Microparticle-Based Vaccines

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2022) | Viewed by 12241

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
Interests: infectious pathogens; arbovirus; vaccination
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This special issue will highlight and bring out the state of the art in the development of microparticle-based vaccines, a transcendent approach for vaccine design not only against infectious diseases, but also for stimulating immune responses against cancer. Now, more than ever, the development of safe and effective vaccine candidates is a key factor in maintaining confidence in our society regarding vaccine design.

Particulate carriers offer several attributes for use as vaccine delivery systems. First, microparticles can mimic the size of the pathogens that the immune system has evolved to combat and, consequently, they are efficiently better recognized and internalized by antigen presenting cells, facilitating the uptake of the antigens (or genetic material) carried. In addition, these particulate systems can present multiple copies of the antigens, not only on their surface but also forming part of the internal particle structure, protecting the antigens from degradation and increasing the antigen persistence.

Finally, other molecules such us immunomodulators may be included in the particulate delivery systems to enhance immune responses by focusing effects on the immune cells and limiting the potential for adverse events by restricting their systemic distribution to the injection site.

As a guest editor of this Special Issue, I invite you to submit research and review articles related to this special edition, which will encompass the most recent advances in this rapid evolving field of investigation. It will help researchers in the vaccinology field to develop and improve new vaccine strategies based in these particulate platforms. 

Particulate carriers offer several attributes for use as vaccine delivery systems. First, microparticles can mimic the size of the pathogens that the immune system has evolved to combat and, consequently, they are efficiently better recognized and internalized by antigen presenting cells, facilitating the uptake of the antigens (or genetic material) carried. In addition, these particulate systems can present multiple copies of the antigens, not only on their surface but also forming part of the internal particle structure, protecting the antigens from degradation and increasing the antigen persistence.

Dr. Alejandro Marin-Lopez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • vaccines
  • microparticles
  • infectious diseases
  • immunology

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1148 KiB  
Article
Transient Expression of Flavivirus Structural Proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana
by Naveed Asghar, Wessam Melik, Katrine M. Paulsen, Bendikte N. Pedersen, Erik G. Bø-Granquist, Rose Vikse, Snorre Stuen, Sören Andersson, Åke Strid, Åshild K. Andreassen and Magnus Johansson
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101667 - 06 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
Flaviviruses are a threat to public health and can cause major disease outbreaks. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is caused by a flavivirus, and it is one of the most important causes of viral encephalitis in Europe and is on the rise in Sweden. As [...] Read more.
Flaviviruses are a threat to public health and can cause major disease outbreaks. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is caused by a flavivirus, and it is one of the most important causes of viral encephalitis in Europe and is on the rise in Sweden. As there is no antiviral treatment available, vaccination remains the best protective measure against TBE. Currently available TBE vaccines are based on formalin-inactivated virus produced in cell culture. These vaccines must be delivered by intramuscular injection, have a burdensome immunization schedule, and may exhibit vaccine failure in certain populations. This project aimed to develop an edible TBE vaccine to trigger a stronger immune response through oral delivery of viral antigens to mucosal surfaces. We demonstrated successful expression and post-translational processing of flavivirus structural proteins which then self-assembled to form virus-like particles in Nicotiana benthamiana. We performed oral toxicity tests in mice using various plant species as potential bioreactors and evaluated the immunogenicity of the resulting edible vaccine candidate. Mice immunized with the edible vaccine candidate did not survive challenge with TBE virus. Interestingly, immunization of female mice with a commercial TBE vaccine can protect their offspring against TBE virus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microparticle-Based Vaccines)
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13 pages, 5037 KiB  
Article
VSV-Based Vaccines Reduce Virus Shedding and Viral Load in Hamsters Infected with SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern
by Kyle L. O’Donnell, Tylisha Gourdine, Paige Fletcher, Kyle Shifflett, Wakako Furuyama, Chad S. Clancy and Andrea Marzi
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030435 - 12 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2542
Abstract
The continued progression of the COVID-19 pandemic can partly be attributed to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to mutate and introduce new viral variants. Some of these variants with the potential to spread quickly and conquer the globe are termed variants of concern (VOC). [...] Read more.
The continued progression of the COVID-19 pandemic can partly be attributed to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to mutate and introduce new viral variants. Some of these variants with the potential to spread quickly and conquer the globe are termed variants of concern (VOC). The existing vaccines implemented on a global scale are based on the ancestral strain, which has resulted in increased numbers of breakthrough infections as these VOC have emerged. It is imperative to show protection against VOC infection with newly developed vaccines. Previously, we evaluated two vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein alone (VSV-SARS2) or in combination with the Ebola virus glycoprotein (VSV-SARS2-EBOV) and demonstrated their fast-acting potential. Here, we prolonged the time to challenge; we vaccinated hamsters intranasally (IN) or intramuscularly 28 days prior to infection with three SARS-CoV-2 VOC—the Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants. IN vaccination with either the VSV-SARS2 or VSV-SARS2-EBOV resulted in the highest protective efficacy as demonstrated by decreased virus shedding and lung viral load of vaccinated hamsters. Histopathologic analysis of the lungs revealed the least amount of lung damage in the IN-vaccinated animals regardless of the challenge virus. This data demonstrates the ability of a VSV-based vaccine to not only protect from disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 VOC but also reduce viral shedding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microparticle-Based Vaccines)
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Review

