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Special Issue "New Challenges in Water Systems"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Helena M. Ramos

Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources Department, CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, 1049-001, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydropower; hydraulic transients; pumped-storage; water and energy nexus; hydrodynamic
Guest Editor
Prof. Armando Carravetta

Department of Civil, Architecture and Environmental Engineering, University Federico II of Naples, Naples, 80125, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydropower; efficiency of pumping systems; ecodesign of water pumps; water and energy nexus; fluid dynamics modeling
Guest Editor
Prof. Aonghus McNabola

Dept of Civil, Structural & Environmental Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. D02 PN40
Website | E-Mail
Interests: energy efficiency in water systems; hydropower; heat recovery; air pollution control; fluid dynamics modelling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This new era requires new thinking and focused resolve, through the identification of the biggest challenges and concerns in the water sector, to support the development of new design solutions and analyses. The decision on future directions is to look closely at what are the key issues, such as system efficiency, smart water grids, advanced simulations and analyses, losses control and gain opportunities, innovative integrated solutions, water-energy management, which researchers and engineers must address today towards the future challenges, research directions and applications.

This Special Issue aims to provide an investigation and engineering opportunity, where scientists, researchers and experts can submit their novel developments, new design solutions, innovative approaches in several fields of hydraulics, techniques, methods and analyses in order to respond to the new challenges in the water sector.

Prof. Helena M. Ramos
Prof. Armando Carravetta
Prof. Aonghus McNabola
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water systems efficiency
  • smart water grids
  • water-energy nexus
  • energy recovery
  • safety and control
  • hydraulic transients and CFD analyses
  • new design solutions and eco-design
  • water and energy losses
  • pumped storage and water scarcity/supply

