Monkeypox Virus Infection: Analysis and Detection

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 20771

Special Issue Editors

Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
Interests: infectious diseases; emerging infectious diseases; viral infection; monkeypox; COVID-19; systematic review and meta-analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Grupo de Investigación Biomedicina, Faculty of Medicine, Fundación Universitaria Autónoma de las Américas, 660003 Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia
2. Latin American networks on Monkeypox Virus research (LAMOVI), Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia
3. Institución Universitaria Visión de las Américas, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia
4. Master of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima 4861, Peru
Interests: emerging infectious diseases; COVID-19; monkeypox virus
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The monkeypox outbreak is ongoing, and it has spread to non-endemic countries. More than sixty-two thousand people have been affected worldwide, although few mortalities have been reported. The WHO has declared the monkeypox virus as a global public health emergency of international concern. The monkeypox virus has been endemic in African countries for decades, but we still do not have a comprehensive understanding of it. In this context, we are launching this Special Issue in Vaccines (MDPI), and we welcome your valuable contributions in the form of impactful manuscripts focusing on the topic “Monkeypox Virus Infection: Analysis and Detection”.

PCR is the gold-standard technique for the detection of the monkeypox virus, but many countries lack testing facilities. To date, no point-of-care testing kits have been developed. Many countries have not imported their cases and have not improved their national laboratories for testing, analysis and detection.

With these issues in mind, we wish to focus to the topic “Monkeypox Virus Infection: Analysis and Detection”, and we encourage and welcome submissions of manuscripts regarding the following aspects:

  1. Perspectives and reviews regarding the monkeypox virus;
  2. Original or review articles regarding monkeypox virus infection: analysis and detection;
  3. Case reports or case series of monkeypox with typical or atypical presentation;
  4. Comparison of the different clinical samples of monkeypox-infected patients with different ct values;
  5. Development and improvement of new point-of-care techniques for the detection of the monkeypox virus;
  6. Comparisons of molecular and serological testing methods to detect monkeypox virus.

Dr. Ranjit Sah
Prof. Dr. Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • monkeypox virus
  • public health emergency
  • viral detection
  • PCR

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 352 KiB  
Editorial
Facing Mpox (Former Monkeypox) in Latin America: The Example of Peru and Its Vulnerable Healthcare System
by Ali Al-kassab-Córdova, Juan R. Ulloque-Badaracco, Vicente A. Benites-Zapata, Ranjit Sah and Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010010 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
The new outbreak of monkeypox, a viral zoonotic disease, has affected more than 82,500 people and at least 110 countries worldwide as of 14 December 2022, with 81,580 people affected in 103 non-endemic areas of Africa [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monkeypox Virus Infection: Analysis and Detection)
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Research

