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Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 5th International Symposium on Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Moulds: Challenges and Perspectives"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2016)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sarah De Saeger

Department of Bioanalysis, Laboratory of Food Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Interests: mycotoxins; analysis; metabolomics; food safety
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Siska Croubels

Ghent University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Merelbeke, Belgium
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Interests: Mycotoxins: toxicokinetics; toxicity; binders; modifiers; in vitro; in vivo; food production animals; porcine biomedical model for humans; bioanalysis; biomarkers; cytochrome P450; ABC transporters; impact on infectious diseases.
Veterinary drugs: pharmacokinetics; pharmacodynamics; PK/PD modeling; residues; food safety; bioanalysis
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kris Audenaert

Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Applied Biosciences, Ghent, Belgium
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Interests: plant–pathogen interactions; biocontrol; endophytic fungi; green leaf volatiles (GLVs); biogenic volatile compounds (BVOCs); plant defense priming; plant hormones; phenomics; genome-editing in fungi; plant defense pathways; biodegradation of mycotoxins; mycotoxin prediction and modelling; bioassays to assess toxicity of trichothecenes and their derivatives

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 5th International Symposium “Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Moulds: Challenges and Perspectives” will be held in Ghent, Belgium on May 11, 2016.

Mycotoxins—toxic fungal secondary metabolites—play a significant role in food and feed safety. They have shown to be the number one threat regarding chronic toxicity related to food and feed contaminants. Economic losses are due to effects on livestock productivity and to direct losses in crop yield and stored agricultural products. Legislative limits for a range of mycotoxins worldwide, as well as the presence of emerging mycotoxins result in an increased number of official controls deriving from national food safety plans. The challenges in mycotoxin and toxigenic mould research are still enormous due to the frequency, complexity and variability in occurrence.

The MYTOX association research platform MYTOX "Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Moulds" was established in 2007 and consists of more than 50 researchers from 12 research laboratories in the Ghent University Association. MYTOX deals with mycotoxin research in a multi-disciplinary way, based on four main units: (1) mycotoxins; (2) toxigenic fungi; (3) mycotoxins and animal health; and (4) mycotoxins and human health. In this way, MYTOX tackles the mycotoxin issue along the production chain from the field to the end consumer, within the ‘One Health’ concept.

We would like to welcome you at the 5th edition of the MYTOX International Symposium. The program includes oral and poster presentations related to fungal-related disease monitoring; mycotoxin analysis in food and feed, as well as in animal and human biological samples; prevention on the field; management strategies during food and feed storage and processing.

The Symposium welcomes participants from industry, government as well as academia. Only through multidisciplinary efforts and concerted actions, can further progress and solutions be expected for the mycotoxin problem.

This Special Issue aims to bring together active researchers to present their current work in mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi.

For additional links to the Symposium which you may find useful, follow:

http://en.mytox.be/conferences/

Prof. Dr. Sarah De Saeger
Prof. Dr. Siska Croubels
Prof. Dr. Kris Audenaert
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mycotoxins
  • Toxigenic fungi
  • Food safety
  • Feed safety
  • Health
  • Mycotoxin analysis
  • Plant pathogens

