Special Issue "Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 October 2015).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Louis M. Mansky
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Molecular Virology, University of Minnesota, 18-242 Moos Tower, 515 Delaware St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Interests: antiretroviral; nucleoside; mutation; drug synergy; therapeutic indices
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The human cancer-causing retroviruses—i.e., human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2)—were both discovered over three decades ago. About 14 million people are infected with HTLV-1 and many millions with HTLV-2 worldwide. HTLV-1 is associated with the T-lymphocytic malignancy called adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in about 2 percent of individuals infected, and another 2 to 3 percent of individuals develop a neurologic disorder called HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM). HTLV-2 causes HAM in approximately 1 to 2 percent of infected individuals, but does not cause ATLL. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 have served as excellent models for the study of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of virus-associated cancers as well as autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Recently, two new members—HTLV-3 and HTLV-4—have been discovered in bushmeat hunters from central Africa, which emphasizes the urgent need for continual surveillance for new human retroviruses and their capacity to cause disease.

The viral oncoprotein Tax-1 is encoded by HTLV-1 and is both necessary and sufficient for viral transformation, and Tax-2 is encoded by HTLV-2 and in animal models does not induce tumors. The HTLVs encode for other regulatory proteins, including the HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ), which inhibits Tax-mediated gene expression and is encoded as an anti-sense viral transcript. The HTLV-1 p30II protein can act as an agonist of Tax-mediated transcription and serves as a multifunctional repressor of cellular gene expression.

Leukemogenesis mediated by HTLV-1 remains an intensive area of investigation. The focus of current research remains on the Tax effects on cellular transformation, the consequences of perturbing cell cycle control and genome stability, the role of HBZ and p30II on viral pathogenesis, HTLV-1 latency and reactivation, as well as therapeutic approaches. The study of HAM pathogenesis has great potential as a model for neuroimmunologic dieseases. New and exciting progress is being made in the basic understanding of viral replication of the HTLVs, particularly in virus assembly and particle structure.

Important public health issues remain open issues to be addressed in spite of the basic epidemiology of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 being reasonably well defined—i.e., emergence patterns in new host populations, transmission prevention, improved blood donor screening, and potential human transmission of HTLV-3 and HTLV-4. Clinical research is needed in developing potential HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 vaccines, as well as development of treatment options for ATLL and HAM. This ‘recent advances issue’ contains both reviews and updates on research that encompasses these areas.

Prof. Louis M. Mansky
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • HTLV
  • adult T-cell leukemia
  • transformation
  • leukemogenesis
  • deltaretrovirus
  • autoimmunity
  • lymphoma

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Prevalence of HTLV-1 Proviral DNA in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from HIV Positive and Negative Kenyan Women
Viruses 2016, 8(9), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8090245 - 05 Sep 2016
Cited by 1
Abstract
The oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in some countries although its prevalence and relationship with other sexually transmitted infections in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. A novel endpoint PCR method was used to analyse the prevalence of [...] Read more.
The oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in some countries although its prevalence and relationship with other sexually transmitted infections in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. A novel endpoint PCR method was used to analyse the prevalence of HTLV-1 proviral DNA in genomic DNA extracted from liquid based cytology (LBC) cervical smears and invasive cervical carcinomas (ICCs) obtained from human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+ve) and HIV-negative (HIV−ve) Kenyan women. Patient sociodemographic details were recorded by structured questionnaire and these data analysed with respect to HIV status, human papillomavirus (HPV) type (Papilocheck®) and cytology. This showed 22/113 (19.5%) of LBC’s from HIV+ve patients were positive for HTLV-1 compared to 4/111 (3.6%) of those from HIV−ve women (p = 0.0002; odds ratio (OR) = 6.42 (2.07–26.56)). Only 1/37 (2.7%) of HIV+ve and none of the 44 HIV−ve ICC samples were positive for HTLV-1. There was also a significant correlation between HTLV-1 infection, numbers of sexual partners (p < 0.05) and smoking (p < 0.01). Using this unique method, these data suggest an unexpectedly high prevalence of HTLV-1 DNA in HIV+ve women in this geographical location. However, the low level of HTLV-1 detected in HIV+ve ICC samples was unexpected and the reasons for this are unclear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Heat Shock Enhances the Expression of the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type-I (HTLV-I) Trans-Activator (Tax) Antigen in Human HTLV-I Infected Primary and Cultured T Cells
Viruses 2016, 8(7), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8070191 - 11 Jul 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
The environmental factors that lead to the reactivation of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) in latently infected T cells in vivo remain unknown. It has been previously shown that heat shock (HS) is a potent inducer of HTLV-I viral protein expression [...] Read more.
