Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Computer".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2018) | Viewed by 84596

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nanfang College of Sun Yat-Sen University, China
Interests: information security; information embedding technology; digital image processing; program design; engineering mathematics; nonlinear system

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Taichung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
Interests: image processing; data exploration; information security; biological information

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Guangdong University of Technology, China
Interests: information hiding; image processing; digital watermarking technology; digital forensics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent advances of platform sharing and social networks have created a great amount of multimedia data, opening a new door for resolving data security issues for the explosive growth of digital data. The security in covert communications, as well as the integrity transmission of multimedia contents, is therefore an important and changeling task in multimedia modeling. Data hiding techniques, which embed data into cover objects, have been widely used in secret communication, copyright protection and authentication, whereas the steganalysis technique is the inverse technique to detect the presence of data embedment. At present, data hiding techniques are facing new challenges due to a variety of emerging applications. Therefore, in the future of digital world, it is urgent and challenging to explore the system’s robustness, imperceptibility, un-detectability, capacity, and so on.

This Special Issue aims to provide an advanced method or application for researchers and engineers to contribute with original research that present the state-of-the-art research outcomes toward data hiding systems. All submitted papers will be peer-reviewed and selected on the basis of both their quality and relevance to the theme of this Special Issue.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

Information Hiding
Coverless Information Hiding
Steganography
Steganalysis
Digital Watermarking
Fingerprinting
Forensics
Multimedia Authentication and Encryption
Reversible data hiding
Security evaluation for information hiding
Data hiding in the encrypted domain
Privacy and security issues in multimedia cloud
Authentication in the compressed domain
Visual cryptography and secret image sharing system
Reversible data hiding for privacy preserving data mining 

Prof. Wien Hong
Prof. Tung-Shou Chen
Assoc. Dr. Shaowei Weng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Data hiding
  • Steganography
  • Steganalysis
  • Watermarking
  • Authentication
  • Reversible data hiding
  • Visual cryptography

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 14756 KiB  
Article
Separable Data-Hiding Scheme for Encrypted Image to Protect Privacy of User in Cloud
by Li Liu, Lifang Wang, Yun-Qing Shi and Chin-Chen Chang
Symmetry 2019, 11(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11010082 - 13 Jan 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3687
Abstract
As cloud computing becomes popular, the security of users’ data is faced with a great threat, i.e., how to protect users’ privacy has become a pressing research topic. The combination of data hiding and encryption can provide dual protection for private data during [...] Read more.
As cloud computing becomes popular, the security of users’ data is faced with a great threat, i.e., how to protect users’ privacy has become a pressing research topic. The combination of data hiding and encryption can provide dual protection for private data during cloud computing. In this paper, we propose a new separable data-hiding scheme for encrypted images based on block compressive sensing. First, the original uncompressed image is compressed and encrypted by block compressive sensing (BCS) using a measurement matrix, which is known as an encryption key. Then, some additional data can be hidden into the four least significant bits of measurement using the data-hiding key during the process of encoding. With an encrypted image that contains hidden data, the receiver can extract the hidden data or decrypt/reconstruct the protected private image, according to the key he/she possesses. This scheme has important features of flexible compression and anti-data-loss. The image reconstruction and data extraction are separate processes. Experimental results have proven the expected merits of the proposed scheme. Compared with the previous work, our proposed scheme reduces the complexity of the scheme and also achieves better performance in compression, anti-data-loss, and hiding capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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21 pages, 6303 KiB  
Article
Using Two Meaningful Shadows to Share Secret Messages with Reversibility
by Lin Li, Chia-Chen Lin and Chin-Chen Chang
Symmetry 2019, 11(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11010079 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4085
Abstract
A subtopic of visual secret sharing (VSS) is information hiding-based VSS (IH-VSS), which embeds secret messages into images using an information hiding technique. In the IH-VSS scheme, stego-images are divided into shadows under the guidance and constraint of some predetermined approaches. In order [...] Read more.
