Hydropower and Pumping Systems

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 18044

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Lisbon, IST –Tecnico Lisboa /CERIS, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: hydropower; hydraulic transients; pumped-storage; water and energy efficiency; water–energy–food nexus; hybrid energy solutions; energy recovery; eco-design solutions; hydrodynamics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, via Claudio, 21, Napoli 80125, Italy
Interests: hydropower; efficiency of pumping systems; eco-design of water pumps; water and energy nexus; fluid dynamics modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Structural & Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Interests: hydropower; waste water heat recovery; water supply system optimisation; heat exchange; computational fluid dynamics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A hydropower solution relies on water flowing through a turbine to create electricity to be used by customers. In order to store energy for use at a later time, there are a number of different projects that use pumps to elevate water into a retained reservoir behind a dam, in tanks of the water sector or in natural topographic depressions—creating an on-demand energy source that can be released rapidly.

Because of the immense scale achieved through different applications, these solutions can be used in micro, small or large scales, depending on the systems’ characteristics, objectives and applications. They can be very economical due to peak and off-peak price differentials and their potential to provide critical supplementary grid services on the renewables’ integration and harmonization. This is the most promising type of grid-level energy storage based on the power installed, allowing other renewable sources’ integration and energy availability harmonization.

Pumped hydropower storage facilities store energy in the form of water in an upper reservoir, pumped from another reservoir at a lower elevation. During periods of high electricity demand, power is generated, and during periods of low demand (usually nights or weekends when electricity is also lower cost), the upper reservoir is recharged to pump the water back to the upper reservoir. Reversible pump–turbine/motor–generator assemblies can act as both pumps and turbines. These plants are typically highly efficient (round-trip efficiencies reaching greater than 80%) and can prove very beneficial in terms of balancing load within the overall power system.

On the other hand, eco-designs, energy efficiency, and circular economy applied separately or together in integrated solutions are of utmost importance for relevant energy savings. Energy use in water supply systems represents a significant portion of the global energy consumption. Electricity consumption due to the water pumping represents the highest proportion of energy costs in these systems. Energy efficiency in water distribution systems considering distinct configurations of the networks as well as implementation of the variable-speed pumps is another interesting objective in energy optimization and in the improvement of system energy efficiency.

As a vital part of water supply systems, water distribution networks represent one of the largest infrastructure assets of industrial society. According to Watergy, approximately 4% of worldwide electricity consumption is used for pumping in water supply systems, while 80–90% of this consumption is absorbed by motor-pump sets. Pumping systems are found to have a significant potential for energy efficiency improvements. In most cases, optimization of operations has only considered fixed speed pumps, and the cost savings that may be obtained by exploiting a multi-pattern electric tariff need to be analyzed. Pump and motor upgrades to more efficient solutions, either being technologically more advanced or because they are more properly adjusted to the system, allowing significant energy savings. Systems flexibility, optimization algorithms and operation procedures, rehabilitation and repairs, leakage evaluation control and repair, energy efficiency improvements, and hybrid energy solutions towards zero carbonization are welcome for system excellence.

This Special Issue aims to provide a scientific forum for new investigations and engineering opportunities and applications, where scientists, researchers, and experts can submit their novel developments, new design solutions, innovative approaches in several fields of hydraulics, and techniques, methods, and analyses in order to respond to the new challenges in hydropower and pumping systems as a base of hydraulic and hydrodynamics engineering applications from micro to large scales.

Prof. Dr. Helena M. Ramos
Prof. Dr. Armando Carravetta
Prof. Dr. Aonghus Mc Nabola
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hydropower and pumping
  • water systems efficiency
  • smart technology
  • water–energy–food nexus
  • energy recovery and leakage control
  • safety and control
  • hydraulic simulators and CFD analyses
  • new design solutions and eco-design
  • optimization algorithms
  • energy storage
  • watergy and zero carbonization