The environmental factors that lead to the reactivation of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) in latently infected T cells in vivo remain unknown. It has been previously shown that heat shock (HS) is a potent inducer of HTLV-I viral protein expression in long-term cultured cell lines. However, the precise HTLV-I protein(s) and mechanisms by which HS induces its effect remain ill-defined. We initiated these studies by first monitoring the levels of the trans-activator (Tax) protein induced by exposure of the HTLV-I infected cell line to HS. HS treatment at 43 °C for 30 min for 24 h led to marked increases in the level of Tax antigen expression in all HTLV-I-infected T cell lines tested including a number of HTLV-I-naturally infected T cell lines. HS also increased the expression of functional HTLV-I envelope gp46 antigen, as shown by increased syncytium formation activity. Interestingly, the enhancing effect of HS was partially inhibited by the addition of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)-inhibitor pifithlin-μ (PFT). In contrast, the HSP 70-inducer zerumbone (ZER) enhanced Tax expression in the absence of HS. These data suggest that HSP 70 is at least partially involved in HS-mediated stimulation of Tax expression. As expected, HS resulted in enhanced expression of the Tax-inducible host antigens, such as CD83 and OX40. Finally, we confirmed that HS enhanced the levels of Tax and gp46 antigen expression in primary human CD4+ T cells isolated from HTLV-I-infected humanized NOD/SCID/γc null (NOG) mice and HTLV-I carriers. In summary, the data presented herein indicate that HS is one of the environmental factors involved in the reactivation of HTLV-I in vivo via enhanced Tax expression, which may favor HTLV-I expansion in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Distinct Morphology of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Like Particles
Viruses 2016, 8(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8050132 - 11 May 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
The Gag polyprotein is the main retroviral structural protein and is essential for the assembly and release of virus particles. In this study, we have analyzed the morphology and Gag stoichiometry of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-like particles and authentic, mature [...] Read more.
The Gag polyprotein is the main retroviral structural protein and is essential for the assembly and release of virus particles. In this study, we have analyzed the morphology and Gag stoichiometry of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-like particles and authentic, mature HTLV-1 particles by using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). HTLV-1-like particles mimicked the morphology of immature authentic HTLV-1 virions. Importantly, we have observed for the first time that the morphology of these virus-like particles (VLPs) has the unique local feature of a flat Gag lattice that does not follow the curvature of the viral membrane, resulting in an enlarged distance between the Gag lattice and the viral membrane. Other morphological features that have been previously observed with other retroviruses include: (1) a Gag lattice with multiple discontinuities; (2) membrane regions associated with the Gag lattice that exhibited a string of bead-like densities at the inner leaflet; and (3) an arrangement of the Gag lattice resembling a railroad track. Measurement of the average size and mass of VLPs and authentic HTLV-1 particles suggested a consistent range of size and Gag copy numbers in these two groups of particles. The unique local flat Gag lattice morphological feature observed suggests that HTLV-1 Gag could be arranged in a lattice structure that is distinct from that of other retroviruses characterized to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
HTLV-1 Rex Tunes the Cellular Environment Favorable for Viral Replication
Viruses 2016, 8(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8030058 - 24 Feb 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Rex is a viral RNA binding protein. The most important and well-known function of Rex is stabilizing and exporting viral mRNAs from the nucleus, particularly for unspliced/partially-spliced mRNAs encoding the structural proteins essential for viral replication. Without [...] Read more.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Rex is a viral RNA binding protein. The most important and well-known function of Rex is stabilizing and exporting viral mRNAs from the nucleus, particularly for unspliced/partially-spliced mRNAs encoding the structural proteins essential for viral replication. Without Rex, these unspliced viral mRNAs would otherwise be completely spliced. Therefore, Rex is vital for the translation of structural proteins and the stabilization of viral genomic RNA and, thus, for viral replication. Rex schedules the period of extensive viral replication and suppression to enter latency. Although the importance of Rex in the viral life-cycle is well understood, the underlying molecular mechanism of how Rex achieves its function has not been clarified. For example, how does Rex protect unspliced/partially-spliced viral mRNAs from the host cellular splicing machinery? How does Rex protect viral mRNAs, antigenic to eukaryotic cells, from cellular mRNA surveillance mechanisms? Here we will discuss these mechanisms, which explain the function of Rex as an organizer of HTLV-1 expression based on previously and recently discovered aspects of Rex. We also focus on the potential influence of Rex on the homeostasis of the infected cell and how it can exert its function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Potential of an Anti-HTLV-I gp46 Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody (LAT-27) for Passive Immunization against Both Horizontal and Mother-to-Child Vertical Infection with Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type-I
Viruses 2016, 8(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8020041 - 03 Feb 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Although the number of human T-cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I)-infected individuals in the world has been estimated at over 10 million, no prophylaxis vaccines against HTLV-I infection are available. In this study, we took a new approach for establishing the basis of protective [...] Read more.
