Special Issue "Tick-Vaccine and Tick-Control"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Vaccines against (re)emerging and Tropical Infections Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 8537

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Lourdes Mateos-Hernández
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
UMR BIPAR, INRAE, ANSES, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
Interests: vector-borne diseases; ticks; ticks control; ticks vaccine; proteomics approach
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Marinela Contreras
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain
Interests: Tick-Borne Diseases; Ticks; Zoonotic Diseases; Veterinary Parasitology; Medical Entomology; Molecular Biology; Biotechnology Immunology; Parasitic Diseases; Zoonoses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It would be interesting to include a special topic “vector borne diseases control”. In this issue would be include all the latest approaches that are being used to vector and vector borne diseases control. This issue could include mosquitoes, ticks, malaria, Lyme diseases, anaplasmosis, Crime-Congo virus, and it would include those scientific investigations that do not fit completely in other special issues.

Dr. Lourdes Mateos-Hernández
Dr. Marinela Contreras
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • ticks
  • mosquito
  • vaccine
  • control pathogen
  • vector-borne pathogens control
  • vector-borne diseases

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Identification and Characterization of Immunodominant Proteins from Tick Tissue Extracts Inducing a Protective Immune Response against Ixodes ricinus in Cattle
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060636 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of tick-borne diseases in Europe. An immunization trial of calves with soluble extracts of I. ricinus salivary glands (SGE) or midgut (ME) previously showed a strong response against subsequent tick challenge, resulting in diminished tick feeding success. [...] Read more.
Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of tick-borne diseases in Europe. An immunization trial of calves with soluble extracts of I. ricinus salivary glands (SGE) or midgut (ME) previously showed a strong response against subsequent tick challenge, resulting in diminished tick feeding success. Immune sera from these trials were used for the co-immunoprecipitation of tick tissue extracts, followed by LC-MS/MS analyses. This resulted in the identification of 46 immunodominant proteins that were differentially recognized by the serum of immunized calves. Some of these proteins had previously also drawn attention as potential anti-tick vaccine candidates using other approaches. Selected proteins were studied in more detail by measuring their relative expression in tick tissues and RNA interference (RNAi) studies. The strongest RNAi phenotypes were observed for MG6 (A0A147BXB7), a protein containing eight fibronectin type III domains predominantly expressed in tick midgut and ovaries of feeding females, and SG2 (A0A0K8RKT7), a glutathione-S-transferase that was found to be upregulated in all investigated tissues upon feeding. The results demonstrated that co-immunoprecipitation of tick proteins with host immune sera followed by protein identification using LC-MS/MS is a valid approach to identify antigen–antibody interactions, and could be integrated into anti-tick vaccine discovery pipelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick-Vaccine and Tick-Control)
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Article
Artificial Feeding of All Consecutive Life Stages of Ixodes ricinus
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040385 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is an obligate hematophagous arthropod and the main vector for several zoonotic diseases. The life cycle of this three-host tick species was completed for the first time in vitro by feeding all consecutive life stages using an artificial [...] Read more.
The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is an obligate hematophagous arthropod and the main vector for several zoonotic diseases. The life cycle of this three-host tick species was completed for the first time in vitro by feeding all consecutive life stages using an artificial tick feeding system (ATFS) on heparinized bovine blood supplemented with glucose, adenosine triphosphate, and gentamicin. Relevant physiological parameters were compared to ticks fed on cattle (in vivo). All in vitro feedings lasted significantly longer and the mean engorgement weight of F0 adults and F1 larvae and nymphs was significantly lower compared to ticks fed in vivo. The proportions of engorged ticks were significantly lower for in vitro fed adults and nymphs as well, but higher for in vitro fed larvae. F1-females fed on blood supplemented with vitamin B had a higher detachment proportion and engorgement weight compared to F1-females fed on blood without vitamin B, suggesting that vitamin B supplementation is essential in the artificial feeding of I. ricinus ticks previously exposed to gentamicin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick-Vaccine and Tick-Control)
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Article
Changes in Serum Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Cattle Vaccinated with Tick Recombinant Antigens: A Pilot Study
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010005 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Tick vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for tick control, pathogen infection, and transmission. Tick vaccine protection is sometimes incomplete, which may be due to problems in the stability, conformation, and activity of antibodies. This might be related to oxidative stress, but more [...] Read more.
Tick vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for tick control, pathogen infection, and transmission. Tick vaccine protection is sometimes incomplete, which may be due to problems in the stability, conformation, and activity of antibodies. This might be related to oxidative stress, but more studies are needed about the possible relationships between oxidative stress and immune function. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare various serum biomarkers of antioxidant response and oxidative damage in cattle vaccinated with two recombinant antigens, the chimera of Subolesin- BM95 (homologue antigen of BM86)-MSP1a and BM86, and a control consisting in the adjuvant of the vaccines. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric reducing ability of the plasma (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total thiol concentrations, and uric acid were evaluated in serum to determine the antioxidant response. To evaluate oxidative status, ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX), total oxidant status (TOS), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in serum were determined. In addition, correlations between biomarkers of oxidative stress and antibody titers were evaluated. A significant decrease in all antioxidant biomarkers, with exception of thiol, and also a decrease in the oxidant markers TOS, AOPP and H2O2 was observed in cattle vaccinated with BM86, that also showed the highest antibody titers response whereas no significant differences in any of the biomarkers were detected in the Subolesin-Bm95-MSP1a and control groups. In addition, the dynamics of Cuprac and H2O2 with time showed significant differences between the groups. Although this is a pilot study and the results should be interpreted with caution and corroborated by studies involving a large number of animals, our results indicate that, in our experimental conditions, those vaccines able to induce a lower oxidative stress produce a higher concentration of antigen-specific antibodies. Overall, the results of the study provided information on the behavior of different biomarkers related to antioxidant defense, and the oxidative damage in cattle in response to vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick-Vaccine and Tick-Control)
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Article
Anti-Tick Microbiota Vaccine Impacts Ixodes ricinus Performance during Feeding
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040702 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2505
Abstract
The tick microbiota is a highly complex ensemble of interacting microorganisms. Keystone taxa, with a central role in the microbial networks, support the stability and fitness of the microbial communities. The keystoneness of taxa in the tick microbiota can be inferred from microbial [...] Read more.
The tick microbiota is a highly complex ensemble of interacting microorganisms. Keystone taxa, with a central role in the microbial networks, support the stability and fitness of the microbial communities. The keystoneness of taxa in the tick microbiota can be inferred from microbial co-occurrence networks. Microbes with high centrality indexes are highly connected with other taxa of the microbiota and are expected to provide important resources to the microbial community and/or the tick. We reasoned that disturbance of vector microbiota by removal of ubiquitous and abundant keystone bacteria may disrupt the tick-microbiota homeostasis causing harm to the tick host. These observations and reasoning prompted us to test the hypothesis that antibodies targeting keystone bacteria may harm the ticks during feeding on immunized hosts. To this aim, in silico analyses were conducted to identify keystone bacteria in the microbiota of Ixodes nymphs. The family Enterobacteriaceae was among the top keystone taxa identified in Ixodes microbiota. Immunization of α-1,3-galactosyltransferase-deficient-C57BL/6 (α1,3GT KO) mice with a live vaccine containing the Enterobacteriaceae bacterium Escherichia coli strain BL21 revealed that the production of anti-E. coli and anti-α-Gal IgM and IgG was associated with high mortality of I. ricinus nymphs during feeding. However, this effect was absent in two different strains of wild type mice, BALB/c and C57BL/6. This result concurred with a wide distribution of α-1,3-galactosyltransferase genes, and possibly α-Gal, in Enterobacteriaceae and other bacteria of tick microbiota. Interestingly, the weight of I. ricinus nymphs that fed on E. coli-immunized C57BL/6 was significantly higher than the weight of ticks that fed on C57BL/6 immunized with a mock vaccine. Our results suggest that anti-tick microbiota vaccines are a promising tool for the experimental manipulation of vector microbiota, and potentially the control of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick-Vaccine and Tick-Control)
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Review