A subtopic of visual secret sharing (VSS) is information hiding-based VSS (IH-VSS), which embeds secret messages into images using an information hiding technique. In the IH-VSS scheme, stego-images are divided into shadows under the guidance and constraint of some predetermined approaches. In order to achieve the purpose of security and reliability, the hidden information cannot be recovered unless a certain amount or all of the credible shadows work together. In this paper, we propose a (2, 2) IH-VSS scheme with reversibility and friendliness. In the shadow generation phase, two meaningful shadow images are produced and then distributed. In the extraction and restoration phase, the hidden secret information and cover image, respectively, can be reconstructed credibly and correctly. No complex computation of shadow generation is involved, but high security is achieved. Moreover, a satisfying peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is obtained with the high embedding capacity of 1.59 bpp in a very simple and effective way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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15 pages, 826 KiB  
Article
Exposing Video Compression History by Detecting Transcoded HEVC Videos from AVC Coding
by Shan Bian, Haoliang Li, Tianji Gu and Alex Chichung Kot
Symmetry 2019, 11(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11010067 - 08 Jan 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3266
Abstract
The analysis of video compression history is one of the important issues in video forensics. It can assist forensics analysts in many ways, e.g., to determine whether a video is original or potentially tampered with, or to evaluate the real quality of a [...] Read more.
The analysis of video compression history is one of the important issues in video forensics. It can assist forensics analysts in many ways, e.g., to determine whether a video is original or potentially tampered with, or to evaluate the real quality of a re-encoded video, etc. In the existing literature, however, there are very few works targeting videos in HEVC format (the most recent standard), especially for the issue of the detection of transcoded videos. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on the statistics of Prediction Units (PUs) to detect transcoded HEVC videos from AVC format. According to the analysis of the footprints of HEVC videos, the frequencies of PUs (whether in symmetric patterns or not) are distinguishable between original HEVC videos and transcoded ones. The reason is that previous AVC encoding disturbs the PU partition scheme of HEVC. Based on this observation, a 5D and a 25D feature set are extracted from I frames and P frames, respectively, and are combined to form the proposed 30D feature set, which is finally fed to an SVM classifier. To validate the proposed method, extensive experiments are conducted on a dataset consisting of CIF ( 352 × 288 ) and HD 720p videos with a diversity of bitrates and different encoding parameters. Experimental results show that the proposed method is very effective at detecting transcoded HEVC videos and outperforms the most recent work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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17 pages, 7318 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Error-Free Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images Using (7, 4) Hamming Code and Most Significant Bit Prediction
by Kaimeng Chen and Chin-Chen Chang
Symmetry 2019, 11(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11010051 - 04 Jan 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4113
Abstract
In this paper, a novel, real-time, error-free, reversible data hiding method for encrypted images has been proposed. Based on the (7, 4) Hamming code, we designed an efficient encoding scheme to embed secret data into the least significant bits (LSBs) of the encrypted [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel, real-time, error-free, reversible data hiding method for encrypted images has been proposed. Based on the (7, 4) Hamming code, we designed an efficient encoding scheme to embed secret data into the least significant bits (LSBs) of the encrypted image. For reversibility, we designed a most significant bit (MSB) prediction scheme that can recover a portion of the modified MSBs after the image is decrypted. These MSBs can be modified to accommodate the additional information that is used to recover the LSBs. After embedding the data, the original image can be recovered with no error and the secret data can be extracted from both the encrypted image and the decrypted image. The experimental results proved that compared with existing methods, the proposed method can achieve higher embedding rate, better quality of the marked image and less execution time of data embedding. Therefore, the proposed method is suitable for real-time applications in the cloud. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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17 pages, 331 KiB  
Article
An Improved Integer Transform Combining with an Irregular Block Partition
by Shaowei Weng, Yi Chen, Wien Hong, Jeng-Shyang Pan, Chin-Chen Chang and Yijun Liu
Symmetry 2019, 11(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11010049 - 04 Jan 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2494
Abstract
After conducting deep research on all existing reversible data hiding (RDH) methods based on Alattar’s integer transform, we discover that the frequently-used method in obtaining the difference value list of an image block may lead to high embedding distortion. To this end, we [...] Read more.
