Special Issue "New Challenges in Water Systems"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Helena M. Ramos
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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Lisbon, IST –Tecnico Lisboa /CERIS, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1649-004, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: hydropower; hydraulic transients; pumped-storage; water and energy nexus; hybrid energy solutions; energy recovery; hydrodynamics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Armando Carravetta
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil, Architecture and Environmental Engineering, University Federico II of Naples, Naples, 80125, Italy
Interests: hydropower; efficiency of pumping systems; ecodesign of water pumps; water and energy nexus; fluid dynamics modeling
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Aonghus Mc Nabola
Website
Guest Editor
Energy & Environment, Trinity College Dublin
Interests: energy efficiency in water systems; hydropower; heat recovery; air pollution control; fluid dynamics modelling
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This new era requires new thinking and focused resolve, through the identification of the biggest challenges and concerns in the water sector, to support the development of new design solutions and analyses. The decision on future directions is to look closely at what are the key issues, such as system efficiency, smart water grids, advanced simulations and analyses, losses control and gain opportunities, innovative integrated solutions, water-energy management, which researchers and engineers must address today towards the future challenges, research directions and applications.

This Special Issue aims to provide an investigation and engineering opportunity, where scientists, researchers and experts can submit their novel developments, new design solutions, innovative approaches in several fields of hydraulics, techniques, methods and analyses in order to respond to the new challenges in the water sector.

Prof. Helena M. Ramos
Prof. Armando Carravetta
Prof. Aonghus McNabola
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water systems efficiency
  • smart water grids
  • water-energy nexus
  • energy recovery
  • safety and control
  • hydraulic transients and CFD analyses
  • new design solutions and eco-design
  • water and energy losses
  • pumped storage and water scarcity/supply

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Inline Pumped Storage Hydropower towards Smart and Flexible Energy Recovery in Water Networks
Water 2020, 12(8), 2224; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082224 - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
Energy and climate change are thoroughly linked since fossil energy generation highly affects the environment, and climate change influences the renewable energy generation capacity. Hence, this study gives a new contribution to the energy generation in water infrastructures by means of an inline [...] Read more.
Energy and climate change are thoroughly linked since fossil energy generation highly affects the environment, and climate change influences the renewable energy generation capacity. Hence, this study gives a new contribution to the energy generation in water infrastructures by means of an inline pumped-storage hydro (IPSH) solution. The selection of the equipment is the first step towards good results. The energy generation through decentralized micro-hydropower facilities can offer a good solution since they are independent of the hydrologic cycle associated with climate change. The current study presents the methodology and analyses to use water level difference between water tanks or reservoirs in a base pumping system (BPS) to transform it into the concept of a pump-storage hydropower solution. The investigation was developed based on an experimental facility and numerical simulations using WaterGEMS in the optimization of the system operation and for the selection of the characteristic curves, both for the pump and turbine modes. The model simulation of the integrated system was calibrated, and the conceptual IPSH that can be installed was then investigated. The achieved energy for different technical scale systems was estimated using proper dimensional analysis applied to different scaled hydraulic circuits, as well as for hydropower response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Smart Water Management towards Future Water Sustainable Networks
Water 2020, 12(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010058 - 21 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Water management towards smart cities is an issue increasingly appreciated under financial and environmental sustainability focus in any water sector. The main objective of this research is to disclose the technological breakthroughs associated with water and energy use. A methodology is proposed and [...] Read more.
Water management towards smart cities is an issue increasingly appreciated under financial and environmental sustainability focus in any water sector. The main objective of this research is to disclose the technological breakthroughs associated with water and energy use. A methodology is proposed and applied in a case study to analyze the benefits to develop smart water grids, showing the advantages offered by the development of control measures. The case study showed the positive results, particularly savings of 57 GWh and 100 Mm3 in a period of twelve years when different measures from the common ones were developed for the monitoring and control of water losses in smart water management. These savings contributed to reducing the CO2 emissions to 47,385 t CO2-eq. Finally, in order to evaluate the financial effort and savings obtained in this reference systems (RS) network, the investment required in the monitoring and water losses control in a correlation model case (CMC) was estimated, and, as a consequence, the losses level presented a significant reduction towards sustainable values in the next nine years. Since the pressure control is one of the main issues for the reduction of leakage, an estimation of energy production for Portugal is also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Technical Concept for Water Management and Possible Uses in Future Water Systems
Water 2019, 11(12), 2528; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122528 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A new degree of freedom in water management is presented here. This is obtained by displacing water, and in this paper is conceptually explained by two methods: using an excavated cavern as a container for compressed air to displace water, and using inflatable [...] Read more.