Although the number of human T-cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I)-infected individuals in the world has been estimated at over 10 million, no prophylaxis vaccines against HTLV-I infection are available. In this study, we took a new approach for establishing the basis of protective vaccines against HTLV-I. We show here the potential of a passively administered HTLV-I neutralizing monoclonal antibody of rat origin (LAT-27) that recognizes epitopes consisting of the HTLV-I gp46 amino acids 191–196. LAT-27 completely blocked HTLV-I infection in vitro at a minimum concentration of 5 μg/mL. Neonatal rats born to mother rats pre-infused with LAT-27 were shown to have acquired a large quantity of LAT-27, and these newborns showed complete resistance against intraperitoneal infection with HTLV-I. On the other hand, when humanized immunodeficient mice were pre-infused intravenously with humanized LAT-27 (hu-LAT-27), all the mice completely resisted HTLV-I infection. These results indicate that hu-LAT-27 may have a potential for passive immunization against both horizontal and mother-to-child vertical infection with HTLV-I. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
PRMT5 Is Upregulated in HTLV-1-Mediated T-Cell Transformation and Selective Inhibition Alters Viral Gene Expression and Infected Cell Survival
Viruses 2016, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8010007 - 30 Dec 2015
Cited by 7
Abstract
Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a tumorigenic retrovirus responsible for development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). This disease manifests after a long clinical latency period of up to 2–3 decades. Two viral gene products, Tax and HBZ, have transforming properties and [...] Read more.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a tumorigenic retrovirus responsible for development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). This disease manifests after a long clinical latency period of up to 2–3 decades. Two viral gene products, Tax and HBZ, have transforming properties and play a role in the pathogenic process. Genetic and epigenetic cellular changes also occur in HTLV-1-infected cells, which contribute to transformation and disease development. However, the role of cellular factors in transformation is not completely understood. Herein, we examined the role of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) on HTLV-1-mediated cellular transformation and viral gene expression. We found PRMT5 expression was upregulated during HTLV-1-mediated T-cell transformation, as well as in established lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma cell lines and ATLL patient PBMCs. shRNA-mediated reduction in PRMT5 protein levels or its inhibition by a small molecule inhibitor (PRMT5i) in HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes resulted in increased viral gene expression and decreased cellular proliferation. PRMT5i also had selective toxicity in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. Finally, we demonstrated that PRMT5 and the HTLV-1 p30 protein had an additive inhibitory effect on HTLV-1 gene expression. Our study provides evidence for PRMT5 as a host cell factor important in HTLV-1-mediated T-cell transformation, and a potential target for ATLL treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-1) Infection among Iranian Blood Donors: First Case-Control Study on the Risk Factors
Viruses 2015, 7(11), 5736-5745; https://doi.org/10.3390/v7112904 - 04 Nov 2015
Cited by 8
Abstract
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is an endemic condition in Northeast Iran and, as such, identification of risk factors associated with the infection in this region seems to be a necessity. All the possible risk factors for HTLV-1 seropositivity among [...] Read more.