After conducting deep research on all existing reversible data hiding (RDH) methods based on Alattar’s integer transform, we discover that the frequently-used method in obtaining the difference value list of an image block may lead to high embedding distortion. To this end, we propose an improved Alattar’s transform-based-RDH-method. Firstly, the irregular block partition method which makes full use of high correlation between two neighboring pixels is proposed to increase the embedding performance. Specifically, each image block is composed of a center pixel and several pixels surrounding this center pixel. Thus, the difference value list is created by using the center pixel to predict each pixel surrounding it. Since the center pixel is highly related to each pixel surrounding it, a sharp difference value histogram is generated. Secondly, the mean value of an image block in Alattar’s integer transform has embedding invariance property, and therefore, it can be used for increasing the estimation performance of a block’s local complexity. Finally, two-layer embedding is combined into our scheme in order to optimize the embedding performance. Experimental results show that our method is effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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14 pages, 5598 KiB  
Article
Content-Based Color Image Retrieval Using Block Truncation Coding Based on Binary Ant Colony Optimization
by Yan-Hong Chen, Chin-Chen Chang, Chia-Chen Lin and Cheng-Yi Hsu
Symmetry 2019, 11(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11010021 - 27 Dec 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3295
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) approach using color and texture features extracted from block truncation coding based on binary ant colony optimization (BACOBTC). First, we present a near-optimized common bitmap scheme for BTC. Then, we convert the image [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) approach using color and texture features extracted from block truncation coding based on binary ant colony optimization (BACOBTC). First, we present a near-optimized common bitmap scheme for BTC. Then, we convert the image to two color quantizers and a bitmap image-utilizing BACOBTC. Subsequently, the color and texture features, i.e., the color histogram feature (CHF) and the bit pattern histogram feature (BHF) are extracted to measure the similarity between a query image and the target image in the database and retrieve the desired image. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with several former image-retrieval schemes. The results were evaluated in terms of Precision-Recall and Average Retrieval Rate, and they showed that our approach outperformed the referenced approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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20 pages, 6667 KiB  
Article
An Image Copy-Move Forgery Detection Scheme Based on A-KAZE and SURF Features
by Chengyou Wang, Zhi Zhang and Xiao Zhou
Symmetry 2018, 10(12), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10120706 - 03 Dec 2018
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 5411
Abstract
The popularity of image editing software has made it increasingly easy to alter the content of images. These alterations threaten the authenticity and integrity of images, causing misjudgments and possibly even affecting social stability. The copy-move technique is one of the most commonly [...] Read more.
The popularity of image editing software has made it increasingly easy to alter the content of images. These alterations threaten the authenticity and integrity of images, causing misjudgments and possibly even affecting social stability. The copy-move technique is one of the most commonly used approaches for manipulating images. As a defense, the image forensics technique has become popular for judging whether a picture has been tampered with via copy-move, splicing, or other forgery techniques. In this paper, a scheme based on accelerated-KAZE (A-KAZE) and speeded-up robust features (SURF) is proposed for image copy-move forgery detection (CMFD). It is difficult for most keypoint-based CMFD methods to obtain sufficient points in smooth regions. To remedy this defect, the response thresholds for the A-KAZE and SURF feature detection stages are set to small values in the proposed method. In addition, a new correlation coefficient map is presented, in which the duplicated regions are demarcated, combining filtering and mathematical morphology operations. Numerous experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in searching for duplicated regions and its robustness against distortions and post-processing techniques, such as noise addition, rotation, scaling, image blurring, joint photographic expert group (JPEG) compression, and hybrid image manipulation. The experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed scheme is superior to that of other tested CMFD methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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14 pages, 1858 KiB  
Article
Secure Speech Content Based on Scrambling and Adaptive Hiding
by Dora M. Ballesteros and Diego Renza
Symmetry 2018, 10(12), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10120694 - 03 Dec 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2368
Abstract
This paper presents a method for speech steganography using two levels of security: The first one related to the scrambling process, the second one related to the hiding process. The scrambling block uses a technique based on the ability of adaptation of speech [...] Read more.