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14 pages, 292 KiB  
Article
Monkeypox Post-COVID-19: Knowledge, Worrying, and Vaccine Adoption in the Arabic General Population
by Sarya Swed, Haidara Bohsas, Hidar Alibrahim, Amine Rakab, Wael Hafez, Bisher Sawaf, Rais Mohammed Amir, Ahmed Sallam Motawei, Ahmed Aljabali, Sheikh Shoib, Ismail Atef Ismail Ahmed Ibrahim, Sondos Hussein Ahmad Almashaqbeh, Ebrahim Ahmed Qaid Shaddad, Maryam Alqaisi, Ahmed Abdelrahman, Sherihan Fathey, René Hurlemann, Mohamed E. G. Elsayed, Joshuan J. Barboza, Aroop Mohanty, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales, Bijaya Kumar Padhi and Ranjit Sahadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Vaccines 2023, 11(4), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11040759 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2800
Abstract
Background: The outbreak of monkeypox was declared a global public health emergency by the World Health Organization on 23 July 2022. There have been 60,000 cases reported worldwide, most of which are in places where monkeypox has never been seen due to the [...] Read more.
Background: The outbreak of monkeypox was declared a global public health emergency by the World Health Organization on 23 July 2022. There have been 60,000 cases reported worldwide, most of which are in places where monkeypox has never been seen due to the travel of people who have the virus. This research aims to evaluate the general Arabic population in regard to the monkeypox disease, fears, and vaccine adoption after the WHO proclaimed a monkeypox epidemic and to compare these attitudes to those of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in some Arabic countries (Syria, Egypt, Qatar, Yemen, Jordan, Sudan, Algeria, and Iraq) between 18 August and 7 September 2022. The inclusion criteria were the general public residing in Arabic nations and being older than 18. This questionnaire has 32 questions separated into three sections: sociodemographic variables, prior COVID-19 exposure, and COVID-19 vaccination history. The second portion assesses the knowledge and anxieties about monkeypox, while the third section includes the generalized anxiety disorder (GAD7) scale. Logistic regression analyses were performed to compute the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their confidence intervals (95%CI) using STATA (version 17.0). Results: A total of 3665 respondents from 17 Arabic countries were involved in this study. Almost two-thirds (n = 2427, 66.2%) of the participants expressed more worry about COVID-19 than monkeypox diseases. Regarding the major cause for concern about monkeypox, 39.5% of participants attributed their anxiety to the fear that they or a member of their family may contract the illness, while 38.4% were concerned about monkeypox becoming another worldwide pandemic. According to the GAD 7 score, 71.7% of the respondents showed very low anxiety toward monkeypox and 43.8% of the participants scored poor levels of knowledge about monkeypox disease. Participants with previous COVID-19 infection showed a 1.206 times greater acceptance to receive the monkeypox vaccine than those with no previous infection. A 3.097 times higher concern for monkeypox than COVID-19 was shown by the participants who perceived monkeypox as dangerous and virulent than those who did not. Participants who have a chronic disease (aOR: 1.32; 95%CI: 1.09–1.60); participants worried about monkeypox (aOR: 1.21; 95%CI: 1.04–1.40), and perceived monkeypox as a dangerous and virulent disease (aOR: 2.25; 95%CI: 1.92–2.65); and excellent knowledge level (aOR: 2.28; 95%CI: 1.79–2.90) have emerged as significant predictors. Conclusions: Our study reported that three-fourths of the participants were more concerned about COVID-19 than monkeypox disease. In addition, most of the participants have inadequate levels of knowledge regarding monkeypox disease. Hence, immediate action should be taken to address this problem. Consequently, learning about monkeypox and spreading information about its prevention is crucial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monkeypox Virus Infection: Analysis and Detection)
13 pages, 621 KiB  
Article
Monkeypox Vaccine Acceptance among Ghanaians: A Call for Action
by Ramy Mohamed Ghazy, Saja Yazbek, Assem Gebreal, Mai Hussein, Sylvia Agyeman Addai, Ernestina Mensah, Michael Sarfo, Agyapong Kofi, Tareq AL-Ahdal and Gilbert Eshun
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020240 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2020
Abstract
Background: Ghana ranked 31st worldwide and 3rd in Africa in the number of confirmed cases worldwide. We aimed to assess the intention to receive the monkeypox (MPOX) vaccine and its associated psychological antecedents among the Ghanaian population. Methods: A cross-sectional online [...] Read more.
Background: Ghana ranked 31st worldwide and 3rd in Africa in the number of confirmed cases worldwide. We aimed to assess the intention to receive the monkeypox (MPOX) vaccine and its associated psychological antecedents among the Ghanaian population. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Ghana from November to December 2022. Snowball sampling was used to recruit participants via social media platforms, such as WhatsApp, LinkedIn, Telegram, and Facebook. The validated 5C scale was used to assess five psychological factors that influence vaccination behavior and intent: confidence, complacency, constraints, calculation, and collective responsibility. Results: The study drew 605 participants; their mean age was 30.0 ± 6.8; 68.1% were single; 60.8 % were males, and 51.9% were living in Greater Accra (The capital and largest city of Ghana). About 53.9% of the studied Ghanaian population did not intend to receive the MPOX vaccination. Vaccine acceptance among non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) was significantly lower than among HCWs (41.7 vs. 55.3, p < 0.001). The determinants of vaccine acceptance were male gender (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI, 1.00–2.18, p = 0.049), urban residence (AOR = 0.63, 95% CI, 0.41–0.96, p = 0.033), refusal of coronavirus 2019 vaccine (AOR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16–0.52, p < 0.001), confidence in vaccination ((AOR = 2.45, 95% CI, 1.93–3.15, and p < 0.001), and collective responsibility (AOR = 1.34, 95% CI, 1.02–1.75, p = 0.034)). Conclusions: The participants in this study did not show high levels of intention to accept the MPOX vaccination. Consequently, tailoring the efforts aiming to promote MPOX vaccination is needed especially among non-HCWs through increasing their confidence in vaccine effectiveness and safety and promoting the importance of self-vaccination to protect others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monkeypox Virus Infection: Analysis and Detection)
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13 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Monkeypox Virus among Physicians in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Najim Z. Alshahrani, Mohammed R. Algethami, Abdullah M. Alarifi, Faris Alzahrani, Eman A. Alshehri, Aishah M. Alshehri, Haytham Abdulwhab Sheerah, Abdelaziz Abdelaal, Ranjit Sah and Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
Vaccines 2022, 10(12), 2099; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10122099 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 3885
Abstract
The growing incidence of human monkeypox cases emphasizes the significance of prevention, early detection, and prompt responses for healthcare providers. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward monkeypox infection among physicians, a frontline healthcare worker group, in [...] Read more.
The growing incidence of human monkeypox cases emphasizes the significance of prevention, early detection, and prompt responses for healthcare providers. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward monkeypox infection among physicians, a frontline healthcare worker group, in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey assessing knowledge and attitudes towards monkeypox infection on multiple-item scales was sent to physicians in Saudi Arabia. The associations between independent factors and either knowledge or attitude were assessed. The final analysis included 398 participants. Approximately 55% of the surveyed participants had a “good knowledge” score about human monkeypox. The adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that being a female physician, working in the private sector, and having information on human monkeypox during medical school or residency years were the only factors associated with a good level of knowledge about human monkeypox. However, physicians’ knowledge and attitudes regarding monkeypox infection are inadequate and influenced by various factors. There is a significant knowledge gap between the therapeutic management of monkeypox and its vaccination. Training and knowledge assessments are important, especially when studies show significant improvement in related and specific knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monkeypox Virus Infection: Analysis and Detection)
12 pages, 1672 KiB  
Article
Improving Public Health Policy by Comparing the Public Response during the Start of COVID-19 and Monkeypox on Twitter in Germany: A Mixed Methods Study
by Tareq AL-Ahdal, David Coker, Hamzeh Awad, Abdullah Reda, Przemysław Żuratyński and Sahamoddin Khailaie
Vaccines 2022, 10(12), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10121985 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1911
Abstract
Little is known about monkeypox public concerns since its widespread emergence in many countries. Tweets in Germany were examined in the first three months of COVID-19 and monkeypox to examine concerns and issues raised by the public. Understanding views and positions of the [...] Read more.
Little is known about monkeypox public concerns since its widespread emergence in many countries. Tweets in Germany were examined in the first three months of COVID-19 and monkeypox to examine concerns and issues raised by the public. Understanding views and positions of the public could help to shape future public health campaigns. Few qualitative studies reviewed large datasets, and the results provide the first instance of the public thinking comparing COVID-19 and monkeypox. We retrieved 15,936 tweets from Germany using query words related to both epidemics in the first three months of each one. A sequential explanatory mixed methods research joined a machine learning approach with thematic analysis using a novel rapid tweet analysis protocol. In COVID-19 tweets, there was the selfing construct or feeling part of the emerging narrative of the spread and response. In contrast, during monkeypox, the public considered othering after the fatigue of the COVID-19 response, or an impersonal feeling toward the disease. During monkeypox, coherence and reconceptualization of new and competing information produced a customer rather than a consumer/producer model. Public healthcare policy should reconsider a one-size-fits-all model during information campaigns and produce a strategic approach embedded within a customer model to educate the public about preventative measures and updates. A multidisciplinary approach could prevent and minimize mis/disinformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monkeypox Virus Infection: Analysis and Detection)
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Other