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is an endemic condition in Northeast Iran and, as such, identification of risk factors associated with the infection in this region seems to be a necessity. All the possible risk factors for HTLV-1 seropositivity among first-time blood donors were evaluated in Mashhad, Iran, during the period of 2011–2012. Blood donation volunteers were interviewed for demographic data, medical history, and behavioral characteristics and the frequencies of risk factors were compared between HTLV-1 positive (case) and HTLV-1 negative (control) donors. The data was analyzed using Chi square and t-tests. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for the infection. Assessments were carried out on 246 cases aged 17–60 and 776 controls aged 17–59, who were matched based on their ages, gender, and date and center of donation. Logistic analysis showed low income (OR = 1.53, p = 0.035), low educational level (OR = 1.64, p = 0.049), being born in the cities of either Mashhad (OR = 2.47, p = 0.001) or Neyshabour (OR = 4.30, p < 0001), and a history of blood transfusion (OR = 3.17, p = 0.007) or non-IV drug abuse (OR = 3.77, p < 0.0001) were significant predictors for infection with HTLV-1. Lack of variability or small sample size could be reasons of failure to detect some well-known risk factors for HTLV-1 infection, such as prolonged breastfeeding and sexual promiscuity. Pre-donation screening of possible risk factors for transfusion-transmissible infections should also be considered as an important issue, however, a revision of the screening criteria such as a history of transfusion for more than one year prior to donation is strongly recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Low Proviral Load is Associated with Indeterminate Western Blot Patterns in Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infected Individuals: Could Punctual Mutations be Related?
Viruses 2015, 7(11), 5643-5658; https://doi.org/10.3390/v7112897 - 28 Oct 2015
Cited by 8
Abstract
Background: indeterminate Western blot (WB) patterns are a major concern for diagnosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection, even in non-endemic areas. Objectives: (a) to define the prevalence of indeterminate WB among different populations from Argentina; (b) to evaluate if [...] Read more.
Background: indeterminate Western blot (WB) patterns are a major concern for diagnosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection, even in non-endemic areas. Objectives: (a) to define the prevalence of indeterminate WB among different populations from Argentina; (b) to evaluate if low proviral load (PVL) is associated with indeterminate WB profiles; and (c) to describe mutations in LTR and tax sequence of these cases. Results: Among 2031 samples, 294 were reactive by screening. Of them, 48 (16.3%) were WB indeterminate and of those 15 (31.3%) were PCR+. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed to 52 HTLV-1+ samples, classified as Group 1 (G1): 25 WB+ samples from individuals with pathologies; Group 2 (G2): 18 WB+ samples from asymptomatic carriers (AC); and Group 3 (G3): 9 seroindeterminate samples from AC. Median PVL was 4.78, 2.38, and 0.15 HTLV-1 copies/100 PBMCs, respectively; a significant difference (p=0.003) was observed. Age and sex were associated with PVL in G1 and G2, respectively. Mutations in the distal and central regions of Tax Responsive Elements (TRE) 1 and 2 of G3 were observed, though not associated with PVL.The 8403A>G mutation of the distal region, previously related to high PVL, was absent in G3 but present in 50% of WB+ samples (p = 0.03). Conclusions: indeterminateWBresults confirmed later as HTLV-1 positive may be associated with low PVL levels. Mutations in LTR and tax are described; their functional relevance remains to be determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Transcriptional and Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms Affecting HTLV-1 Provirus
Viruses 2016, 8(6), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8060171 - 16 Jun 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with human diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/Tropic spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). As a retrovirus, its life cycle includes a step where HTLV-1 is integrated into the host genomic [...] Read more.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with human diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/Tropic spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). As a retrovirus, its life cycle includes a step where HTLV-1 is integrated into the host genomic DNA and forms proviral DNA. In the chronic phase of the infection, HTLV‑1 is known to proliferate as a provirus via the mitotic division of the infected host cells. There are generally tens of thousands of infected clones within an infected individual. They exist not only in peripheral blood, but also in various lymphoid organs. Viral proteins encoded in HTLV-1 genome play a role in the proliferation and survival of the infected cells. As is the case with other chronic viral infections, HTLV-1 gene expression induces the activation of the host immunity against the virus. Thus, the transcription from HTLV-1 provirus needs to be controlled in order to evade the host immune surveillance. There should be a dynamic and complex regulation in vivo, where an equilibrium between viral antigen expression and host immune surveillance is achieved. The mechanisms regulating viral gene expression from the provirus are a key to understanding the persistent/latent infection with HTLV-1 and its pathogenesis. In this article, we would like to review our current understanding on this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Molecular Mechanisms of HTLV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission
Viruses 2016, 8(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8030074 - 09 Mar 2016
Cited by 27
Abstract
The tumorvirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a member of the delta-retrovirus family, is transmitted via cell-containing body fluids such as blood products, semen, and breast milk. In vivo, HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells, and to a lesser extent, [...] Read more.
The tumorvirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a member of the delta-retrovirus family, is transmitted via cell-containing body fluids such as blood products, semen, and breast milk. In vivo, HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells, and to a lesser extent, CD8+ T-cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. Efficient infection of CD4+ T-cells requires cell-cell contacts while cell-free virus transmission is inefficient. Two types of cell-cell contacts have been described to be critical for HTLV-1 transmission, tight junctions and cellular conduits. Further, two non-exclusive mechanisms of virus transmission at cell-cell contacts have been proposed: (1) polarized budding of HTLV-1 into synaptic clefts; and (2) cell surface transfer of viral biofilms at virological synapses. In contrast to CD4+ T-cells, dendritic cells can be infected cell-free and, to a greater extent, via viral biofilms in vitro. Cell-to-cell transmission of HTLV-1 requires a coordinated action of steps in the virus infectious cycle with events in the cell-cell adhesion process; therefore, virus propagation from cell-to-cell depends on specific interactions between cellular and viral proteins. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 transmission with a focus on the HTLV-1-encoded proteins Tax and p8, their impact on host cell factors mediating cell-cell contacts, cytoskeletal remodeling, and thus, virus propagation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Mother-to-Child Transmission of HTLV-1 Epidemiological Aspects, Mechanisms and Determinants of Mother-to-Child Transmission
Viruses 2016, 8(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8020040 - 03 Feb 2016
Cited by 26
Abstract
Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus that infects at least 5–10 million people worldwide, and is the etiological agent of a lymphoproliferative malignancy; Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL); and a chronic neuromyelopathy, HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP), as [...] Read more.
Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus that infects at least 5–10 million people worldwide, and is the etiological agent of a lymphoproliferative malignancy; Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL); and a chronic neuromyelopathy, HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP), as well as other inflammatory diseases such as infective dermatitis and uveitis. Besides sexual intercourse and intravenous transmission, HTLV-1 can also be transmitted from infected mother to child during prolonged breastfeeding. Some characteristics that are linked to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HTLV-1, such as the role of proviral load, antibody titer of the infected mother, and duration of breastfeeding, have been elucidated; however, most of the mechanisms underlying HTLV-1 transmission during breast feeding remain largely unknown, such as the sites of infection and cellular targets as well as the role of milk factors. The present review focuses on the latest findings and current opinions and perspectives on MTCT of HTLV-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Genetic Markers of the Host in Persons Living with HTLV-1, HIV and HCV Infections
Viruses 2016, 8(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8020038 - 03 Feb 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are prevalent worldwide, and share similar means of transmission. These infections may influence each other in evolution and outcome, including cancer or immunodeficiency. Many studies [...] Read more.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are prevalent worldwide, and share similar means of transmission. These infections may influence each other in evolution and outcome, including cancer or immunodeficiency. Many studies have reported the influence of genetic markers on the host immune response against different persistent viral infections, such as HTLV-1 infection, pointing to the importance of the individual genetic background on their outcomes. However, despite recent advances on the knowledge of the pathogenesis of HTLV-1 infection, gaps in the understanding of the role of the individual genetic background on the progress to disease clinically manifested still remain. In this scenario, much less is known regarding the influence of genetic factors in the context of dual or triple infections or their influence on the underlying mechanisms that lead to outcomes that differ from those observed in monoinfection. This review describes the main factors involved in the virus–host balance, especially for some particular human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, and other important genetic markers in the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and other persistent viruses, such as HIV and HCV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
The Role of HBZ in HTLV-1-Induced Oncogenesis
Viruses 2016, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8020034 - 02 Feb 2016
Cited by 15
Abstract
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and chronic inflammatory diseases. HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) is transcribed as an antisense transcript of the HTLV-1 provirus. Among the HTLV-1-encoded viral genes, HBZ is the only gene that is constitutively [...] Read more.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and chronic inflammatory diseases. HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) is transcribed as an antisense transcript of the HTLV-1 provirus. Among the HTLV-1-encoded viral genes, HBZ is the only gene that is constitutively expressed in all ATL cases. Recent studies have demonstrated that HBZ plays an essential role in oncogenesis by regulating viral transcription and modulating multiple host factors, as well as cellular signaling pathways, that contribute to the development and continued growth of cancer. In this article, I summarize the current knowledge of the oncogenic function of HBZ in cell proliferation, apoptosis, T-cell differentiation, immune escape, and HTLV-1 pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Molecular Studies of HTLV-1 Replication: An Update
