# Experimental Investigation of Erosion Characteristics of Fine-Grained Cohesive Sediments

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Material and Methods

#### 2.1. Rotating Annular Flume

#### 2.2. Methodology of Krone

^{2}s, h is the depth of water in the flume in metres and $dC/dt$ is the concentration gradient which can be evaluated from Equation (1). Substituting the expression of $dC/dt$ in Equation (3), the erosion rate function can be derived as:

#### 2.3. Mathematical Model of Cohesive Sediment Transport Developed by Krishnappan

#### 2.3.1. Settling Stage

#### 2.3.2. Flocculation Stage

## 3. Results and Discussion

_{0}and c

_{1}, have different values for each shear stress step and age of deposit (Table 1). The variability of these coefficients with each shear stress and age of deposit is shown in Figure 7 which shows that these coefficients vary as a function of both shear stress and age of the deposit.

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Map of the upper River Taw study catchment, showing location in south west England, channel bed cohesive sediment sampling locations and flow gauging stations.

**Figure 3.**Size distribution of eroded sediment at the shear stress step of 0.33 Pa and age of deposit equal to 160 h.

**Figure 4.**A photomicrograph of the eroded sediment for shear stress step of 0.33 Pa and age of deposit equal to 160 h.

**Figure 5.**Comparison between measured and fitted sediment concentrations using Equation (1) for shear stress step: 0.17 Pa; Age of deposit: 38 h (r

^{2}= 0.993).

**Figure 7.**The variability of the fitting constants as a function of shear stress and age of deposit (

**a**): 22 h; (

**b**): 38 h and (

**c**): 160 h.

Shear Stress Steps | Age of Deposit 22 h | Age of Deposit 38 h | Age of Deposit 160 h | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

${\mathit{c}}_{0}\text{}({\mathbf{m}}^{3}/\mathbf{gm})$ | ${\mathit{c}}_{1\text{}}({\mathbf{m}}^{3}\mathbf{sec}/\mathbf{gm})$ | ${\mathit{c}}_{0}\text{}({\mathbf{m}}^{3}/\mathbf{gm})$ | ${\mathit{c}}_{1\text{}}({\mathbf{m}}^{3}\mathbf{sec}/\mathbf{gm})$ | ${\mathit{c}}_{0}\text{}({\mathbf{m}}^{3}/\mathbf{gm})$ | ${\mathit{c}}_{1}\text{}({\mathbf{m}}^{3}\mathbf{sec}/\mathbf{gm})$ | |

0.09 Pa | 4.2 × 10^{−3} | 0.57 | 4.6 × 10^{−3} | 0.88 | 7.1 × 10^{−3} | 3.65 |

0.12 Pa | 1.7 × 10^{−3} | 0.15 | 2.1 × 10^{−3} | 0.57 | 3.2 × 10^{−3} | 1.95 |

0.17 Pa | 1.3 × 10^{−3} | 0.07 | 1.0 × 10^{−3} | 0.24 | 2.5 × 10^{−3} | 1.43 |

0.21 Pa | 5.1 × 10^{−3} | 0.87 | 4.4 × 10^{−3} | 0.18 | 1.0 × 10^{−3} | 0.14 |

0.27 Pa | 5.5 × 10^{−3} | 2.22 | 5.4 × 10^{−3} | 3.08 | 4.6 × 10^{−3} | 0.35 |

0.33 Pa | 4.0 × 10^{−3} | 2.03 | 4.4 × 10^{−3} | 3.05 | 6.6 × 10^{−3} | 8.57 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Gounder Krishnappan, B.; Stone, M.; Granger, S.J.; Upadhayay, H.R.; Tang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Collins, A.L.
Experimental Investigation of Erosion Characteristics of Fine-Grained Cohesive Sediments. *Water* **2020**, *12*, 1511.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051511

**AMA Style**

Gounder Krishnappan B, Stone M, Granger SJ, Upadhayay HR, Tang Q, Zhang Y, Collins AL.
Experimental Investigation of Erosion Characteristics of Fine-Grained Cohesive Sediments. *Water*. 2020; 12(5):1511.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051511

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Gounder Krishnappan, Bommanna, Mike Stone, Steven J. Granger, Hari Ram Upadhayay, Qiang Tang, Yusheng Zhang, and Adrian L. Collins.
2020. "Experimental Investigation of Erosion Characteristics of Fine-Grained Cohesive Sediments" *Water* 12, no. 5: 1511.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051511