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Special Issue "Fungal Growth and Mycotoxins: Challenges for developing countries"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sarah De Saeger

Department of Bioanalysis, Laboratory of Food Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Interests: mycotoxins; analysis; metabolomics; food safety
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. J. David Miller

Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Professors Sarah De Saeger and J. David Miller are planning a Special Issue of Toxins for publication in April 2019 on the theme of mycotoxins, public health, and trade in developing regions. There has been recent attention to mycotoxin issues in the most challenged regions, that is, much of Africa and parts of East Asia and Latin America. Over the past four decades, there have also been success stories where mycotoxin contaminations have been reduced, even in risk areas such as in China, some ASEAN and Latin American countries. The hope is to illuminate situations all over the world reflecting both challenges and opportunities.

Prof. Dr. Sarah De Saeger
Prof. Dr. J. David Miller
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxins in emerging and post-emerging economies
  • public health
  • agriculture
  • successes
  • challenges

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Investigation of the Metabolic Profile and Toxigenic Variability of Fungal Species Occurring in Fermented Foods and Beverage from Nigeria and South Africa Using UPLC-MS/MS
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Fungal species recovered from fermented foods and beverage from Nigeria and South Africa were studied to establish their toxigenic potential in producing an array of secondary metabolites including mycotoxins (n = 49) that could compromise human and animal safety. In total, 385 [...] Read more.
Fungal species recovered from fermented foods and beverage from Nigeria and South Africa were studied to establish their toxigenic potential in producing an array of secondary metabolites including mycotoxins (n = 49) that could compromise human and animal safety. In total, 385 fungal isolates were grown on solidified yeast extract sucrose agar. Their metabolites were extracted and analyzed via ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. To examine the grouping of isolates and co-occurrence of metabolites, hierarchal clustering and pairwise association analysis was performed. Of the 385 fungal strains tested, over 41% were toxigenic producing different mycotoxins. A. flavus and A. parasiticus strains were the principal producers of aflatoxin B1 (27–7406 µg/kg). Aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid had a positive association. Ochratoxin A was produced by 67% of the A. niger strains in the range of 28–1302 µg/kg. The sterigmatocystin producers found were A. versicolor (n = 12), A. amstelodami (n = 4), and A. sydowii (n = 6). Apart from P. chrysogenum, none of the Penicillium spp. produced roquefortine C. Amongst the Fusarium strains tested, F. verticillioides produced fumonisin B1 (range: 77–218 µg/kg) meanwhile low levels of deoxynivalenol were observed. The production of multiple metabolites by single fungal species was also evident. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Growth and Mycotoxins: Challenges for developing countries)
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Open AccessArticle Safety of Corn and Corn-Based Products Intended for Human Consumption Concerning Fumonisins from a Brazilian Processing Plant
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 30 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Brazil is one of the world’s largest corn producers and is a leader in exportation. Due to intense globalization, corn may be commercialized worldwide and the issue concerning the safety of corn-based products has become a topic of widespread international interest. Dietary exposure [...] Read more.
Brazil is one of the world’s largest corn producers and is a leader in exportation. Due to intense globalization, corn may be commercialized worldwide and the issue concerning the safety of corn-based products has become a topic of widespread international interest. Dietary exposure evaluation is a relevant criterion for mycotoxin risk assessment. Thus, human exposure to fumonisins were assessed for corn grain and its derivatives (endosperm, cornmeal, and grits; n = 320) sampled from one of the large-scale corn processing plants in Brazil. The total probable daily intake (PDI) for fumonisins in Brazil was 96.9 ng kg−1 body weight day−1, which corresponds to 5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 2000 ng kg−1 b.w. day−1 for fumonisins. In countries that import Brazilian corn, the total PDI is lower in European countries (from 35.7 to 177 ng kg−1 b.w. day−1) and higher in Angola (1553 ng kg−1 b.w. day−1). Taking into account that dietary exposure in populations in Brazil and importing countries was low, the corn-based products were safe for human consumption regarding fumonisins, even for regions with high corn consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Growth and Mycotoxins: Challenges for developing countries)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Post-Harvest Contamination with Mycotoxins in the Context of the Geographic and Agroclimatic Conditions in Romania
Toxins 2018, 10(12), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120533
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to assess post-harvest contamination with mycotoxins in the context of the geographic and agroclimatic conditions in Romania in 2012–2015, a period that was characterized by extreme meteorological events and the effects of climate change. The samples were randomly sampled from [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess post-harvest contamination with mycotoxins in the context of the geographic and agroclimatic conditions in Romania in 2012–2015, a period that was characterized by extreme meteorological events and the effects of climate change. The samples were randomly sampled from five agricultural regions of Romania and analyzed for mycotoxins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An SPSS analysis was done to explore correlations between mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol—DON, aflatoxins—AF, ochratoxin A—OTA, zearalenone—ZEA), product types (raw cereal, processed cereal, cereal-based food), geographic coordinates (latitude, longitude, agricultural region), and agroclimatic factors (air temperature, precipitation, soil moisture reserve, aridity index, soil type). In the southeast part of the Southern Plain and Dobrogea (Baragan Plain, located at 44–45° N, 26–27° E), contamination with AF and OTA was higher in raw and processed cereals (maize in silo, silo corn germs) in the dry years (2012 and 2013), and contamination with DON was high in processed cereals (wheat flour type 450) in the rainy year (2014). DON and OTA contamination were significantly correlated with cumulative precipitation in all years, while AF and ZEA contamination were non-significantly correlated with climatic factors and aridity indices. The distribution of mycotoxins by product type and the non-robust correlations between post-harvest mycotoxins and agrometeorological factors could be explained by the use of quality management systems that control cereal at warehouse receptions, performant processing technologies, and the quality of storage spaces of agri-food companies. The Baragan Plain is Romania’s most sensitive area to the predicted climate change in southeast Europe, which may be associated with its increased cereal contamination with AF and OTA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Growth and Mycotoxins: Challenges for developing countries)
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