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

27 pages, 10100 KiB  
Article
Mathematic Modelling of a Reversible Hydropower System: Dynamic Effects in Turbine Mode
by Helena M. Ramos, Oscar E. Coronado-Hernández, Pedro A. Morgado and Mariana Simão
Water 2023, 15(11), 2034; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112034 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
Over the past few years, there has been significant interest in the importance of reversible hydro-pumping systems due to their favorable flexibility and economic and environmental characteristics. When designing reversible lines, it is crucial to consider dynamic effects and corresponding extreme pressures that [...] Read more.
Over the past few years, there has been significant interest in the importance of reversible hydro-pumping systems due to their favorable flexibility and economic and environmental characteristics. When designing reversible lines, it is crucial to consider dynamic effects and corresponding extreme pressures that may occur during normal and emergency operating scenarios. This research describes essentially the turbine operation, although various boundary elements are mathematically formulated and presented to provide an understanding of the system complexity. Different numerical approaches are presented, based on the 1D method of characteristics (MOC) for the long hydraulic circuit, the dynamic turbine runner simulation technique for the behavior of the power station in turbine mode and the interaction with the fluid in the penstock, and a CFD model (2D and 3D) to analyze the flow behavior crossing the runner through the velocity fields and pressure contours. Additionally, the simulation results have been validated by experimental tests on different setups characterized by long conveyance systems, consisting of a small scale of pumps as turbines (at IST laboratory) and classical reaction turbines (at LNEC laboratory). Mathematical models, together with an intensive campaign of experiments, allow for the estimation of dynamic effects related to the extreme transient pressures, the fluid-structure interaction with rotational speed variation, and the change in the flow. In some cases, the runaway conditions can cause an overspeed of 2–2.5 of the rated rotational speed (NR) and an overpressure of 40–65% of the rated head (HR), showing significant impacts on the pressure wave propagation along the entire hydraulic circuit. Sensitivity analyses based on systematic numerical simulations of PATs (radial and axial types) and reaction turbines (Francis and Kaplan types) and comparisons with experiments are discussed. These evaluations demonstrate that the full-load rejection scenario can be dangerous for turbomachinery with low specific-speed (ns) values, in particular when associated with long penstocks and fast guide vane (or control valve) closing maneuver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydropower and Pumping Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 3440 KiB  
Article
Street Lighting and Charging Stations with PATs Location Applying Artificial Intelligence
by Joseph Daniel Pineda Sandoval, José Antonio Arciniega-Nevárez, Xitlali Delgado-Galván, Helena M. Ramos, Modesto Pérez-Sánchez, P. Amparo López-Jiménez and Jesús Mora Rodríguez
Water 2023, 15(4), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040616 - 4 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2089
Abstract
This research proposes a methodology with multi-objective optimization for the placement of Pumps operating As Turbines (PATs), energizing street lighting, devices for monitoring the water network, and charging stations for small electric vehicles such as bikes and scooters. This methodology helps to find [...] Read more.
This research proposes a methodology with multi-objective optimization for the placement of Pumps operating As Turbines (PATs), energizing street lighting, devices for monitoring the water network, and charging stations for small electric vehicles such as bikes and scooters. This methodology helps to find the most profitable project for benefiting life quality and energy recovery through pumps operating as turbines, replacing virtual pressure reduction valves to locate the best point for decreasing pressure. PATs are selected by maximizing power recovery and minimizing pressure in the system as well as maximizing recoverable energy. Benefits analyzed include the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and fuel use, as well as the saving of electricity consumption and benefiting socio-economic impact with street lighting, monitoring, and charging station. It was considered that each PAT proposed by the methodology will supply a street light pole, a station for monitoring the water network, and a charging station; under these established conditions, the return on investment is up to 1.07 at 12 years, with a power generation of 60 kWh per day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydropower and Pumping Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 8039 KiB  
Article
Low-Head Hydropower for Energy Recovery in Wastewater Systems
by Marco Sinagra, Calogero Picone, Paolo Picone, Costanza Aricò, Tullio Tucciarelli and Helena M. Ramos
Water 2022, 14(10), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101649 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3234
Abstract
Hydraulic turbines for energy recovery in wastewater treatment plants, with relatively large discharges values and small head jumps, are usually screw Archimedes or Kaplan types. In the specific case of a small head jump (about 3 m) underlying a rectangular weir in the [...] Read more.
