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Topical Collection "Sustainability in Urban Transportation Planning"

A topical collection in Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This collection belongs to the section "Sustainable Transportation".

Editor

Dr. Marilisa Botte
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Federico II University of Naples, 80125 Naples, Italy
Interests: transport system analysis and management; smart and sustainable mobility; cooperative driving; rail and metro systems; energy-saving applications; travel demand estimation; passenger behavior simulation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Transportation management is a key area of the urban planning process that is strictly related to the development and design of land use and the built environment. Transport infrastructure and services play a crucial role in the sustainable development of urban areas, so need to be properly designed and integrated into the urban environment during an early planning phase. The scenario changes according to the analyzed case, i.e. developed or developing countries.

This Special Issue is related, but not limited, to methodologies, applications, and best practices aimed at integrating transportation systems design and management within a sustainable urban planning framework. This could include planning and operating traditional transport modes in a sustainable perspective (e.g., with the implementation of energy-saving strategies in railway systems) and by promoting new forms of transport, namely shared mobility, electric vehicles, cooperative driving, PT-Maas etc. Technical tools required for this purpose include simulation techniques, optimisation procedures, artificial neural netowrks (ANNs), data-driven approaches etc.

Original works in this context, as well as review papers, are strongly encouraged.

Dr. Marilisa Botte
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Urban planning practices
  • Sustainable urban mobility
  • Interaction among transport systems, infrastructure, and environment
  • Network hierarchization of urban transport systems
  • Land use and accessibility
  • Energy saving strategies and technologies
  • Pricing policies
  • First/last mile services
  • Shared mobility
  • Electric and autonomous vehicles
  • Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS)
  • Advanced traveler information systems (ATIS)
  • Mobility as a Service (MaaS) and related implications on urban mobility (e.g., PT-Maas)
  • Advanced simulation models and methods for transport systems
  • Traffic optimization, control and management
  • Artificial neural network adoption
  • Data-driven approaches