A new degree of freedom in water management is presented here. This is obtained by displacing water, and in this paper is conceptually explained by two methods: using an excavated cavern as a container for compressed air to displace water, and using inflatable balloons. The concepts might have a large impact on a variety of water management applications, ranging from mitigating discharge fluctuation in rivers to flood control, energy storage applications and disease-reduction measures. Currently at a low technological readiness level, the concepts require further research and development, but the authors see no technical challenges related to these concepts. The reader is encouraged to use the ideas within this paper to find new applications and to continue the out-of-the-box thinking initiated by the ideas presented in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of a Commercial Air Valve on the Rapid Filling of a Single Pipeline: a Numerical and Experimental Analysis
Water 2019, 11(9), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091814 - 31 Aug 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The filling process in water pipelines produces pressure surges caused by the compression of air pockets. In this sense, air valves should be appropriately designed to expel sufficient air to avoid pipeline failure. Recent studies concerning filling maneuvers have been addressed without considering [...] Read more.
The filling process in water pipelines produces pressure surges caused by the compression of air pockets. In this sense, air valves should be appropriately designed to expel sufficient air to avoid pipeline failure. Recent studies concerning filling maneuvers have been addressed without considering the behavior of air valves. This work shows a mathematical model developed by the authors which is capable of simulating the main hydraulic and thermodynamic variables during filling operations under the effect of the air valve in a single pipeline, which is based on the mass oscillation equation, the air–water interface, the polytropic equation of the air phase, the air mass equation, and the air valve characterization. The mathematical model is validated in a 7.3-m-long pipeline with a 63-mm nominal diameter. A commercial air valve is positioned in the highest point of the hydraulic installation. Measurements indicate that the mathematical model can be used to simulate this phenomenon by providing good accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Model for Selecting the Most Cost-Effective Pressure Control Device for More Sustainable Water Supply Networks
Water 2019, 11(6), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061297 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Pressure Reducing Valves (PRV) have been widely used as a device to control pressure at nodes in water distribution networks and thus reduce leakages. However, an energy dissipation takes place during PRV operation. Thus, micro-hydropower turbines and, more precisely, Pump As Turbines (PAT) [...] Read more.
Pressure Reducing Valves (PRV) have been widely used as a device to control pressure at nodes in water distribution networks and thus reduce leakages. However, an energy dissipation takes place during PRV operation. Thus, micro-hydropower turbines and, more precisely, Pump As Turbines (PAT) could be used as both leakage control and energy generating devices, thus contributing to a more sustainable water supply network. Studies providing clear guidelines for the determination of the most cost-effective device (PRV or PAT) analysing a wide database and considering all the costs involved, the water saving and the eventual power generation, have not been carried out to date. A model to determine the most cost-effective device has been developed, taking into account the Net Present Value (NPV). The model has been applied to two case studies: A database with 156 PRVs sites located in the UK; and a rural water supply network in Ireland with three PRVs. The application of the model showed that although the investment cost associated to the PRV installation is lower in the majority of cases, the NPV over the lifespan of the PAT is higher than the NPV associated with the PRV operation. Furthermore, the ratio between the NPV and the water saved over the lifespan of the PAT/PRV also offered higher values (from 6% to 29%) for the PAT installation, making PATs a more cost-effective and more sustainable means of pressure control in water distribution networks. Finally, the development of less expensive turbines and/or PATs adapted to work under different flow-head conditions will tip the balance toward the installation of these devices even further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Flow Velocity Distribution Towards Flowmeter Accuracy: CFD, UDV, and Field Tests
Water 2018, 10(12), 1807; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121807 - 08 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Inconsistences regarding flow measurements in real hydraulic circuits have been detected. Intensive studies stated that these errors are mostly associated to flowmeters, and the low accuracy is connected to the perturbations induced by the system layout. In order to verify the source of [...] Read more.
Inconsistences regarding flow measurements in real hydraulic circuits have been detected. Intensive studies stated that these errors are mostly associated to flowmeters, and the low accuracy is connected to the perturbations induced by the system layout. In order to verify the source of this problem, and assess the hypotheses drawn by operator experts, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3.b, was used. To validate the results provided by the numerical model, intensive experimental campaigns were developed using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry (UDV) as calibration, and a pumping station was simulated using as boundary conditions the values measured in situ. After calibrated and validated, a new layout/geometry was proposed in order to mitigate the observed perturbations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Computational Determination of Air Valves Capacity Using CFD Techniques
Water 2018, 10(10), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101433 - 12 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The analysis of transient flow is necessary to design adequate protection systems that support the oscillations of pressure produced in the operation of motor elements and regulation. Air valves are generally used in pressurized water pipes to manage the air inside them. Under [...] Read more.