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON), Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (29451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON) biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem
[...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON) biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are typically used. However, these techniques do not give a decisive answer about the remaining toxicity of possible biotransformation products. Hence, a bioassay using Lemna minor L. was developed. A dose–response analysis revealed significant inhibition in the growth of L. minor exposed to DON concentrations of 0.25 mg/L and higher. Concentrations above 1 mg/L were lethal for the plant. This bioassay is far more sensitive than previously described systems. The bioassay was implemented to screen microbial enrichment cultures, originating from rumen fluid, soil, digestate and activated sludge, on their biotransformation and detoxification capability of DON. The enrichment cultures originating from soil and activated sludge were capable of detoxifying and degrading 5 and 50 mg/L DON. In addition, the metabolites 3-epi-DON and the epimer of de-epoxy-DON (3-epi-DOM-1) were found as biotransformation products of both consortia. Our work provides a new valuable tool to screen microbial cultures for their detoxification capacity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Unravelling the Diversity of the Cyclopiazonic Acid Family of Mycotoxins in Aspergillus flavus by UHPLC Triple-TOF HRMS
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cyclopiazonic acid (α-cyclopiazonic acid, α-CPA) is an indole-hydrindane-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by various fungal species, including the notorious food and feed contaminant Aspergillus flavus. Despite its discovery in A. flavus cultures approximately 40 years ago, its contribution to the A. flavus mycotoxin
[...] Read more.
Cyclopiazonic acid (α-cyclopiazonic acid, α-CPA) is an indole-hydrindane-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by various fungal species, including the notorious food and feed contaminant Aspergillus flavus. Despite its discovery in A. flavus cultures approximately 40 years ago, its contribution to the A. flavus mycotoxin burden is consistently minimized by our focus on the more potent carcinogenic aflatoxins also produced by this fungus. Here, we report the screening and identification of several CPA-type alkaloids not previously found in A. flavus cultures. Our identifications of these CPA-type alkaloids are based on a dereplication strategy involving accurate mass high resolution mass spectrometry data and a careful study of the α-CPA fragmentation pattern. In total, 22 CPA-type alkaloids were identified in extracts from the A. flavus strains examined. Of these metabolites, 13 have been previously reported in other fungi, though this is the first report of their existence in A. flavus. Two of our metabolite discoveries, 11,12-dehydro α-CPA and 3-hydroxy-2-oxo CPA, have never been reported for any organism. The conspicuous presence of CPA and its numerous derivatives in A. flavus cultures raises concerns about the long-term and cumulative toxicological effects of these fungal secondary metabolites and their contributions to the entire A. flavus mycotoxin problem. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mycotoxigenic Potentials of Fusarium Species in Various Culture Matrices Revealed by Mycotoxin Profiling
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 26 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, twenty of the most common Fusarium species were molecularly characterized and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), rice and maize medium, where thirty three targeted mycotoxins, which might be the secondary metabolites of the identified fungal species, were detected by
[...] Read more.
In this study, twenty of the most common Fusarium species were molecularly characterized and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), rice and maize medium, where thirty three targeted mycotoxins, which might be the secondary metabolites of the identified fungal species, were detected by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis was performed with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the mycotoxin profiles for the twenty fungi, suggesting that these fungi species could be discriminated and divided into three groups as follows. Group I, the fusaric acid producers, were defined into two subgroups, namely subgroup I as producers of fusaric acid and fumonisins, comprising of F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. fujikuroi and F. solani, and subgroup II considered to only produce fusaric acid, including F. temperatum, F. subglutinans, F. musae, F. tricinctum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. sacchari, F. concentricum, F. andiyazi. Group II, as type A trichothecenes producers, included F. langsethiae, F. sporotrichioides, F. polyphialidicum, while Group III were found to mainly produce type B trichothecenes, comprising of F. culmorum, F. poae, F. meridionale and F. graminearum. A comprehensive picture, which presents the mycotoxin-producing patterns by the selected fungal species in various matrices, is obtained for the first time, and thus from an application point of view, provides key information to explore mycotoxigenic potentials of Fusarium species and forecast the Fusarium infestation/mycotoxins contamination. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mycotoxin Contamination in Sugarcane Grass and Juice: First Report on Detection of Multiple Mycotoxins and Exposure Assessment for Aflatoxins B1 and G1 in Humans
Toxins 2016, 8(11), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8110343
Received: 10 September 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of multiple toxic fungal and bacterial metabolites in sugarcane grass and juice intended for human consumption in Upper Egypt. Quantification of the target analytes has been done using the “dilute and shoot” approach followed
[...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of multiple toxic fungal and bacterial metabolites in sugarcane grass and juice intended for human consumption in Upper Egypt. Quantification of the target analytes has been done using the “dilute and shoot” approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total number of 29 and 33 different metabolites were detected in 21 sugarcane grass and 40 juice samples, respectively, with a trend of concentrations being higher in grass than in juice. Among the regulated mycotoxins, only aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) were detected. The prevalence of AFB1 was in 48% of grass samples and in 58% of juice with a maximum concentration of 30.6 μg/kg and 2.10 μg/kg, respectively. AFG1 was detected in 10% of grass samples (7.76 μg/kg) and 18% of juice samples (34 μg/kg). Dietary exposure was assessed using a juice frequency questionnaire of adult inhabitants in Assiut City. The assessment revealed different levels of exposure to AFB1 between males and females in winter and summer seasons. The estimated seasonal exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 ng/kg b.w./day in winter and from 0.38 to 0.90 ng/kg b.w./day in summer. Full article