This paper presents a method for speech steganography using two levels of security: The first one related to the scrambling process, the second one related to the hiding process. The scrambling block uses a technique based on the ability of adaptation of speech signals to super-Gaussian signals. The security of this block relies on the value of the seed for generating the super-Gaussian signal. Once the speech signal has been scrambled, this is hidden in a non-sensitive speech signal. The hiding process is adaptive and controlled by the value of bits to hold ( B H ). Several tests were performed in order to quantify the influence of B H in the quality of the stego signal and the recovered message. When B H is equal to six, symmetry was found between the modified bits and unchanged bits, and therefore hiding capacity is 50%. In that case, the quality of the stego signal is 99.2% and of the recovered signal is 97.4%. On the other hand, it is concluded that without knowledge of the seed an intruder cannot reverse the scrambling process because all values of the seed are likely. With the above results, it can be affirmed that the proposed algorithm symmetrically considers both the quality of the signal (stego and recovered) as well as the hiding capacity, with a very large value of the key space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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25 pages, 142357 KiB  
Article
Semi–Automatic Corpus Callosum Segmentation and 3D Visualization Using Active Contour Methods
by Marcin Ciecholewski and Jan H. Spodnik
Symmetry 2018, 10(11), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10110589 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5095
Abstract
Accurate 3D computer models of the brain, and also of parts of its structure such as the corpus callosum (CC) are increasingly used in routine clinical diagnostics. This study presents comparative research to assess the utility and performance of three active contour methods [...] Read more.
Accurate 3D computer models of the brain, and also of parts of its structure such as the corpus callosum (CC) are increasingly used in routine clinical diagnostics. This study presents comparative research to assess the utility and performance of three active contour methods (ACMs) for segmenting the CC from magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain, namely: an edge-based active contour model using an inflation/deflation force with a damping coefficient (EM), the Selective Binary and Gaussian Filtering Regularized Level Set (SBGFRLS) method and the Distance Regularized Level Set Evolution (DRLSE) method. The pre-processing methods applied during research work were to improve the contrast, reduce noise and thus help segment the CC better. In this project, 3D CC models reconstructed based on the segmentations of cross-sections of MR images were also visualised. The results, as measured by quantitative tests of the similarity indice (SI) and overlap value (OV) are the best for the EM model (SI = 92%, OV = 82%) and are comparable to or better than those for other methods taken from a literature review. Furthermore, the properties of the EM model consisting in its ability to both expand and shrink at the same time allow segmentations to be better fitted in subsequent CC slices then in state-of-the art ACMs such as DRLSE or SBGFRLS. The CC contours from previous and subsequent iterations produced by the EM model can be used for initiation in subsequent or previous frames of MR images, which makes the segmentation process easier, particularly as the CC area can increase or decrease in subsequent MR image frames. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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16 pages, 1243 KiB  
Article
An Image Secret Sharing Method Based on Matrix Theory
by Wanmeng Ding, Kesheng Liu, Xuehu Yan, Huaixi Wang, Lintao Liu and Qinghong Gong
Symmetry 2018, 10(10), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10100530 - 22 Oct 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2699
Abstract
Most of today’s secret image sharing technologies are based on the polynomial-based secret sharing scheme proposed by shamir. At present, researchers mostly focus on the development of properties such as small shadow size and lossless recovery, instead of the principle of Shamir’s polynomial-based [...] Read more.
