Special Issue "About an Important Phenomenon—Water Hammer"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 September 2022 | Viewed by 1253

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Kamil Urbanowicz
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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, West Pomeranian Univ. of Technology Szczecin, Piastów 19, 70-310 Szczecin, Poland
Interests: water hammer; unsteady pipe flow; transient flow, cavitation; unsteady friction; retarded strain; numerical modelling; analytical solutions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Helena M. Ramos
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources Department, CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: hydropower; hydraulic transients; pumped-storage; water and energy nexus; hydrodynamic and hemodynamic
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

When flow in pipes under pressure is forced to stop, start or change direction, suddenly, wave propagation associated with the water hammer phenomena takes place. This phenomenon never used to be as popular as it is today. Due to the importance of this issue in regard to practical engineering, the number of works related to this complex topic is systematically increasing from year to year.

From a historical point of view, engineers have contended with water hammer since the invention and use of pipes for transporting liquid from one place to another. Over 2000 years ago, Marcus Vitruvius Pollio had already described the effects of water hammer and cavitation on clay and lead pipelines supplying water to the contemporary water supply systems being built by the Romans. From a mathematical point of view, the description of this phenomenon began with early von Kries, Joukowsky or Allevi works. Joukowsky investigated wave reflections in pipes and the use of air chambers (equalizing tanks and spring-loaded safety valves), and provided a simple formula for a pressure rise (used even today) caused by a fast valve closure.

Today, the discussion of this subject is very extensive. The key issues for water hammer problems may include: single versus multiple phase flow; laminar versus turbulent flow; elastic versus viscoelastic strain behaviour of the pipe material; gaseous versus vaporous cavitation; Newtonian versus non-Newtonian flow; rigid versus flexible pipe walls; and fast (impulsive) versus slow-transient flow. Consideration of the above-mentioned issues should often include selected accompanying phenomena: mechanical energy dissipation due to fluid friction, the occurrence of viscoelastic retarded deformations of the pipe walls due to liquid column separation resulting from cavitation, and fluid–structure interaction.

This Special Issue is dedicated to all problems related to modelling water hammer phenomena, as well to all problems connected with the experimental verification of this specific unsteady type flow. We are open to review your works in which the influences of accompanying phenomena are discussed, as well as those concerning the methods of securing pipe systems against the negative effects of its impact (noise, vibrations, leakages, etc.), and those which just generally broaden our knowledge of water hammer.

Dr. Kamil Urbanowicz
Prof. Dr. Helena M. Ramos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water hammer
  • transient flow
  • unsteady friction
  • cavitation
  • column separation
  • retarded strain
  • fluid structure interaction
  • leakage control
  • numerical models
  • hydrotransients modelling
  • valve manoeuvres
  • start-up and shut-down turbomachines

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
A Novel Surge Damping Method for Hydraulic Transients with Operating Pump Using an Optimized Valve Control Strategy
Water 2022, 14(10), 1576; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101576 - 14 May 2022
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Abstract
Hydraulic transients may pose a critical threat to process operation due to devastating surge waves. This paper investigates hydraulic surge and damping control associated with pipe flow modeling and valve optimization. A one-dimensional transient model was developed using the modified instantaneous accelerations-based (IAB) [...] Read more.
Hydraulic transients may pose a critical threat to process operation due to devastating surge waves. This paper investigates hydraulic surge and damping control associated with pipe flow modeling and valve optimization. A one-dimensional transient model was developed using the modified instantaneous accelerations-based (IAB) model, considering energy dissipation, referred to as the compression–expansion effect, which was then solved by the Method of Characteristics (MOC). Analogous to solving valve operation by means of the traveling salesman problem (TSP), a novel surge damping strategy was proposed by applying an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA). After validating the unsteady model and the optimization algorithm, wave surge damping effectiveness was evaluated on the basis of case studies in different pump running scenarios. The results showed that the proposed nonlinear optimized control method was able to reduce surge amplitude by 9.3% and 11.4% in pipe systems with and without running centrifugal pump, respectively, and was able to achieve a 34% time margin or a maximal 75.2% surge reduction in the case of using an positive displacement pump. The optimized nonlinear valve closure presents different shapes in fast closing and slow closing situations. The strategy proposed in the present study is beneficial for guiding valve real-time control, as well as providing a reference for valve design for the purpose of wave surge protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue About an Important Phenomenon—Water Hammer)
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Article
Sensitivity Analysis of Hydraulic Transient Simulations Based on the MOC in the Gravity Flow
Water 2021, 13(23), 3464; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233464 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 494
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of input parameters to output results when using the method of characteristics (MOC) for hydraulic transient simulations. Based on a gravity flow water delivery project, we selected six main parameters that affect the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of input parameters to output results when using the method of characteristics (MOC) for hydraulic transient simulations. Based on a gravity flow water delivery project, we selected six main parameters that affect the hydraulic transient simulation and selected maximum pressure as the output parameter in order to perform a parameter sensitivity analysis. The Morris sensitivity analysis (Morris) and the partial rank correlation coefficient method based on Latin hypercube sampling (LHS-PRCC) were both adopted. The results show that the sensitivity of each parameter is the same except for the friction factor. The flow rate and Young’s modulus are positively correlated with the maximum pressure, whereas the pipe diameter, valve closing time, and wall thickness are negatively correlated. It is discussed that the variability of the friction factor comes from the function of the flow and pressure regulating valve. When other conditions of the gravity flow project remain unchanged, the maximum pressure increases with the increase in the friction factor. The flow rate, pipe diameter, and valve closing time are the key parameters that affect the model. Meanwhile, Morris and LHS-PRCC proved to be effective methods for evaluating parameter sensitivity in hydraulic transient simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue About an Important Phenomenon—Water Hammer)
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