Molecular Mechanisms of HTLV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission
AbstractThe tumorvirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a member of the delta-retrovirus family, is transmitted via cell-containing body fluids such as blood products, semen, and breast milk. In vivo, HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells, and to a lesser extent, CD8+ T-cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. Efficient infection of CD4+ T-cells requires cell-cell contacts while cell-free virus transmission is inefficient. Two types of cell-cell contacts have been described to be critical for HTLV-1 transmission, tight junctions and cellular conduits. Further, two non-exclusive mechanisms of virus transmission at cell-cell contacts have been proposed: (1) polarized budding of HTLV-1 into synaptic clefts; and (2) cell surface transfer of viral biofilms at virological synapses. In contrast to CD4+ T-cells, dendritic cells can be infected cell-free and, to a greater extent, via viral biofilms in vitro. Cell-to-cell transmission of HTLV-1 requires a coordinated action of steps in the virus infectious cycle with events in the cell-cell adhesion process; therefore, virus propagation from cell-to-cell depends on specific interactions between cellular and viral proteins. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 transmission with a focus on the HTLV-1-encoded proteins Tax and p8, their impact on host cell factors mediating cell-cell contacts, cytoskeletal remodeling, and thus, virus propagation. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Gross, C.; Thoma-Kress, A.K. Molecular Mechanisms of HTLV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission. Viruses 2016, 8, 74.
Gross C, Thoma-Kress AK. Molecular Mechanisms of HTLV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission. Viruses. 2016; 8(3):74.Chicago/Turabian Style
Gross, Christine; Thoma-Kress, Andrea K. 2016. "Molecular Mechanisms of HTLV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission." Viruses 8, no. 3: 74.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.