Most of today’s secret image sharing technologies are based on the polynomial-based secret sharing scheme proposed by shamir. At present, researchers mostly focus on the development of properties such as small shadow size and lossless recovery, instead of the principle of Shamir’s polynomial-based SS scheme. In this paper, matrix theory is used to analyze Shamir’s polynomial-based scheme, and a general (k, n) threshold secret image sharing scheme based on matrix theory is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is proved by theoretical and experimental results. Moreover, it has been proved that the Shamir’s polynomial-based SS scheme is a special case of our proposed scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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22 pages, 6963 KiB  
Article
Two-Degree-Of-Freedom Dynamic Model-Based Terminal Sliding Mode Control with Observer for Dual-Driving Feed Stage
by Wei Fan, Hong Lu, Xinbao Zhang, Yongquan Zhang, Rong Zeng and Qi Liu
Symmetry 2018, 10(10), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10100488 - 12 Oct 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3287
Abstract
The position synchronous control of multi-axis gantry-type feed stage is crucial in precision machine tools. Industrial position control which aims to widen the bandwidth and improve disturbance rejection of single axis is not enough to achieve precise synchronization in a dual-driving feed stage. [...] Read more.
The position synchronous control of multi-axis gantry-type feed stage is crucial in precision machine tools. Industrial position control which aims to widen the bandwidth and improve disturbance rejection of single axis is not enough to achieve precise synchronization in a dual-driving feed stage. The characteristics diversity, transmission-mechanism deformation, and mechanical coupling effect between dual axes will degrade the control accuracy. Hence, the novel two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) dynamic model-based terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) with disturbance and state observer is proposed in this paper for the synchronous control of a 2-DOF dual-driving feed stage. The 2-DOF dynamic model, based on Lagrange equation, is established along with the parameters identification method. The predictive natural frequencies and vibration modes frequencies by the proposed dynamic model are compared by a modal experiment. Then, the 2-DOF dynamic model-based TSMC is provided to satisfy the tracking and synchronization control. In order to reduce the chattering and to increase the robustness against the mechanical coupling, the disturbance and state observer is designed. Moreover, Lyapunov stability criterion is used to analyze the stability of the proposed control scheme. Finally, an industrial application of 2-DOF dual-driving feed stage is utilized to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. The proposed 2-DOF dynamic model-based TSMC with observer has been effectively demonstrated to improve synchronous performance and tracking accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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17 pages, 1675 KiB  
Article
Chinese Remainder Theorem-Based Secret Image Sharing with Small-Sized Shadow Images
by Jinrui Chen, Kesheng Liu, Xuehu Yan, Lintao Liu, Xuan Zhou and Longdan Tan
Symmetry 2018, 10(8), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10080340 - 15 Aug 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3554
Abstract
Secret image sharing (SIS) with small-sized shadow images has many benefits, such as saving storage space, improving transmission time, and achieving information hiding. When adjacent pixel values in an image are similar to each other, the secret image will be leaked when all [...] Read more.
Secret image sharing (SIS) with small-sized shadow images has many benefits, such as saving storage space, improving transmission time, and achieving information hiding. When adjacent pixel values in an image are similar to each other, the secret image will be leaked when all random factors of an SIS scheme are utilized for achieving small sizes of shadow images. Most of the studies in this area suffer from an inevitable problem: auxiliary encryption is crucial in ensuring the security of those schemes. In this paper, an SIS scheme with small-sized shadow images based on the Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) is proposed. The size of shadow images can be reduced to nearly 1 / k of the original secret image. By adding random bits to binary representations of the random factors in the CRT, auxiliary encryption is not necessary for this scheme. Additionally, reasonable modifications of the random factors make it possible to incorporate all advantages of the CRT as well, including a ( k , n ) threshold, lossless recovery, and low computation complexity. Analyses and experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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12 pages, 872 KiB  
Article
Steganalysis of Inactive Voice-Over-IP Frames Based on Poker Test
by Jie Liu, Hui Tian, Chin-Chen Chang, Tian Wang, Yonghong Chen and Yiqiao Cai
Symmetry 2018, 10(8), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10080336 - 11 Aug 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2956
Abstract
This paper concentrates on the detection of steganography in inactive frames of low bit rate audio streams in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) scenarios. Both theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrate that the distribution of 0 and 1 in encoding parameter bits becomes symmetric [...] Read more.