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Model for Selecting the Most Cost-Effective Pressure Control Device for More Sustainable Water Supply Networks
Water 2019, 11(6), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061297
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
Pressure Reducing Valves (PRV) have been widely used as a device to control pressure at nodes in water distribution networks and thus reduce leakages. However, an energy dissipation takes place during PRV operation. Thus, micro-hydropower turbines and, more precisely, Pump As Turbines (PAT) [...] Read more.
Pressure Reducing Valves (PRV) have been widely used as a device to control pressure at nodes in water distribution networks and thus reduce leakages. However, an energy dissipation takes place during PRV operation. Thus, micro-hydropower turbines and, more precisely, Pump As Turbines (PAT) could be used as both leakage control and energy generating devices, thus contributing to a more sustainable water supply network. Studies providing clear guidelines for the determination of the most cost-effective device (PRV or PAT) analysing a wide database and considering all the costs involved, the water saving and the eventual power generation, have not been carried out to date. A model to determine the most cost-effective device has been developed, taking into account the Net Present Value (NPV). The model has been applied to two case studies: A database with 156 PRVs sites located in the UK; and a rural water supply network in Ireland with three PRVs. The application of the model showed that although the investment cost associated to the PRV installation is lower in the majority of cases, the NPV over the lifespan of the PAT is higher than the NPV associated with the PRV operation. Furthermore, the ratio between the NPV and the water saved over the lifespan of the PAT/PRV also offered higher values (from 6% to 29%) for the PAT installation, making PATs a more cost-effective and more sustainable means of pressure control in water distribution networks. Finally, the development of less expensive turbines and/or PATs adapted to work under different flow-head conditions will tip the balance toward the installation of these devices even further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Flow Velocity Distribution Towards Flowmeter Accuracy: CFD, UDV, and Field Tests
Water 2018, 10(12), 1807; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121807
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
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Abstract
Inconsistences regarding flow measurements in real hydraulic circuits have been detected. Intensive studies stated that these errors are mostly associated to flowmeters, and the low accuracy is connected to the perturbations induced by the system layout. In order to verify the source of [...] Read more.
Inconsistences regarding flow measurements in real hydraulic circuits have been detected. Intensive studies stated that these errors are mostly associated to flowmeters, and the low accuracy is connected to the perturbations induced by the system layout. In order to verify the source of this problem, and assess the hypotheses drawn by operator experts, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3.b, was used. To validate the results provided by the numerical model, intensive experimental campaigns were developed using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry (UDV) as calibration, and a pumping station was simulated using as boundary conditions the values measured in situ. After calibrated and validated, a new layout/geometry was proposed in order to mitigate the observed perturbations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Computational Determination of Air Valves Capacity Using CFD Techniques
Water 2018, 10(10), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101433
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
The analysis of transient flow is necessary to design adequate protection systems that support the oscillations of pressure produced in the operation of motor elements and regulation. Air valves are generally used in pressurized water pipes to manage the air inside them. Under [...] Read more.
The analysis of transient flow is necessary to design adequate protection systems that support the oscillations of pressure produced in the operation of motor elements and regulation. Air valves are generally used in pressurized water pipes to manage the air inside them. Under certain circumstances, they can be used as an indirect control mechanism of the hydraulic transient. Unfortunately, one of the major limitations is the reliability of information provided by manufacturers and vendors, which is why experimental trials are usually used to characterize such devices. The realization of these tests is not simple since they require an enormous volume of previously stored air to be used in such experiments. Additionally, the costs are expensive. Consequently, it is necessary to develop models that represent the behaviour of these devices. Although computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques cannot completely replace measurements, the amount of experimentation and the overall cost can be reduced significantly. This work approaches the characterization of air valves using CFD techniques, including some experimental tests to calibrate and validate the results. A mesh convergence analysis was made. The results show how the CFD models are an efficient alternative to represent the behavior of air valves during the entry and exit of air to the system, implying a better knowledge of the system to improve it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Validation of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for a Novel Residence Time Distribution Analysis in Mixing at Cross-Junctions
Water 2018, 10(6), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060733
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 27 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
In Water Distribution Networks, the chlorine control is feasible with the use of water quality simulation codes. EPANET is a broad domain software and several commercial computer software packages base their models on its methodology. However, EPANET assumes that the solute mixing at [...] Read more.
In Water Distribution Networks, the chlorine control is feasible with the use of water quality simulation codes. EPANET is a broad domain software and several commercial computer software packages base their models on its methodology. However, EPANET assumes that the solute mixing at cross-junctions is “complete and instantaneous”. Several authors have questioned this model. In this paper, experimental tests are developed while using Copper Sulphate as tracer at different operating conditions, like those of real water distribution networks, in order to obtain the Residence Time Distribution and its behavior in the mixing as a novel analysis for the cross-junctions. Validation tests are developed in Computational Fluid Dynamics, following the k-ε turbulence model. It is verified that the mixing phenomenon is dominated by convection, analyzing variation of Turbulent Schmidt Number vs. experimental tests. Having more accurate mixing models will improve the water quality simulations to have an appropriate control for chlorine and possible contaminants in water distribution networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Trunk Network Rehabilitation for Resilience Improvement and Energy Recovery in Water Distribution Networks
Water 2018, 10(6), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060693
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6798 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water distribution networks (WDNs) are designed to meet water demand with minimum implementation costs. However, this approach leads to poor long-term results, since system resilience is also minimal, and this requires the rehabilitation of the network if the network is expanded or the [...] Read more.
Water distribution networks (WDNs) are designed to meet water demand with minimum implementation costs. However, this approach leads to poor long-term results, since system resilience is also minimal, and this requires the rehabilitation of the network if the network is expanded or the demand increases. In addition, in emergency situations, such as pipe bursts, large areas will suffer water shortage. However, the use of resilience as a criterion for WDN design is a difficult task, since its economic value is subjective. Thus, in this paper, it is proposed that trunk networks (TNs) are rehabilitated when considering the generation of electrical energy using pumps as turbines (PATs) to compensate for an increase of resilience derived from increasing pipe diameters. During normal operation, these micro-hydros will control pressure and produce electricity. When an emergency occurs, a by-pass can be used to increase network pressure. The results that were obtained for two hypothetical networks show that a small increase in TN pipe diameters is sufficient to significantly improve the resilience of the WDN. In addition, the value of the energy produced surpasses the investment that is made during rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Approaches to Failure Risk Analysis of the Water Distribution Network with Regard to the Safety of Consumers
Water 2018, 10(11), 1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111679
Received: 22 September 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 17 November 2018
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (4412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Contemporary risk assessment makes reference to current world trends, whereby there is increased emphasis on safety. This paper has thus sought mainly to present new approaches to failure risk assessment where the functioning of a water distribution network (WDN) is concerned. The framework [...] Read more.
Contemporary risk assessment makes reference to current world trends, whereby there is increased emphasis on safety. This paper has thus sought mainly to present new approaches to failure risk assessment where the functioning of a water distribution network (WDN) is concerned. The framework for the research involved here has comprised of: (a) an analysis of WDN failure in regard to an urban agglomeration in south-east Poland; (b) failure rate analysis, taking account of the type of a water pipe (mains, distribution, service connections (SC)) and months of the year, with an assessment of results in terms of criterion values for failure rate; (c) a determination—by reference to analyses performed previously—of the compatibility of experts’ assessments in terms of standards of failure and obtained results, through rank analysis; and (d) the proposing of a modified Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis with implementation of an Analytical Hierarchy Process, to allow failure risk assessment for the WDN to be performed, on the basis of the calculated additive value of obtained risk. The analysis in question was based on real operating data, as collected from the water distribution company. It deals with failures in the WDN over a period of 13 years in operation, from 2005 to 2017. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Manipulation of Water Using Air and Possible Uses in Future Water Systems

Author: Pål-Tore Selbo Storli

Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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