Viruses 2016, 8(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8020031 - 27 Jan 2016
Cited by 14
Abstract
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus discovered. Studies on HTLV-1 have been instrumental for our understanding of the molecular pathology of virus-induced cancers. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and can lead [...] Read more.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus discovered. Studies on HTLV-1 have been instrumental for our understanding of the molecular pathology of virus-induced cancers. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and can lead to a variety of neurological pathologies, including HTLV-1-associated-myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The ability to treat the aggressive ATL subtypes remains inadequate. HTLV-1 replicates by (1) an infectious cycle involving virus budding and infection of new permissive target cells and (2) mitotic division of cells harboring an integrated provirus. Virus replication initiates host antiviral immunity and the checkpoint control of cell proliferation, but HTLV-1 has evolved elegant strategies to counteract these host defense mechanisms to allow for virus persistence. The study of the molecular biology of HTLV-1 replication has provided crucial information for understanding HTLV-1 replication as well as aspects of viral replication that are shared between HTLV-1 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Here in this review, we discuss the various stages of the virus replication cycle—both foundational knowledge as well as current updates of ongoing research that is important for understanding HTLV-1 molecular pathogenesis as well as in developing novel therapeutic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
HTLV-1, Immune Response and Autoimmunity
Viruses 2016, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/v8010005 - 24 Dec 2015
Cited by 20
Abstract
Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (PET/HAM) is involved in the development of autoimmune diseases including Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), and Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS). The development of HTLV-1-driven autoimmunity [...] Read more.
Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (PET/HAM) is involved in the development of autoimmune diseases including Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), and Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS). The development of HTLV-1-driven autoimmunity is hypothesized to rely on molecular mimicry, because virus-like particles can trigger an inflammatory response. However, HTLV-1 modifies the behavior of CD4+ T cells on infection and alters their cytokine production. A previous study showed that in patients infected with HTLV-1, the activity of regulatory CD4+ T cells and their consequent expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are altered. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying changes in cytokine release leading to the loss of tolerance and development of autoimmunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Therapeutic Approaches for Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma
Viruses 2015, 7(12), 6604-6612; https://doi.org/10.3390/v7122960 - 14 Dec 2015
Cited by 22
Abstract
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma caused by human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATLL occurs in approximately 3%–5% of HTLV-1 carriers during their lifetime and follows a heterogeneous clinical course. The Shimoyama classification has been frequently used for [...] Read more.
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma caused by human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATLL occurs in approximately 3%–5% of HTLV-1 carriers during their lifetime and follows a heterogeneous clinical course. The Shimoyama classification has been frequently used for treatment decisions in ATLL patients, and antiviral therapy has been reportedly promising, particularly in patients with indolent type ATLL; however, the prognosis continues to be dismal for patients with aggressive-type ATLL. Recent efforts to improve treatment outcomes have been focused on the development of prognostic stratification and improved dosage, timing, and combination of therapeutic modalities, such as antiviral therapy, chemotherapy, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and molecular targeted therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview
Roles of HTLV-1 basic Zip Factor (HBZ) in Viral Chronicity and Leukemic Transformation. Potential New Therapeutic Approaches to Prevent and Treat HTLV-1-Related Diseases
Viruses 2015, 7(12), 6490-6505; https://doi.org/10.3390/v7122952 - 09 Dec 2015
Cited by 16
Abstract
More than thirty years have passed since human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was described as the first retrovirus to be the causative agent of a human cancer, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), but the precise mechanism behind HTLV-1 pathogenesis still remains elusive. [...] Read more.