The analysis of transient flow is necessary to design adequate protection systems that support the oscillations of pressure produced in the operation of motor elements and regulation. Air valves are generally used in pressurized water pipes to manage the air inside them. Under certain circumstances, they can be used as an indirect control mechanism of the hydraulic transient. Unfortunately, one of the major limitations is the reliability of information provided by manufacturers and vendors, which is why experimental trials are usually used to characterize such devices. The realization of these tests is not simple since they require an enormous volume of previously stored air to be used in such experiments. Additionally, the costs are expensive. Consequently, it is necessary to develop models that represent the behaviour of these devices. Although computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques cannot completely replace measurements, the amount of experimentation and the overall cost can be reduced significantly. This work approaches the characterization of air valves using CFD techniques, including some experimental tests to calibrate and validate the results. A mesh convergence analysis was made. The results show how the CFD models are an efficient alternative to represent the behavior of air valves during the entry and exit of air to the system, implying a better knowledge of the system to improve it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for a Novel Residence Time Distribution Analysis in Mixing at Cross-Junctions
Water 2018, 10(6), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060733 - 05 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
In Water Distribution Networks, the chlorine control is feasible with the use of water quality simulation codes. EPANET is a broad domain software and several commercial computer software packages base their models on its methodology. However, EPANET assumes that the solute mixing at [...] Read more.
In Water Distribution Networks, the chlorine control is feasible with the use of water quality simulation codes. EPANET is a broad domain software and several commercial computer software packages base their models on its methodology. However, EPANET assumes that the solute mixing at cross-junctions is “complete and instantaneous”. Several authors have questioned this model. In this paper, experimental tests are developed while using Copper Sulphate as tracer at different operating conditions, like those of real water distribution networks, in order to obtain the Residence Time Distribution and its behavior in the mixing as a novel analysis for the cross-junctions. Validation tests are developed in Computational Fluid Dynamics, following the k-ε turbulence model. It is verified that the mixing phenomenon is dominated by convection, analyzing variation of Turbulent Schmidt Number vs. experimental tests. Having more accurate mixing models will improve the water quality simulations to have an appropriate control for chlorine and possible contaminants in water distribution networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Trunk Network Rehabilitation for Resilience Improvement and Energy Recovery in Water Distribution Networks
Water 2018, 10(6), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060693 - 26 May 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Water distribution networks (WDNs) are designed to meet water demand with minimum implementation costs. However, this approach leads to poor long-term results, since system resilience is also minimal, and this requires the rehabilitation of the network if the network is expanded or the [...] Read more.
Water distribution networks (WDNs) are designed to meet water demand with minimum implementation costs. However, this approach leads to poor long-term results, since system resilience is also minimal, and this requires the rehabilitation of the network if the network is expanded or the demand increases. In addition, in emergency situations, such as pipe bursts, large areas will suffer water shortage. However, the use of resilience as a criterion for WDN design is a difficult task, since its economic value is subjective. Thus, in this paper, it is proposed that trunk networks (TNs) are rehabilitated when considering the generation of electrical energy using pumps as turbines (PATs) to compensate for an increase of resilience derived from increasing pipe diameters. During normal operation, these micro-hydros will control pressure and produce electricity. When an emergency occurs, a by-pass can be used to increase network pressure. The results that were obtained for two hypothetical networks show that a small increase in TN pipe diameters is sufficient to significantly improve the resilience of the WDN. In addition, the value of the energy produced surpasses the investment that is made during rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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Open AccessCase Report
Approaches to Failure Risk Analysis of the Water Distribution Network with Regard to the Safety of Consumers
Water 2018, 10(11), 1679; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111679 - 17 Nov 2018
Cited by 18
Abstract
Contemporary risk assessment makes reference to current world trends, whereby there is increased emphasis on safety. This paper has thus sought mainly to present new approaches to failure risk assessment where the functioning of a water distribution network (WDN) is concerned. The framework [...] Read more.
Contemporary risk assessment makes reference to current world trends, whereby there is increased emphasis on safety. This paper has thus sought mainly to present new approaches to failure risk assessment where the functioning of a water distribution network (WDN) is concerned. The framework for the research involved here has comprised of: (a) an analysis of WDN failure in regard to an urban agglomeration in south-east Poland; (b) failure rate analysis, taking account of the type of a water pipe (mains, distribution, service connections (SC)) and months of the year, with an assessment of results in terms of criterion values for failure rate; (c) a determination—by reference to analyses performed previously—of the compatibility of experts’ assessments in terms of standards of failure and obtained results, through rank analysis; and (d) the proposing of a modified Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis with implementation of an Analytical Hierarchy Process, to allow failure risk assessment for the WDN to be performed, on the basis of the calculated additive value of obtained risk. The analysis in question was based on real operating data, as collected from the water distribution company. It deals with failures in the WDN over a period of 13 years in operation, from 2005 to 2017. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges in Water Systems)
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