on the flow field at the near-wake region of the suspended vegetation patch. The flow field was described with velocity and turbulence distributions along the axis of the patch, both upstream and downstream of the vegetation patch. Mainly, it was found that suspended porous canopy patches with a certain range of densities (SVF20 and SVF36 corresponded to a high density of patches in this study) have considerable impacts on the flow structure, and to a lesser extent, individual patch elements also have a crucial role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Spur Dikes on Water Flow Diversity and Fish Aggregation
Water 2019, 11(9), 1822; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091822 - 31 Aug 2019
Abstract
As a typical waterway modification, the spur dike narrows the water cross section, which increases the flow velocity and flushes the riverbed. Meanwhile, it also protects ecological diversity and improves river habitat. Different types of spur dikes could greatly impact the interaction between [...] Read more.
As a typical waterway modification, the spur dike narrows the water cross section, which increases the flow velocity and flushes the riverbed. Meanwhile, it also protects ecological diversity and improves river habitat. Different types of spur dikes could greatly impact the interaction between flow structure and local geomorphology, which in turn affects the evolution of river aquatic habitats. Four different types of spur dikes—including rock-fill, permeable, w-shaped rock-fill, and w-shaped permeable—were evaluated using flume experiments for spur dike hydrodynamics and fish aggregation effects. Based on Shannon’s entropy, an index for calculating water flow diversity is proposed. Additionally, the impact of the different spur dikes on water flow diversity and the relationship between water flow diversity and fish aggregation effects were studied. The water flow diversity index around the spur dike varied from 1.13 to 2.96. The average aggregation rate of test fish around the spur dike was 5% to 28%, and the attraction effect increased with increasing water flow diversity. Furthermore, we plotted the relationship between water flow diversity index and average fish aggregation rate. A fish hydroacoustic study conducted on the Laohutan fish-bone dike in the Dongliu reach of downstream Yangtze River showed that the fish aggregation effect of the permeable spur dike was greater than the rock-fill spur dike. These research results could provide theoretical support for habitat heterogeneity research and ecologically optimal design of spur dikes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical Modeling of Ski-Jump Spillway to Evaluate Dynamic Pressure
Water 2019, 11(8), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081687 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The effects of changes in the angle of pool impact plate, plunging depth, and discharge upon the dynamic pressure caused by ski-jump buckets were investigated in the laboratory. Four impact plate angles and four plunging depths were used. Discharges of 67, 86, 161, [...] Read more.
The effects of changes in the angle of pool impact plate, plunging depth, and discharge upon the dynamic pressure caused by ski-jump buckets were investigated in the laboratory. Four impact plate angles and four plunging depths were used. Discharges of 67, 86, 161, and 184 L/s were chosen. For any discharge, plunging depth and impact plate angle were regulated, and dynamic pressures were measured by a transducer. The results showed that with the increase in the ratio of drop length of the jet to its break-up length (H/Lb), and with an increase in the impact plate angle, the mean dynamic pressure coefficient decreased. An inspection of the plunging depth (Y) ratio to the initial thickness of the jet (Bj) revealed that when Y/Bj > 3, the plunging depth of the downstream pool reduced dynamic pressure. At the angle of 60°, the dynamic pressure coefficient due to increasing in plunging depth varied from 34% to 95%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Assessment of the Influences of Three Gorges Dam on the Water Level of Poyang Lake, China
Water 2019, 11(7), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071519 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Lakes are important for global ecological balance and provide rich biological and social resources. However, lake systems are sensitive to climate change and anthropogenic activities. Poyang Lake is an important wetland in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, China and has a [...] Read more.