This paper concentrates on the detection of steganography in inactive frames of low bit rate audio streams in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) scenarios. Both theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrate that the distribution of 0 and 1 in encoding parameter bits becomes symmetric after a steganographic process. Moreover, this symmetry affects the frequency of each subsequence of parameter bits, and accordingly changes the poker test statistical features of encoding parameter bits. Employing the poker test statistics of each type of encoding parameter bits as detection features, we present a steganalysis method based on a support vector machine. We evaluate the proposed method with a large quantity of speech samples encoded by G.723.1 and compare it with the entropy test. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective, and largely outperforms the entropy test in any cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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17 pages, 6680 KiB  
Article
An Effective Dual-Image Reversible Hiding for UAV’s Image Communication
by Yung-I Lin, Ying-Hsuan Huang and Chih-Cheng Chen
Symmetry 2018, 10(7), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10070271 - 10 Jul 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2671
Abstract
Compared with traditional hiding methods, dual-image reversible data hiding methods have a higher embedding rate and a better quality stego image. Also, this is a special case of secret sharing, because secret data cannot be extracted from any stego image. In the literature, [...] Read more.
Compared with traditional hiding methods, dual-image reversible data hiding methods have a higher embedding rate and a better quality stego image. Also, this is a special case of secret sharing, because secret data cannot be extracted from any stego image. In the literature, the frequencies of occurrence of secret data were used as reference information for data encoding, in which most digits were transformed into smaller ones. The encoding strategy can effectively decrease the modification level of the pixel. However, only limited literature has analyzed the relationship between the adjacent secret data. In this paper, we proposed an exclusive-or (XOR)-based encoding method to convert the neighboring values, thereby reducing the distortion. Since there are significant similarities between the two stego images and the original image, the first stego image is stored on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to avoid a hacker’s interception attack. The second stego image on the UAV is sent to the command station. After completion of the UAV mission, the proposed method extracts the secret data from the two stego images to identify whether the second stego image has been tampered with. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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14 pages, 4246 KiB  
Article
Joint Adaptive Coding and Reversible Data Hiding for AMBTC Compressed Images
by Wien Hong, Xiaoyu Zhou and Shaowei Weng
Symmetry 2018, 10(7), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10070254 - 02 Jul 2018
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2960
Abstract
This paper proposes a joint coding and reversible data hiding method for absolute moment block truncation coding (AMBTC) compressed images. Existing methods use a predictor to predict the quantization levels of AMBTC codes. Equal-length indicators, secret bits and prediction errors are concatenated to [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a joint coding and reversible data hiding method for absolute moment block truncation coding (AMBTC) compressed images. Existing methods use a predictor to predict the quantization levels of AMBTC codes. Equal-length indicators, secret bits and prediction errors are concatenated to construct the output code stream. However, the quantization levels might not highly correlate with their neighbors for predictive coding, and the use of equal-length indicators might impede the coding efficiency. The proposed method uses reversible integer transform to represent the quantization levels by their means and differences, which is advantageous for predictive coding. Moreover, the prediction errors are better classified into symmetrical encoding cases using the adaptive classification technique. The length of indicators and the bits representing the prediction errors are properly assigned according to the classified results. Experiments show that the proposed method offers the lowest bitrate for a variety of images when compared with the existing state-of-the-art works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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14 pages, 4084 KiB  
Article
Data Hiding Based on a Two-Layer Turtle Shell Matrix
by Xiao-Zhu Xie, Chia-Chen Lin and Chin-Chen Chang
Symmetry 2018, 10(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10020047 - 13 Feb 2018
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4779
Abstract
Data hiding is a technology that embeds data into a cover carrier in an imperceptible way while still allowing the hidden data to be extracted accurately from the stego-carrier, which is one important branch of computer science and has drawn attention of scholars [...] Read more.