More than thirty years have passed since human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was described as the first retrovirus to be the causative agent of a human cancer, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), but the precise mechanism behind HTLV-1 pathogenesis still remains elusive. For more than two decades, the transforming ability of HTLV-1 has been exclusively associated to the viral transactivator Tax. Thirteen year ago, we first reported that the minus strand of HTLV-1 encoded for a basic Zip factor factor (HBZ), and since then several teams have underscored the importance of this antisense viral protein for the maintenance of a chronic infection and the proliferation of infected cells. More recently, we as well as others have demonstrated that HBZ has the potential to transform cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we focus on the latest progress in our understanding of HBZ functions in chronicity and cellular transformation. We will discuss the involvement of this paradigm shift of HTLV-1 research on new therapeutic approaches to treat HTLV-1-related human diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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From Immunodeficiency to Humanization: The Contribution of Mouse Models to Explore HTLV-1 Leukemogenesis
Viruses 2015, 7(12), 6371-6386; https://doi.org/10.3390/v7122944 - 07 Dec 2015
Cited by 5
Abstract
The first discovered human retrovirus, Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is responsible for an aggressive form of T cell leukemia/lymphoma. Mouse models recapitulating the leukemogenesis process have been helpful for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this retroviral-induced disease. This review [...] Read more.
The first discovered human retrovirus, Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is responsible for an aggressive form of T cell leukemia/lymphoma. Mouse models recapitulating the leukemogenesis process have been helpful for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this retroviral-induced disease. This review will focus on the recent advances in the generation of immunodeficient and human hemato-lymphoid system mice with a particular emphasis on the development of mouse models for HTLV-1-mediated pathogenesis, their present limitations and the challenges yet to be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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Recent Advances in BLV Research
Viruses 2015, 7(11), 6080-6088; https://doi.org/10.3390/v7112929 - 24 Nov 2015
Cited by 25
Abstract
Different animal models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms of Human T-lymphotropic Virus (HTLV)-induced pathogenesis: rats, transgenic and NOD-SCID/γcnull (NOG) mice, rabbits, squirrel monkeys, baboons and macaques. These systems indeed provide useful information but have intrinsic limitations such as lack of disease [...] Read more.
Different animal models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms of Human T-lymphotropic Virus (HTLV)-induced pathogenesis: rats, transgenic and NOD-SCID/γcnull (NOG) mice, rabbits, squirrel monkeys, baboons and macaques. These systems indeed provide useful information but have intrinsic limitations such as lack of disease relevance, species specificity or inadequate immune response. Another strategy based on a comparative virology approach is to characterize a related pathogen and to speculate on possible shared mechanisms. In this perspective, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), another member of the deltaretrovirus genus, is evolutionary related to HTLV-1. BLV induces lymphoproliferative disorders in ruminants providing useful information on the mechanisms of viral persistence, genetic determinants of pathogenesis and potential novel therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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The Emerging Role of miRNAs in HTLV-1 Infection and ATLL Pathogenesis
Viruses 2015, 7(7), 4047-4074; https://doi.org/10.3390/v7072805 - 20 Jul 2015
Cited by 10
Abstract
Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 is a human retrovirus and the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a fatal malignancy of CD4/CD25+ T lymphocytes. In recent years, cellular as well as virus-encoded microRNA (miRNA) have been shown to deregulate signaling pathways to [...] Read more.
Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 is a human retrovirus and the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a fatal malignancy of CD4/CD25+ T lymphocytes. In recent years, cellular as well as virus-encoded microRNA (miRNA) have been shown to deregulate signaling pathways to favor virus life cycle. HTLV-1 does not encode miRNA, but several studies have demonstrated that cellular miRNA expression is affected in infected cells. Distinct mechanisms such as transcriptional, epigenetic or interference with miRNA processing machinery have been involved. This article reviews the current knowledge of the role of cellular microRNAs in virus infection, replication, immune escape and pathogenesis of HTLV-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015) Printed Edition available
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