Lakes are important for global ecological balance and provide rich biological and social resources. However, lake systems are sensitive to climate change and anthropogenic activities. Poyang Lake is an important wetland in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, China and has a complicated interaction with the Yangtze River. In recent years, the water level of Poyang Lake was altered dramatically, in particular showing a significant downward trend after the operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003, thus seriously affecting the lake wetland ecosystem. The operation of the TGD changed both the hydrological regime and the deeper channel in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, and affected the river–lake system between the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake. This study analyzed the change in the water level of Poyang Lake and quantified the contributions of the TGD operation, from the perspectives of water storage and erosion of the deeper channel in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, through hydrodynamic model simulation. The erosion of the deeper channel indicated a significant decrease in annual water level. However, due to the water storage of the TGD in September and October, the discharge in the Yangtze River sharply decreased and the water level of Poyang Lake was largely affected. Especially in late September, early October, and mid-October, the contributions of water storage of the TGD to the decline in the water level of Poyang Lake respectively reached 68.85%, 59.04%, and 54.88%, indicating that the water storage of the TGD was the main factor in the decrease in water level. The erosion of the deeper channel accelerated the decline of the water level of Poyang Lake and led to about 10% to 20% of the decline of water level in September and October. Due to the combined operation of the TGD and more reservoirs under construction in the upper TGD, the long-term and irreversible influence of the TGD on Poyang Lake should be further explored in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Area Contraction Ratio on the Hydraulic Characteristics of the Toothed Internal Energy Dissipaters
Water 2019, 11(7), 1406; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071406 - 09 Jul 2019
Abstract
Toothed internal energy dissipaters (TIED) are a new type of internal energy dissipaters, which combines the internal energy dissipaters of sudden reduction and sudden enlargement forms with the open-flow energy dissipation together. In order to provide a design basis for an optimized body [...] Read more.
Toothed internal energy dissipaters (TIED) are a new type of internal energy dissipaters, which combines the internal energy dissipaters of sudden reduction and sudden enlargement forms with the open-flow energy dissipation together. In order to provide a design basis for an optimized body type of the TIED, the effect of the area contraction ratio (ε) on the hydraulic characteristics, including over-current capability, energy dissipation rate, time-averaged pressure, pulsating pressure, time-averaged velocity, and pulsating velocity, were studied using the methods of a physical model test and theoretical analysis. The main results are as follows. The over-current capability mainly depends on ε, and the larger ε is, the larger the flow coefficient is. The energy dissipation rate is proportional to the quadratic of Re and inversely proportional to ε. The changes of the time-averaged pressure coefficients under each flow are similar along the test pipe, and the differences of the time-averaged pressure coefficient between the inlet of the TIED and the outlet of the TIED decrease with the increase of ε. The peaks of the pulsating pressure coefficient appear at 1.3 D after the TIED and are inversely proportional to ε. When the flow is 18 l/s and ε increases from 0.375 to 0.625, the maximum of time-averaged velocity coefficient on the line of Z/D = 0.42 reduces from 2.53 to 1.17, and that on the line of Z/D = 0 decreases from 2.99 to 1.74. The maximum values of pulsating velocity on the line of Z/D = 0.42 appear at 1.57D and those of Z/D = 0 appear at 2.72D, when the flow is 18 l/s. The maximum values of pulsating velocity decrease with the increase of ε. Finally, two empirical expressions, related to the flow coefficient and energy loss coefficient, are separately presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Explicit Delay Time for Volume Compensation in Feedforward Control of Canal Systems
Water 2019, 11(5), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051080 - 23 May 2019
Abstract
In the open channel control algorithm, good feed-forward controllers will reduce the transition time of the canal and improve performance. Feedforward control algorithms based on active storage compensation are greatly affected by delay time. However, there is no literature comparing the three most [...] Read more.