Open AccessArticle Occurrence of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops and Processed Products (Ogi) from Nigeria
Toxins 2016, 8(11), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8110342
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In Nigeria, maize, sorghum, and millet are very important cash crops. They are consumed on a daily basis in different processed forms in diverse cultural backgrounds. These crops are prone to fungi infestation, and subsequently may be contaminated with mycotoxins. A total of
[...] Read more.
In Nigeria, maize, sorghum, and millet are very important cash crops. They are consumed on a daily basis in different processed forms in diverse cultural backgrounds. These crops are prone to fungi infestation, and subsequently may be contaminated with mycotoxins. A total of 363 samples comprising of maize (136), sorghum (110), millet (87), and ogi (30) were collected from randomly selected markets in four agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. Samples were assessed for Fusarium mycotoxins contamination using a multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Subsequently, some selected samples were analysed for the occurrence of hidden fumonisins. Overall, 64% of the samples were contaminated with at least one toxin, at the rate of 77%, 44%, 59%, and 97% for maize, sorghum, millet, and ogi, respectively. Fumonisins were the most dominant, especially in maize and ogi, occurring at the rate of 65% and 93% with mean values of 935 and 1128 μg/kg, respectively. The prevalence of diacetoxyscirpenol was observed in maize (13%), sorghum (18%), and millet (29%), irrespective of the agro-ecological zone. Other mycotoxins detected were deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and their metabolites, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, HT-2 toxin, and hidden fumonisins. About 43% of the samples were contaminated with more than one toxin. This study suggests that consumption of cereals and cereal-based products, ogi particularly by infants may be a source of exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Glutathione-Conjugates of Deoxynivalenol in Naturally Contaminated Grain Are Primarily Linked via the Epoxide Group
Toxins 2016, 8(11), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8110329
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 2 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2375 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A glutathione (GSH) adduct of the mycotoxin 4-deoxynivalenol (DON), together with a range of related conjugates, has recently been tentatively identified by LC-MS of DON-treated wheat spikelets. In this study, we prepared samples of DON conjugated at the 10- and 13-positions with GSH,
[...] Read more.
A glutathione (GSH) adduct of the mycotoxin 4-deoxynivalenol (DON), together with a range of related conjugates, has recently been tentatively identified by LC-MS of DON-treated wheat spikelets. In this study, we prepared samples of DON conjugated at the 10- and 13-positions with GSH, Cys, CysGly, γ-GluCys and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The mixtures of conjugates were used as standards for LC-HRMS analysis of one of the DON-treated wheat spikelet samples, as well as 19 Norwegian grain samples of spring wheat and 16 grain samples of oats that were naturally-contaminated with DON at concentrations higher than 1 mg/kg. The artificially-contaminated wheat spikelets contained conjugates of GSH, CysGly and Cys coupled at the olefinic 10-position of DON, whereas the naturally-contaminated harvest-ripe grain samples contained GSH, CysGly, Cys, and NAC coupled mainly at the 13-position on the epoxy group. The identities of the conjugates were confirmed by LC-HRMS comparison with authentic standards, oxidation to the sulfoxides with hydrogen peroxide, and examination of product-ion spectra from LC-HRMS/MS analysis. No γ-GluCys adducts of DON were detected in any of the samples. The presence of 15-O-acetyl-DON was demonstrated for the first time in Norwegian grain. The results indicate that a small but significant proportion of DON is metabolized via the GSH-conjugation pathway in plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of in vivo conjugation of trichothecenes via their epoxy group, which has generally been viewed as unreactive. Because conjugation at the 13-position of DON and other trichothecenes has been shown to be irreversible, this type of conjugate may prove useful as a biomarker of exposure to DON and other 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Various Compounds Blocking the Colony Pigmentation on the Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillus flavus
Toxins 2016, 8(11), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8110313
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aflatoxins and melanins are the products of a polyketide biosynthesis. In this study, the search of potential inhibitors of the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) biosynthesis was performed among compounds blocking the pigmentation in fungi. Four compounds—three natural (thymol, 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde, compactin) and one synthetic (fluconazole)—were
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxins and melanins are the products of a polyketide biosynthesis. In this study, the search of potential inhibitors of the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) biosynthesis was performed among compounds blocking the pigmentation in fungi. Four compounds—three natural (thymol, 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde, compactin) and one synthetic (fluconazole)—were examined for their ability to block the pigmentation and AFB1 production in Aspergillus flavus. All compounds inhibited the mycelium pigmentation of a fungus growing on solid medium. At the same time, thymol, fluconazole, and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde stimulated AFB1 accumulation in culture broth of A. flavus under submerged fermentation, whereas the addition of 2.5 μg/mL of compactin resulted in a 50× reduction in AFB1 production. Moreover, compactin also suppressed the sporulation of A. flavus on solid medium. In vivo treatment of corn and wheat grain with compactin (50 μg/g of grain) reduced the level of AFB1 accumulation 14 and 15 times, respectively. Further prospects of the compactin study as potential AFB1 inhibitor are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Milk Yield, Feed Composition, and Feed Contamination with Aflatoxin B1 on the Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Dairy Cows’ Milk Investigated Using Monte Carlo Simulation Modelling
