Special Issue "Herpesvirus Vaccines"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.
2. Head of the National Reference Laboratory for Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) at the Virology Dept. of Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Umbria-Marche, Via Gaetano Salvemini 1, 06126 Perugia (PG), Italy
Interests: Herpesviruses; Pestiviruses; African Swine Fever Virus; Circovirus; Swine Influenza virus; Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus; Cell Biology; DNA immunization; Chimeric Vaccines; Experimental infection in vivo and in vitro under BSL3 facilities
Interests: a longstanding interest in the clinical aspects of human herpesviruses: diagnosis; epidemiology; immunology; pathology; vaccinology. Currently: investigating the interactions of herpesviruses infections with autoimmune/inflammatory mediated neurological diseases e.g., multiple sclerosis and working on aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection
Herpesviruses are distributed widely throughout the animal kingdom and are responsible for several human and veterinary diseases. A key characteristic of herpesvirus infections is the establishment of latency in which the virus persists lifelong in the host following primary infection. Herpesviruses achieve a latent state with the host through the adoption of a range of strategies including existing in a virtually non-replicating state and producing certain proteins downregulating the hosts’ specific immune responses. Periodically, herpesviruses may reactivate from the latent state to a replicating, lytic state involving the production of new proteins which may manifest new disease in the host and instigate an active immune response. In humans, eight herpesviruses have been described including Herpes Simplex virus (HSV), Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) which are responsible for several diseases following primary infection and reactivation. In many instances, primary infections are mild and self-limiting (eg. chickenpox); however, if the host’s immune responses are deficient or suppressed serious and potentially life-threatening infections may result. In veterinary medicine, different herpesvirus infections (eg. Bovine herpesvirus; Bubaline herpesvirus; Equine herpesvirus; Ovine herpesvirus; Caprine herpesvirus) are responsible of serious economic losses for the animal farms. Although effective vaccines are available against some human herpesviruses (eg. VZV) and different animal herpesviruses (Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1, BoHV-1; Equine alphaherpesvirus 1/4, EHV1/4; Suid alphaherpesvirus 1, SuHV-1), there is an ongoing need to develop vaccines for other human (eg. CMV, EBV, HSV) and animal herpesviruses (eg. Bovine alphaherpesvirus 2, BoHV2; Bovine alphaherpesvirus 5, BoHV-5; Bubaline alphaherpesvirus 1, BuHV-1; Caprine alphaherpesvirus 1; CpHV-1; Ovine gammaherpesvirus 2, OvHV-2). The protective measures aimed to control different animal herpesviruses infection include immunization with live attenuated or inactivated vaccines. An additional area of development specifically relevant to herpesviruses of veterinary importance is the use of marker vaccines. These products by appropriate laboratory tests, offer the possibility of differentiating between natural infected and vaccinated animals. Finally, there is interest in the use of herpesviruses as vectors for transmitting heterologous immunogens. The development of effective herpesvirus vaccines has proved challenging and various technological approaches have been undertaken to develop and evaluate new herpesvirus vaccines with differing levels of success.
Dr. Stefano Petrini
Dr. Peter Maple
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Evaluation of Passive Immunity Induced by Immunisation Using Two Inactivated gE-deleted Marker Vaccines against Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) in Calves
Authors: Stefano Petrini; Cecilia Righi; Carmen Iscaro; Giulio Viola; Paola Gobbi; Eleonora Scoccia; Elisabetta Rossi; Claudia Pellegrini; Gian Mario De Mia
Affiliation: 1. National Reference Laboratory for Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Umbria-Marche “Togo Rosati”, 06126 Perugia, Italy; [email protected] (C.R.); [email protected] (C.I.); [email protected] (P.G.); [email protected] (E.S.); [email protected] (E.R.); [email protected] (C.P.); [email protected] (G.D.) 2. Veterinary Practitioner, 62026 San Ginesio, Italy; [email protected]
Abstract: To date, different types of vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) are commercially available. Among these, inactivated gE-deleted marker vaccines are offered, but their ability to induce passive immunity is poor known. To evaluate passive immunity transferred from dams to calves via maternal immunisation with commercial inactivated gE-deleted marker vaccines, we performed several experiments. For this, we vaccinated 12 pregnant cattle devoid of neutralizing antibodies to Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and divided them into two groups with six animals each. Each group was injected with a different inactivated gE-deleted marker vaccine administrated via intranasal or intramuscular routes. An additional group served as the unvaccinated control. After calving, the pregnant cattle were increased by the respective newborn calves. In the dams, the humoral immune response was evaluated before calving and subsequently at different times until post-calving day (PCD) 180. In addition, passive immunity was evaluated in colostrum, milk, and in serum samples of the newborn calves at different times until PCD180. The results indicated that the vaccines used are safe and produce a good humoral immune response in pregnant cattle until calving and PCD180. Moreover, in calve serum, passive immunity persisted until PCD180.