In the open channel control algorithm, good feed-forward controllers will reduce the transition time of the canal and improve performance. Feedforward control algorithms based on active storage compensation are greatly affected by delay time. However, there is no literature comparing the three most commonly used algorithms, namely volume step compensation, dynamic wave principle and water balance models, under the operation mode of constant water level downstream. In order to compare the existing three algorithms, and to avoid storage calculation by calculating the constant non-uniform water surface line or identification of relevant parameters, combined with the open channel constant gradient flow theory with the storage compensation algorithm, a delay time explicit algorithm is proposed in this study. Tested on the first canal pool of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Test Canal 2, the performance of the delay time explicit algorithm is assessed and compared to that of the three conventional algorithms. In the current water intake plan, i.e., in the second hour, the intake begins to take 1.2 m3/s, and the upstream flow of the canal pool changes from 6 m3/s to 7.2 m3/s, among the three existing algorithms, the volume step compensation algorithm has better performance in terms of time to achieve stability, i.e., 1.25 h. The actual adjusted storage accounts for 99.6% of the target adjusted storage, which can basically meet the requirement of compensated storage of the canal pool. The delay time explicit algorithm only needs 1.47 h to stabilize the regulation system. The fluctuation of water level and discharge in the regulation process is small. The actual adjusted storage accounts for 99.6% of the target adjusted storage, which can basically meet the requirement of compensated storage for the canal pool. The delay time calculated by explicit algorithm can provide references for the determination of delay time in feedforward control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Hydraulic Investigation of Angled Fish Protection Systems—Comparison of Circular Bars and Cables
Water 2019, 11(5), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051056 - 21 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The requirements for fish protection at hydro power plants have led to a significant decrease of the bar spacing at trash racks as well as the need of an inclined or angled design to improve the guidance effect (fish-friendly trash racks). The flexible [...] Read more.
The requirements for fish protection at hydro power plants have led to a significant decrease of the bar spacing at trash racks as well as the need of an inclined or angled design to improve the guidance effect (fish-friendly trash racks). The flexible fish fence (FFF) is a new developed fish protection and guidance system, created by horizontally arranged steel cables instead of bars. The presented study investigated experimentally the head loss coefficient of an angled horizontal trash rack with circular bars (CBTR) and the FFF with identical cross sections in a flume (scale 1:2). Nine configurations of different bar and cable spacing (blockage ratio) and rack angles were studied for CBTR and FFF considering six different stationary flow conditions. The results demonstrate that head loss coefficient is independent from the studied Bar–Reynolds number range and increases with increasing blockage ratio and angle. At an angle of 30 degrees, a direct comparison between the two different rack options was conducted to investigate the effect of cable vibrations. At the lowest blockage ratio, head loss for both options are in similar very low ranges, while the head loss coefficient of the FFF increases significantly compared to the CBTR with an increase of blockage. Further, the results indicate a moderate overestimation with the predicted head loss by common head loss equations developed for inclined vertical trash racks. Thus, an adaption of the design equation is proposed to improve the estimation of head loss on both rack options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Hydrological-CFD Model for Estimating Bacterial Levels in Stormwater Ponds
Water 2019, 11(5), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051016 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A hydrological model was integrated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to determine bacteria levels distributed throughout the Inverness stormwater pond in Calgary, Alberta. The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number model was used as the basis of the hydrological model to [...] Read more.
A hydrological model was integrated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to determine bacteria levels distributed throughout the Inverness stormwater pond in Calgary, Alberta. The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number model was used as the basis of the hydrological model to generate flow rates from the watershed draining into the pond. These flow rates were then used as input for the CFD model simulations that solved the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with k-ɛ turbulence model. E. coli, the most commonly used fecal indicator bacteria for water quality research, was represented in the model by passive scalars with different decay rates for free bacteria and attached bacteria. Results show good agreement with measured data in each stage of the simulations. The middle of the west wing of the pond was found to be the best spot for extracting water for reuse because it had the lowest level of bacteria both during and after storm events. In addition, only one of the four sediment forebays was found efficient in trapping bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulation of Phosphorus Release with Sediment Suspension under Hydrodynamic Condition in Mochou Lake, China
Water 2019, 11(2), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020370 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Phosphorus is a major cause of lake eutrophication. Understanding the characteristics regarding the release of phosphorus from sediments under hydrodynamic conditions is critical for the regulation of lake water quality. In this work, the effects of sediment suspension on the release characteristics of [...] Read more.