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6 pages, 2192 KiB  
Case Report
First Case of Paraphimosis as a Severe Complication of Monkeypox
by Eugenio Milano, Alessandra Belati, Laura De Santis, Flavio Tanese, Antonio Vavallo, Giuseppe Dachille, Daniela Loconsole, Davide Fiore Bavaro, Francesco Di Gennaro, Maria Chironna, Pasquale Ditonno and Annalisa Saracino
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010063 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4059
Abstract
Since May 2022, the monkeypox (MPX) virus has represented an emerging issue due to outbreaks in non-endemic areas. This report presents the first case of paraphimosis caused by an MPX infection during the outbreak. The patient accessed the emergency department for a sudden [...] Read more.
Since May 2022, the monkeypox (MPX) virus has represented an emerging issue due to outbreaks in non-endemic areas. This report presents the first case of paraphimosis caused by an MPX infection during the outbreak. The patient accessed the emergency department for a sudden onset of swelling of the penis and paraphimosis caused by MPX lesions that brought about stenosis of the foreskin. He therefore underwent a dorsal slit procedure with resolution. No antiviral therapy was required. A multidisciplinary approach should be preferred for the management of MPX, due to the possibility of uncommon and disseminated presentations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monkeypox Virus Infection: Analysis and Detection)
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7 pages, 624 KiB  
Case Report
A Case Report of Monkeypox in an Adult Patient from Italy: Clinical and Dermoscopic Manifestations, Diagnosis and Management
by Ilaria Proietti, Paolo Emilio Santoro, Nevena Skroza, Tiziana Tieghi, Nicoletta Bernardini, Ersilia Tolino, Agnieszka Ewa Dybala, Antonio Di Guardo, Alessandra Rallo, Marco Di Fraia, Maria Francesca Rossi, Martina Vitiello, Umberto Moscato, Giovanni Pellacani, Miriam Lichtner and Concetta Potenza
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111903 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2969
Abstract
Monkeypox infection is an emerging problem and a new challenge for modern medicine. With an increasing number of new cases worldwide, new data regarding the clinical manifestations, characteristics of the patients, risk factors and treatment options are coming to light. Knowing more about [...] Read more.
Monkeypox infection is an emerging problem and a new challenge for modern medicine. With an increasing number of new cases worldwide, new data regarding the clinical manifestations, characteristics of the patients, risk factors and treatment options are coming to light. Knowing more about the disease will allow to elaborate new helpful methods to facilitate its diagnosis. Special attention should be paid to the careful dermatologic and dermoscopic examination of the patient. The analysis of available data also suggests possible strategies for the prevention of Monkeypox virus spread; the vaccine against Smallpox seems to be an effective solution. This case report describes the diagnostic approach and management of a non-vaccinated adult patient with several risk factors and a history of sexually transmitted disease. The patient had no history of travel abroad. Even though a clinical diagnose of Monkeypox can be challenging due to its similarities with skin rashes caused by other Orthopoxviral infections, there are fine differences between the rashes which can be helpful in their differentiation, although laboratory analysis is required for a definitive identification. A careful study of the characteristics of the rash, such as diameter, its presence on palms and soles and its evolution in time, provided important clues for the diagnosis of Monkeypox infection. The lack of vaccinations in the history of the patient was another crucial finding in the diagnostic process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monkeypox Virus Infection: Analysis and Detection)
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