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Symmetry 2019, 11(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11010051

Real-Time Error-Free Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images Using (7, 4) Hamming Code and Most Significant Bit Prediction

1
Computer Engineering College, Jimei University, Xiamen 361021, China
2
Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 30 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Data Hiding Systems in Image Communications)
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Abstract

In this paper, a novel, real-time, error-free, reversible data hiding method for encrypted images has been proposed. Based on the (7, 4) Hamming code, we designed an efficient encoding scheme to embed secret data into the least significant bits (LSBs) of the encrypted image. For reversibility, we designed a most significant bit (MSB) prediction scheme that can recover a portion of the modified MSBs after the image is decrypted. These MSBs can be modified to accommodate the additional information that is used to recover the LSBs. After embedding the data, the original image can be recovered with no error and the secret data can be extracted from both the encrypted image and the decrypted image. The experimental results proved that compared with existing methods, the proposed method can achieve higher embedding rate, better quality of the marked image and less execution time of data embedding. Therefore, the proposed method is suitable for real-time applications in the cloud. View Full-Text
Keywords: reversible data hiding; Hamming code; MSB prediction reversible data hiding; Hamming code; MSB prediction
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Chen, K.; Chang, C.-C. Real-Time Error-Free Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images Using (7, 4) Hamming Code and Most Significant Bit Prediction. Symmetry 2019, 11, 51.

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