Phosphorus is a major cause of lake eutrophication. Understanding the characteristics regarding the release of phosphorus from sediments under hydrodynamic conditions is critical for the regulation of lake water quality. In this work, the effects of sediment suspension on the release characteristics of phosphorus from sediment were investigated under different hydrodynamic conditions. The experimental results showed that in the experimental process, the phosphorus was at first released quickly into the overlying water but then slowed down. Furthermore, the process of dissolved phosphorus (DP) release under hydrodynamic conditions with and without sediment suspension was simulated using a lattice Boltzmann method. The simulation showed satisfying results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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Open AccessArticle
A Fractal Model of Hydraulic Conductivity for Saturated Frozen Soil
Water 2019, 11(2), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020369 - 21 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In cold regions, hydraulic conductivity is a critical parameter for determining the water flow in frozen soil. Previous studies have shown that hydraulic conductivity hinges on the pore structure, which is often depicted as the pore size and porosity. However, these two parameters [...] Read more.
In cold regions, hydraulic conductivity is a critical parameter for determining the water flow in frozen soil. Previous studies have shown that hydraulic conductivity hinges on the pore structure, which is often depicted as the pore size and porosity. However, these two parameters do not sufficiently represent the pore structure. To enhance the characterization ability of the pore structure, this study introduced fractal theory to investigate the influence of pore structure on hydraulic conductivity. In this study, the pores were conceptualized as a bundle of tortuous capillaries with different radii and the cumulative pore size distribution of the capillaries was considered to satisfy the fractal law. Using the Hagen-Poiseuille equation, a fractal capillary bundle model of hydraulic conductivity for saturated frozen soil was developed. The model validity was evaluated using experimental data and by comparison with previous models. The results showed that the model performed well for frozen soil. The model showed that hydraulic conductivity was related to the maximum pore size, pore size dimension, porosity and tortuosity. Of all these parameters, pore size played a key role in affecting hydraulic conductivity. The pore size dimension was found to decrease linearly with temperature, the maximum pore size decreased with temperature and the tortuosity increased with temperature. The model could be used to predict the hydraulic conductivity of frozen soil, revealing the mechanism of change in hydraulic conductivity with temperature. In addition, the pore size distribution was approximately estimated using the soil freezing curve, making this method could be an alternative to the mercury intrusion test, which has difficult maneuverability and high costs. Darcy’s law is valid in saturated frozen silt, clayed silt and clay, but may not be valid in saturated frozen sand and unsaturated frozen soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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Open AccessArticle
The Dynamics of Water Wells Efficiency Reduction and Ageing Process Compensation
Water 2019, 11(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010117 - 10 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Water wells play an increasingly important role in providing water for the civilian population all over the world. Like other engineering structures, wells are subject to ageing processes resulting in degradation, which is observed as a reduction in hydraulic efficiency throughout their lifespan. [...] Read more.
Water wells play an increasingly important role in providing water for the civilian population all over the world. Like other engineering structures, wells are subject to ageing processes resulting in degradation, which is observed as a reduction in hydraulic efficiency throughout their lifespan. To date, it has been found that the ageing process of a well is determined by a number of factors. The mathematical description of this process can be simplified. Drawing on Jacob’s equation, this paper presents the course of the degradation process as a variable depending on operation time, well loss and flow rate. To apply the determined relationships in practice, simplifying assumptions were adopted, which make it possible to determine the moment of ageing compensations of the degradation processes. It was also demonstrated that the degradation process may be slowed down by the appropriate selection of initial operating parameters. The presented discussion highlights the significance of parameters α, δ and exponent β. The relation between hydraulic resistances in an aquifer and in the engineering structure is closely connected with these values. The presented arguments indicate that step drawdown tests provide the necessary information which allows tracking changes in the ageing processes occurring in the engineering structure. The analysis of the drawdown test results makes it possible to determine the moment when the necessary adjustments in the operating parameters of a water well should be performed. Eventually, it allows maintaining the high hydraulic efficiency of the intake and extending the lifespan of the well in accordance with the principle of sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
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