Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Mycotoxin Contamination in Sugarcane Grass and Juice: First Report on Detection of Multiple Mycotoxins and Exposure Assessment for Aflatoxins B1 and G1 in Humans
Previous Article in Journal
Addition of Carbon to the Culture Medium Improves the Detection Efficiency of Aflatoxin Synthetic Fungi
Previous Article in Special Issue
Glutathione-Conjugates of Deoxynivalenol in Naturally Contaminated Grain Are Primarily Linked via the Epoxide Group
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2016, 8(11), 342;

Occurrence of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops and Processed Products (Ogi) from Nigeria

Laboratory of Food Analysis, Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Applied Food Science and Tourism, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umuahia-Ikot Ekpene Road, Umudike, PMB 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
Department of Biological Sciences, McPherson University, KM 96 Lagos-Ibadan Expressway, 110117 Seriki Sotayo, Ogun State, Nigeria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: HJ (Ine) van der Fels-Klerx
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Full-Text   |   PDF [1238 KB, uploaded 18 November 2016]   |  


In Nigeria, maize, sorghum, and millet are very important cash crops. They are consumed on a daily basis in different processed forms in diverse cultural backgrounds. These crops are prone to fungi infestation, and subsequently may be contaminated with mycotoxins. A total of 363 samples comprising of maize (136), sorghum (110), millet (87), and ogi (30) were collected from randomly selected markets in four agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. Samples were assessed for Fusarium mycotoxins contamination using a multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Subsequently, some selected samples were analysed for the occurrence of hidden fumonisins. Overall, 64% of the samples were contaminated with at least one toxin, at the rate of 77%, 44%, 59%, and 97% for maize, sorghum, millet, and ogi, respectively. Fumonisins were the most dominant, especially in maize and ogi, occurring at the rate of 65% and 93% with mean values of 935 and 1128 μg/kg, respectively. The prevalence of diacetoxyscirpenol was observed in maize (13%), sorghum (18%), and millet (29%), irrespective of the agro-ecological zone. Other mycotoxins detected were deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and their metabolites, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, HT-2 toxin, and hidden fumonisins. About 43% of the samples were contaminated with more than one toxin. This study suggests that consumption of cereals and cereal-based products, ogi particularly by infants may be a source of exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium mycotoxins; occurrence; cereal; ogi; LC-MS/MS; Nigeria Fusarium mycotoxins; occurrence; cereal; ogi; LC-MS/MS; Nigeria

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chilaka, C.A.; De Boevre, M.; Atanda, O.O.; De Saeger, S. Occurrence of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops and Processed Products (Ogi) from Nigeria. Toxins 2016, 8, 342.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top