Hydraulic turbines for energy recovery in wastewater treatment plants, with relatively large discharges values and small head jumps, are usually screw Archimedes or Kaplan types. In the specific case of a small head jump (about 3 m) underlying a rectangular weir in the major Palermo (Italy) water treatment plant, a traditional Kaplan solution is compared with two other new proposals: a Hydrostatic Pressure Machine (HPM) located at the upstream channel and a cross-flow turbine (CFT) located in a specific underground room downstream of the same channel. The fluid mechanical formulations of the flow through these turbines are analyzed and the characteristic parameters are stated. Numerical analysis was carried out for the validation of the HPM design criteria. The efficiency at the design point of the CFT and HPM are estimated using the ANSYS CFX solver for resolution of 3D URANS analysis. The strong and weak points of the three devices are compared. Finally, a viability analysis is developed based on several economic indicators. This innovative study with a theoretical formulation of the most suitable turbomachine characterization, the potential energy estimation based on hydraulic energy recovery in a real case study of a wastewater treatment plant and the comparison of the three different low-head turbines, enhancing the main advantages, is of utmost importance towards the net-zero water sector decarbonization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydropower and Pumping Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3176 KiB  
Article
Design and Year-Long Performance Evaluation of a Pump as Turbine (PAT) Pico-Hydropower Energy Recovery Device in a Water Network
by Daniele Novara and Aonghus McNabola
Water 2021, 13(21), 3014; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13213014 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3168
Abstract
Despite the existence of a vast scientific literature on the subject of hydraulic energy recovery from water pipelines by means of micro- and pico-hydropower using pumps as turbines (PAT), such technology has found a very limited application thus far in practice. In fact, [...] Read more.
Despite the existence of a vast scientific literature on the subject of hydraulic energy recovery from water pipelines by means of micro- and pico-hydropower using pumps as turbines (PAT), such technology has found a very limited application thus far in practice. In fact, the selection of a pump as turbine for a specific site is a matter of nontrivial trade-offs between a variety of technical and economic parameters and this aspect has not been sufficiently captured and integrated into a reliable, proven, and practical selection methodology available to designers and practitioners. Hence, a multi-objective PAT selection software was developed and utilized to design a 3 kW energy recovery installation at a rural Irish water network. The performance of the scheme was monitored over 13 consecutive months, resulting in the generation of nearly 16,000 kWh of electricity and validating the output from the PAT selection software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydropower and Pumping Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 22028 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Applicability of CFD Numerical Studies Applied to Problem When Pump Working as Turbine
by Frank Plua, Victor Hidalgo, P. Amparo López-Jiménez and Modesto Pérez-Sánchez
Water 2021, 13(15), 2134; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13152134 - 3 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3145
Abstract
The present research depicts an analysis of the implementation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the study of pumps such as turbines and PATs. To highlight the benefits of CFDs for PAT studies, results from both experimental tests have been compared to better [...] Read more.
The present research depicts an analysis of the implementation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the study of pumps such as turbines and PATs. To highlight the benefits of CFDs for PAT studies, results from both experimental tests have been compared to better understand the reproduction error phenomena. For this, data analysis used in successful models has been applied to determine variables and parameters, and to report a low relative error. The results show that most of the studies focused on fixed speed rotation with some cases of variable speed rotation. Furthermore, there is not enough information in the academic literature for PAT of axial and mixed flows with fixed and variable speed. Finally, turbulence models based on Reynolds average Navier–Stokes (RANS) have been used to simulate PATs with fixed speed rotation in most cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydropower and Pumping Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1792 KiB  
Article
Increasing Service Life and System Efficiency of Parallel Pumps Using Combined Pump Regulation
by Safarbek Oshurbekov, Vadim Kazakbaev, Vladimir Prakht and Vladimir Dmitrievskii
Water 2021, 13(13), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131808 - 29 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2607
Abstract
The paper discusses the use of the combined control for a system of two parallel pumps to increase its service life. Using the combined control, the pumping system is controlled together by change the speed, throttling, and bypass. The power consumption of the [...] Read more.
The paper discusses the use of the combined control for a system of two parallel pumps to increase its service life. Using the combined control, the pumping system is controlled together by change the speed, throttling, and bypass. The power consumption of the pumping system is calculated for three methods of flow control: with minimum energy consumption, with maximum reliability, and control with a trade-off between efficiency and reliability. In the case of control with maximum reliability, the energy consumption of the pumping system is higher than in the case of control with minimum energy consumption by 29.2%. In the case of the proposed trade-off control, which provides acceptable reliability, the power consumption is higher than with the minimum energy consumption control by only 7.3%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydropower and Pumping Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop