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Open AccessArticle

An Integrated Hydrological-CFD Model for Estimating Bacterial Levels in Stormwater Ponds

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 1016;
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydraulics Research)
PDF [3796 KB, uploaded 15 May 2019]


A hydrological model was integrated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to determine bacteria levels distributed throughout the Inverness stormwater pond in Calgary, Alberta. The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number model was used as the basis of the hydrological model to generate flow rates from the watershed draining into the pond. These flow rates were then used as input for the CFD model simulations that solved the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with k-ɛ turbulence model. E. coli, the most commonly used fecal indicator bacteria for water quality research, was represented in the model by passive scalars with different decay rates for free bacteria and attached bacteria. Results show good agreement with measured data in each stage of the simulations. The middle of the west wing of the pond was found to be the best spot for extracting water for reuse because it had the lowest level of bacteria both during and after storm events. In addition, only one of the four sediment forebays was found efficient in trapping bacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: stormwater reuse; SCS curve number; CFD; fecal indicator bacteria; E. coli stormwater reuse; SCS curve number; CFD; fecal indicator bacteria; E. coli

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Allafchi, F.; Valeo, C.; He, J.; Neumann, N.F. An Integrated Hydrological-CFD Model for Estimating Bacterial Levels in Stormwater Ponds. Water 2019, 11, 1016.

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