Title: Simultaneous Deletion of Virulence Factors and Insertion of Antigens into the Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus using NHEJ-CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre-Lox System for Construction of an Improved Vaccine Vector
Authors: Mustafa Ozan Atasoy; Mohammed A. Rohaim; Muhammad Munir
Affiliation: Lancaster University
Abstract: Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is a promising vaccine vector due to its heterologous genes accommodation capabilities, low pathogenicity, and potential to induce cellular and humoral immunity. Owing to these characteristics, different gene-deletion versions of ILTV have been successfully deployed as a vector platform for the development of recombinant vaccines against multiple avian viruses using conventional recombination methods, which are tedious, time demanding and error-prone. Here we applied a versatile, and customizable clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 accompanied with Cre-Lox system to simultaneously delete virulence factors and to insert foreign genes in the ILTV genome. Using this pipeline, we successfully deleted thymidine kinase (TK) and unique short 4 (US4) genes and inserted fusion (F) gene of the Newcastle disease virus without adversely affecting ILTV replication and expression of the F protein. Taken together, the proposed approach offers novel tools to attenuate (by deletion of virulence factor) and to generate multivalent (by insertion of heterologous genes) vaccines vector for protection of chicken against pathogens of poultry and public health importance.
Title: Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus associations with neurological diseases and the need for vaccine development
Authors: Peter Maple
Affiliation: Clinical Neurology Research Group, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Nottingham School of Medicine; Queen’s Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH
Abstract: Herpesviruses have been isolated from a wide range of hosts including humans for which 9 species have been designated. The human herpesviruses are highly host adapted and possess the capacity for latency allowing them to survive in the host for life effectively hidden from the immune system. This ability of human herpesviruses to modulate the host immune response poses particular challenges for vaccine development but at the same time proves attractive for the application of human herpesvirus vaccines to certain spheres of medicine. In this review, congenital CMV infection and hearing loss will be described followed by a comment on the status of current vaccine development. Secondly, the association of EBV infection with multiple sclerosis (MS), and how EBV vaccination may be of benefit will then be discussed. Prevention of congenital CMV by vaccination is an attractive proposition and several vaccines have been evaluated for potential use. Particularly challenging for the development of CMV vaccines are the needs to prevent both primary infection, reinfection, and reactivation at the same time as overcoming the capacity of the virus to generate highly sophisticated immunomodulatory mechanisms. Cost and the practicalities of administering potential vaccines are also significant issues, particularly for low- and middle-income countries where the burden of disease is greatest. An effective EBV vaccine that could prevent the 200,000 new EBV associated malignancies which occur globally each year is not currently available. There is increasing interest in developing EBV vaccines to prevent MS, and in view of the association of infectious mononucleosis with MS, reducing childhood infectious mononucleosis is a potential intervention. Currently, there is no licensed EBV vaccine, and in order to progress the development of EBV vaccines for preventing MS a greater understanding of the association of EBV with MS is required.
Title: Immunization with Human Cytomegalovirus Core Fusion Machinery and Accessory Envelope Proteins Elicit Strong Synergistic Neutralizing Activities
Authors: Xinle Cui; Zhouhong Cao; Shuishu Wang; Stuart P. Adler; Michael A. McVoy; Clifford M. Snapper
Affiliation: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Abstract: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) core fusion machinery proteins gB, gH/gL and accessory proteins UL128/UL130/UL131A are the key envelope proteins that mediate HCMV entry into and infection of host cells. To determine whether these HCMV envelope proteins could elicit neutralizing activities synergistically, we immunized rabbits with individual or various combination of these proteins adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide mixed with CpG-ODN, and analyzed serum neutralizing activities with multiple HCMV laboratory strains and clinical isolates. HCMV trimeric gB and gH/gL elicited high and moderate titers of HCMV neutralizing activity respectively. HCMV gB in combination with gH/gL elicited up to 17-fold higher HCMV neutralizing activity compared to the sum of neutralizing activity elicited by the individual proteins analyzed with both fibroblasts and epithelial cells. HCMV gB+gH/gL+UL128/UL130/UL131A in combination increased the neutralizing activity up to 32-fold compared to the sum of neutralizing activity elicited by the individual proteins analyzed with epithelial cells. Adding UL128/UL130/UL131A to gB and gH/gL combination did not increase further the HCMV neutralizing activity analyzed with fibroblasts. These data suggest that the combination of HCMV core fusion machinery envelope proteins gB+gH/gL or the combination of gB and pentameric complex could be ideal vaccine candidates that would induce optimal immune response against HCMV infection.