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Symmetry 2018, 10(8), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10080336

Steganalysis of Inactive Voice-Over-IP Frames Based on Poker Test

1
College of Computer Science and Technology, National Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China
2
Department of Information and Computer Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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Abstract

This paper concentrates on the detection of steganography in inactive frames of low bit rate audio streams in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) scenarios. Both theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrate that the distribution of 0 and 1 in encoding parameter bits becomes symmetric after a steganographic process. Moreover, this symmetry affects the frequency of each subsequence of parameter bits, and accordingly changes the poker test statistical features of encoding parameter bits. Employing the poker test statistics of each type of encoding parameter bits as detection features, we present a steganalysis method based on a support vector machine. We evaluate the proposed method with a large quantity of speech samples encoded by G.723.1 and compare it with the entropy test. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective, and largely outperforms the entropy test in any cases. View Full-Text
Keywords: steganalysis; Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP); inactive frame; poker test; G.723.1 steganalysis; Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP); inactive frame; poker test; G.723.1
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, J.; Tian, H.; Chang, C.-C.; Wang, T.; Chen, Y.; Cai, Y. Steganalysis of Inactive Voice-Over-IP Frames Based on Poker Test. Symmetry 2018, 10, 336.

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