Toxins 2016, 8(10), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8100290
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 30 September 2016 / Published: 9 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dairy
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dairy farm in the Netherlands. Six different scenarios were considered, based on two lactation and three CF composition scenarios. AfB1 contamination of the CF was based on results from the Dutch national monitoring programme for AfB1 in feed materials from 2000 until 2010. Monitoring data from feed materials used in CF production for dairy cattle in the Netherlands were used. Additionally, AfB1 contamination data from an incident in maize in 2013 were used. In each scenario, five different transfer equations of AfB1 from feed to AfM1 in the milk were used, and 1000 iterations were run for each scenario. The results showed that under these six scenarios, the weekly farm concentration of AfM1 in milk was above the EC threshold in less than 1% of the iterations, with all five transfer equations considered. However, this increased substantially in weeks when concentrations from the contaminated maize batch were included, and up to 28.5% of the iterations exceeded the EC threshold. It was also observed that an increase in the milk production had a minimal effect on the exceedance of the AfM1 threshold due to an apparent dilution effect. Feeding regimes, including the composition of CF and feeding roughages of dairy cows, should be carefully considered based on the potential AfM1 contamination of the farm’s milk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Aflatoxin B1 and M1 Degradation by Lac2 from Pleurotus pulmonarius and Redox Mediators
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Laccases (LCs) are multicopper oxidases that find application as versatile biocatalysts for the green bioremediation of environmental pollutants and xenobiotics. In this study we elucidate the degrading activity of Lac2 pure enzyme form Pleurotus pulmonarius towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and
[...] Read more.
Laccases (LCs) are multicopper oxidases that find application as versatile biocatalysts for the green bioremediation of environmental pollutants and xenobiotics. In this study we elucidate the degrading activity of Lac2 pure enzyme form Pleurotus pulmonarius towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and M1 (AFM1). LC enzyme was purified using three chromatographic steps and identified as Lac2 through zymogram and LC-MS/MS. The degradation assays were performed in vitro at 25 °C for 72 h in buffer solution. AFB1 degradation by Lac2 direct oxidation was 23%. Toxin degradation was also investigated in the presence of three redox mediators, (2,2′-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) (ABTS) and two naturally-occurring phenols, acetosyringone (AS) and syringaldehyde (SA). The direct effect of the enzyme and the mediated action of Lac2 with redox mediators univocally proved the correlation between Lac2 activity and aflatoxins degradation. The degradation of AFB1 was enhanced by the addition of all mediators at 10 mM, with AS being the most effective (90% of degradation). AFM1 was completely degraded by Lac2 with all mediators at 10 mM. The novelty of this study relies on the identification of a pure enzyme as capable of degrading AFB1 and, for the first time, AFM1, and on the evidence that the mechanism of an effective degradation occurs via the mediation of natural phenolic compounds. These results opened new perspective for Lac2 application in the food and feed supply chains as a biotransforming agent of AFB1 and AFM1. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Essential Oils Modulate Gene Expression and Ochratoxin A Production in Aspergillus carbonarius
Received: 21 June 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2393 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin, mainly produced on grapes by Aspergillus carbonarius, that causes massive health problems for humans. This study aims to reduce the occurrence of OTA by using the ten following essential oils (E.Os): fennel, cardamom, anise, chamomile, celery,
[...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin, mainly produced on grapes by Aspergillus carbonarius, that causes massive health problems for humans. This study aims to reduce the occurrence of OTA by using the ten following essential oils (E.Os): fennel, cardamom, anise, chamomile, celery, cinnamon, thyme, taramira, oregano and rosemary at 1 µL/mL and 5 µL/mL for each E.O.As a matter of fact, their effects on the OTA production and the growth of A. carbonarius S402 cultures were evaluated, after four days at 28 °C on a Synthetic Grape Medium (SGM). Results showed that A. carbonarius growth was reduced up to 100%, when cultured with the E.Os of cinnamon, taramira, and oregano at both concentrations and the thyme at 5 µL/mL. As for the other six E.Os, their effect on A. carbonarius growth was insignificant, but highly important on the OTA production. Interestingly, the fennel E.O at 5 µL/mL reduced the OTA production up to 88.9% compared to the control, with only 13.8% of fungal growth reduction. We further investigated the effect of these E.Os on the expression levels of the genes responsible for the OTA biosynthesis (acOTApks and acOTAnrps along with the acpks gene) as well as the two regulatory genes laeA and vea, using the quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) method. The results revealed that these six E.Os reduced the expression of the five studied genes, where the ackps was downregulated by 99.2% (the highest downregulation in this study) with 5 µL/mL of fennel E.O.As for the acOTApks, acOTAnrps, veA and laeA, their reduction levels ranged between 10% and 96% depending on the nature of the E.O and its concentration in the medium. Full article
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Open AccessMeeting Report Report from the 5th International Symposium on Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Moulds: Challenges and Perspectives (MYTOX) Held in Ghent, Belgium, May 2016
Received: 19 April 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 6 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The association research platform MYTOX “Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Moulds” held the 5th meeting of its International Symposium in Ghent, Belgium on 11 May 2016.[...] Full article
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