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18 pages, 371 KiB  
Review
Current Advances in Zika Vaccine Development
by Yuchen Wang, Lin Ling, Zilei Zhang and Alejandro Marin-Lopez
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111816 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4620
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging arthropod-borne flavivirus, was first isolated in Uganda in 1947 from monkeys and first detected in humans in Nigeria in 1952; it has been associated with a dramatic burden worldwide. Since then, interventions to reduce the burden of ZIKV [...] Read more.
Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging arthropod-borne flavivirus, was first isolated in Uganda in 1947 from monkeys and first detected in humans in Nigeria in 1952; it has been associated with a dramatic burden worldwide. Since then, interventions to reduce the burden of ZIKV infection have been mainly restricted to mosquito control, which in the end proved to be insufficient by itself. Hence, the situation prompted scientists to increase research on antivirals and vaccines against the virus. These efforts are still ongoing as the pathogenesis and immune evasion mechanisms of ZIKV have not yet been fully elucidated. Understanding the viral disease mechanism will provide a better landscape to develop prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against ZIKV. Currently, no specific vaccines or drugs have been approved for ZIKV. However, some are undergoing clinical trials. Notably, different platforms have been evaluated for the design of vaccines, including DNA, mRNA, viral vectors, virus-like particles (VLPs), inactivated virus, live attenuated virus, peptide and protein-based vaccines, passive immunizations by using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), and vaccines that target vector-derived antigens. These vaccines have been shown to induce specific humoral and cellular immune responses and reduce viremia and viral RNA titers, both in vitro and in vivo. This review provides a comprehensive summary of current advancements in the development of vaccines against Zika virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microparticle-Based Vaccines)
27 pages, 1796 KiB  
Review
Nanoparticle- and Microparticle-Based Vaccines against Orbiviruses of Veterinary Importance
by Luis Jiménez-Cabello, Sergio Utrilla-Trigo, Natalia Barreiro-Piñeiro, Tomás Pose-Boirazian, José Martínez-Costas, Alejandro Marín-López and Javier Ortego
Vaccines 2022, 10(7), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071124 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2998
Abstract
Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) are widespread arboviruses that cause important economic losses in the livestock and equine industries, respectively. In addition to these, another arthropod-transmitted orbivirus known as epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) entails a major threat as [...] Read more.
Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) are widespread arboviruses that cause important economic losses in the livestock and equine industries, respectively. In addition to these, another arthropod-transmitted orbivirus known as epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) entails a major threat as there is a conducive landscape that nurtures its emergence in non-endemic countries. To date, only vaccinations with live attenuated or inactivated vaccines permit the control of these three viral diseases, although important drawbacks, e.g., low safety profile and effectiveness, and lack of DIVA (differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals) properties, constrain their usage as prophylactic measures. Moreover, a substantial number of serotypes of BTV, AHSV and EHDV have been described, with poor induction of cross-protective immune responses among serotypes. In the context of next-generation vaccine development, antigen delivery systems based on nano- or microparticles have gathered significant attention during the last few decades. A diversity of technologies, such as virus-like particles or self-assembled protein complexes, have been implemented for vaccine design against these viruses. In this work, we offer a comprehensive review of the nano- and microparticulated vaccine candidates against these three relevant orbiviruses. Additionally, we also review an innovative technology for antigen delivery based on the avian reovirus nonstructural protein muNS and we explore the prospective functionality of the nonstructural protein NS1 nanotubules as a BTV-based delivery platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microparticle-Based Vaccines)
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