Data hiding is a technology that embeds data into a cover carrier in an imperceptible way while still allowing the hidden data to be extracted accurately from the stego-carrier, which is one important branch of computer science and has drawn attention of scholars in the last decade. Turtle shell-based (TSB) schemes have become popular in recent years due to their higher embedding capacity (EC) and better visual quality of the stego-image than most of the none magic matrices based (MMB) schemes. This paper proposes a two-layer turtle shell matrix-based (TTSMB) scheme for data hiding, in which an extra attribute presented by a 4-ary digit is assigned to each element of the turtle shell matrix with symmetrical distribution. Therefore, compared with the original TSB scheme, two more bits are embedded into each pixel pair to obtain a higher EC up to 2.5 bits per pixel (bpp). The experimental results reveal that under the condition of the same visual quality, the EC of the proposed scheme outperforms state-of-the-art data hiding schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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18 pages, 4755 KiB  
Article
Efficient Data Hiding Based on Block Truncation Coding Using Pixel Pair Matching Technique
by Wien Hong
Symmetry 2018, 10(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10020036 - 25 Jan 2018
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 5309
Abstract
In this paper, an efficient data hiding method that embeds data into absolute moment block truncation coding (AMBTC) codes is proposed. The AMBTC method represents image blocks by trios, and each trio consists of two quantization levels and an asymmetrically distributed bitmap. However, [...] Read more.
In this paper, an efficient data hiding method that embeds data into absolute moment block truncation coding (AMBTC) codes is proposed. The AMBTC method represents image blocks by trios, and each trio consists of two quantization levels and an asymmetrically distributed bitmap. However, the asymmetric phenomena of bitmaps cause large degradation in image quality during data embedment. With the help of reference tables filled with symmetrical patterns, the proposed method exploits a symmetry adjustment model to modify the quantization levels in those smooth blocks to achieve the smallest distortion. If the block is complex, a lossless embedding method is performed to carry one additional bit. A sophisticated division switching mechanism is also proposed to modify a block from smooth to complex if the solution to the minimal distortion cannot be found. The payload can be adjusted by varying the threshold, or by embedding more bits into the quantization levels. The experiments indicate that the proposed work provides the best stego image quality under various payloads when comparing to the related prior works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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8 pages, 1501 KiB  
Article
Separable Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Signals with Public Key Cryptography
by Wei-Liang Tai and Ya-Fen Chang
Symmetry 2018, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10010023 - 10 Jan 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4971
Abstract
We propose separable reversible data hiding in an encrypted signal with public key cryptography. In our separable framework, the image owner encrypts the original image by using a public key. On receipt of the encrypted signal, the data-hider embeds data in it by [...] Read more.
We propose separable reversible data hiding in an encrypted signal with public key cryptography. In our separable framework, the image owner encrypts the original image by using a public key. On receipt of the encrypted signal, the data-hider embeds data in it by using a data-hiding key. The image decryption and data extraction are independent and separable at the receiver side. Even though the receiver, who has only the data-hiding key, does not learn about the decrypted content, he can extract data from the received marked encrypted signal. However, the receiver who has only the private key cannot extract the embedded data, but he can directly decrypt the received marked encrypted signal to obtain the original image without any error. Compared with other schemes using a cipher stream to encrypt the image, the proposed scheme is more appropriate for cloud services without degrading the security level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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17 pages, 3776 KiB  
Article
Efficient Information Hiding Based on Theory of Numbers
by Yanjun Liu, Chin-Chen Chang, Peng-Cheng Huang and Cheng-Yi Hsu
Symmetry 2018, 10(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10010019 - 08 Jan 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4264
Abstract
Data hiding is an efficient technique that conceals secret data into a digital medium. In 2006, Zhang and Wang proposed a data hiding scheme called exploiting modification direction (EMD) which has become a milestone in the field of data hiding. In recent years, [...] Read more.