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Review
From Bench to Field: A Guide to Formulating and Evaluating Anti-Tick Vaccines Delving beyond Efficacy to Effectiveness
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101185 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
Ticks are ubiquitous blood-sucking ectoparasites capable of transmitting a wide range of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi to animals and humans. Although the use of chemicals (acaricides) is the predominant method of tick-control, there are increasing incidents of acaricide tick [...] Read more.
Ticks are ubiquitous blood-sucking ectoparasites capable of transmitting a wide range of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi to animals and humans. Although the use of chemicals (acaricides) is the predominant method of tick-control, there are increasing incidents of acaricide tick resistance. Furthermore, there are concerns over accumulation of acaricide residues in meat, milk and in the environment. Therefore, alternative methods of tick-control have been proposed, of which anti-tick cattle vaccination is regarded as sustainable and user-friendly. Over the years, tremendous progress has been made in identifying and evaluating novel candidate tick vaccines, yet none of them have reached the global market. Until now, Bm86-based vaccines (Gavac™ in Cuba and TickGARDPLUS™ Australia-ceased in 2010) are still the only globally commercialized anti-tick vaccines. In contrast to Bm86, often, the novel candidate anti-tick vaccines show a lower protection efficacy. Why is this so? In response, herein, the potential bottlenecks to formulating efficacious anti-tick vaccines are examined. Aside from Bm86, the effectiveness of other anti-tick vaccines is rarely assessed. So, how can the researchers assess anti-tick vaccine effectiveness before field application? The approaches that are currently used to determine anti-tick vaccine efficacy are re-examined in this review. In addition, a model is proposed to aid in assessing anti-tick vaccine effectiveness. Finally, based on the principles for the development of general veterinary vaccines, a pipeline is proposed to guide in the development of anti-tick vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick-Vaccine and Tick-Control)
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