Data hiding is an efficient technique that conceals secret data into a digital medium. In 2006, Zhang and Wang proposed a data hiding scheme called exploiting modification direction (EMD) which has become a milestone in the field of data hiding. In recent years, many EMD-type data hiding schemes have been developed, but their embedding capacity remains restricted. In this paper, a novel data hiding scheme based on the combination of Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) and a new extraction function is proposed. By the proposed scheme, the cover image is divided into non-overlapping pixel groups for embedding to increase the embedding capacity. Experimental results show that the embedding capacity of the proposed scheme is significantly higher (greater than 2.5 bpp) than previously proposed schemes while ensuring very good visual quality of the stego image. In addition, security analysis is given to show that the proposed scheme can resist visual attack. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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301 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning for Detection of Object-Based Forgery in Advanced Video
by Ye Yao, Yunqing Shi, Shaowei Weng and Bo Guan
Symmetry 2018, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10010003 - 26 Dec 2017
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 8279
Abstract
Passive video forensics has drawn much attention in recent years. However, research on detection of object-based forgery, especially for forged video encoded with advanced codec frameworks, is still a great challenge. In this paper, we propose a deep learning-based approach to detect object-based [...] Read more.
Passive video forensics has drawn much attention in recent years. However, research on detection of object-based forgery, especially for forged video encoded with advanced codec frameworks, is still a great challenge. In this paper, we propose a deep learning-based approach to detect object-based forgery in the advanced video. The presented deep learning approach utilizes a convolutional neural network (CNN) to automatically extract high-dimension features from the input image patches. Different from the traditional CNN models used in computer vision domain, we let video frames go through three preprocessing layers before being fed into our CNN model. They include a frame absolute difference layer to cut down temporal redundancy between video frames, a max pooling layer to reduce computational complexity of image convolution, and a high-pass filter layer to enhance the residual signal left by video forgery. In addition, an asymmetric data augmentation strategy has been established to get a similar number of positive and negative image patches before the training. The experiments have demonstrated that the proposed CNN-based model with the preprocessing layers has achieved excellent results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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3189 KiB  
Article
Chaotic Dynamical State Variables Selection Procedure Based Image Encryption Scheme
by Zia Bashir, Jarosław Wątróbski, Tabasam Rashid, Sohail Zafar and Wojciech Sałabun
Symmetry 2017, 9(12), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9120312 - 11 Dec 2017
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4058
Abstract
Nowadays, in the modern digital era, the use of computer technologies such as smartphones, tablets and the Internet, as well as the enormous quantity of confidential information being converted into digital form have resulted in raised security issues. This, in turn, has led [...] Read more.
Nowadays, in the modern digital era, the use of computer technologies such as smartphones, tablets and the Internet, as well as the enormous quantity of confidential information being converted into digital form have resulted in raised security issues. This, in turn, has led to rapid developments in cryptography, due to the imminent need for system security. Low-dimensional chaotic systems have low complexity and key space, yet they achieve high encryption speed. An image encryption scheme is proposed that, without compromising the security, uses reasonable resources. We introduced a chaotic dynamic state variables selection procedure (CDSVSP) to use all state variables of a hyper-chaotic four-dimensional dynamical system. As a result, less iterations of the dynamical system are required, and resources are saved, thus making the algorithm fast and suitable for practical use. The simulation results of security and other miscellaneous tests demonstrate that the suggested algorithm excels at robustness, security and high speed encryption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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