Published Papers (16 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020

Article
Spatial Modelling of Modal Shift Due to COVID-19
Sustainability 2021, 13(13), 7116; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137116 - 24 Jun 2021
Viewed by 409
Abstract
The outbreak of COVID-19 caused many changes in people’s life. One of the most significant is the travel behaviour and transport mode choice. This study focus on the changes that the inhabitants of Vienna made in their travel choices because of the virus. [...] Read more.
The outbreak of COVID-19 caused many changes in people’s life. One of the most significant is the travel behaviour and transport mode choice. This study focus on the changes that the inhabitants of Vienna made in their travel choices because of the virus. The same research about spatial modelling the transport mode choice of commuters in Vienna was completed in 2019 and is a topic addressed in our previous work. Based on our developed methodology, this article indicates that public transport is not a dominant transport mode choice as it was before the virus outbreak. The main result of this paper is geographically defined areas of application of individual alternatives shown on the final map of modal shift in Vienna, which could provide theoretical support for policymakers and transportation planners. For the city of Vienna, we found that the area of the city where cars are now used has increased, which certainly has a negative impact on air quality and life in the city. The advantage of the methodology is that it can also be applied to other cities in the world. Full article
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Article
Cyclic Weighted k-means Method with Application to Time-of-Day Interval Partition
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 4796; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094796 - 24 Apr 2021
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Time-of-day interval partition (TIP) at a signalized intersection is of great importance in traffic control. There are two shortcomings of the traditional clustering algorithms based on traditional distance definitions (such as Euclidean distance) of traffic flows. First, some continuous time intervals are usually [...] Read more.
Time-of-day interval partition (TIP) at a signalized intersection is of great importance in traffic control. There are two shortcomings of the traditional clustering algorithms based on traditional distance definitions (such as Euclidean distance) of traffic flows. First, some continuous time intervals are usually divided into small segments. Second, 0 o’clock (24 o’clock) is usually selected as the breakpoint. It follows that the relationship between TIP and traffic signal control is neglected. To this end, a novel cyclic distance of traffic flows is defined, which can make the end of the last cycle (24 o’clock of the last day) and the beginning of the current cycle (0 o’clock of the current day) cluster into one group. Next, a cyclic weighted k-means method is proposed, with centroid initialization, cluster number selection, and breakpoint adjustment. Lastly, the proposed method is applied to a real intersection to evaluate the benefits of traffic signal control. The conclusion of the empirical study confirms the feasibility and effectiveness of the method. Full article
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Article
Modeling Population Spatial-Temporal Distribution Using Taxis Origin and Destination Data
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 3727; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073727 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 529
Abstract
During dangerous circumstances, knowledge about population distribution is essential for urban infrastructure architecture, policy-making, and urban planning with the best Spatial-temporal resolution. The spatial-temporal modeling of the population distribution of the case study was investigated in the present study. In this regard, the [...] Read more.
During dangerous circumstances, knowledge about population distribution is essential for urban infrastructure architecture, policy-making, and urban planning with the best Spatial-temporal resolution. The spatial-temporal modeling of the population distribution of the case study was investigated in the present study. In this regard, the number of generated trips and absorbed trips using the taxis pick-up and drop-off location data was calculated first, and the census population was then allocated to each neighborhood. Finally, the Spatial-temporal distribution of the population was calculated using the developed model. In order to evaluate the model, a regression analysis between the census population and the predicted population for the time period between 21:00 to 23:00 was used. Based on the calculation of the number of generated and the absorbed trips, it showed a different spatial distribution for different hours in one day. The spatial pattern of the population distribution during the day was different from the population distribution during the night. The coefficient of determination of the regression analysis for the model (R2) was 0.9998, and the mean squared error was 10.78. The regression analysis showed that the model works well for the nighttime population at the neighborhood level, so the proposed model will be suitable for the day time population. Full article
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Review
Mobility as a Service and Public Transport: A Rapid Literature Review and the Case of Moovit
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 3666; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13073666 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is often proposed as a tool for achieving sustainable mobility and, in particular, increasing the share of public transport trips in cities. In this paper we conduct a rapid review of the literature on MaaS and, using Moovit [...] Read more.
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is often proposed as a tool for achieving sustainable mobility and, in particular, increasing the share of public transport trips in cities. In this paper we conduct a rapid review of the literature on MaaS and, using Moovit as a case study, we explore the association between the popularity of searches in Google using the term “Moovit” and the share of workers that commute by public transport. The exercise focuses on metropolitan areas in the United States over the period 2010 to 2019. We find a positive correlation, and we speculate that metropolitan areas with pre-existing higher shares of workers commuting by public transport tend to be metropolitan areas where use of Moovit is more likely. Full article
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Article
Bottom-Up Strategies for Shared Mobility and Practices in Urban Housing to Improve Sustainable Planning
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2897; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052897 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Recent years have seen the development of numerous innovations in social, constructional, and transportation planning for different forms of communal housing. They illustrate how more sustainable practices in transport and land use can be achieved through the collective provision and use of space [...] Read more.
Recent years have seen the development of numerous innovations in social, constructional, and transportation planning for different forms of communal housing. They illustrate how more sustainable practices in transport and land use can be achieved through the collective provision and use of space and mobility services. The question remains, however, of who needs to be involved in such bottom-up approaches and when in order to ensure their success. What changes are necessary to anchor these approaches in the wider context of urban and transport planning? This paper presents three examples of neighbourhood mobility concepts and the collaborative use of space and land. A research project accompanied the development of these concepts in a real-world laboratory design. The scientists used social-empirical methods and secondary analyses to evaluate social and ecological effects, economic viability and the process of joint development. The results show the high sustainability potential of such neighbourhood concepts: they enable residents to meet their mobility needs, while using fewer vehicles through shared use, reducing the number of journeys and changing their choice of transport. At the same time, promoting and developing community services has been shown to be inhibited by preconditions such as existing planning law. Opportunities and obstacles have been identified and translated into recommendations for action, focusing on municipal urban planning, transport planning, and the housing industry. Full article
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Article
A Trial-and-Error Toll Design Method for Traffic Congestion Mitigation on Large River-Crossing Channels in a Megacity
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2749; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052749 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 437
Abstract
In this study, we addresse traffic congestion on river-crossing channels in a megacity which is divided into several subareas by trunk rivers. With the development of urbanization, cross-river travel demand is continuously increasing. To deal with the increasing challenge, the urban transport authority [...] Read more.
In this study, we addresse traffic congestion on river-crossing channels in a megacity which is divided into several subareas by trunk rivers. With the development of urbanization, cross-river travel demand is continuously increasing. To deal with the increasing challenge, the urban transport authority may build more river-crossing channels and provide more high-volume public transport services to alleviate traffic congestion. However, it is widely accepted that even though these strategies can mitigate traffic congestion to a certain level, they are not essential approaches to address traffic congestion. In this study, we consider a channel toll scheme for addressing this issue. Additional fares are applied to private vehicles, that an appropriate number of private vehicle drivers are motivated to take public transport or switch to neighboring uncongested river-crossing channels. To minimize the toll surcharge on both neighboring channels, while alleviating the traffic flow to a certain level, in this study, we provide a bi-objective mathematical model. Some properties of this model are discussed, including the existence and uniqueness of the Pareto optimal solution. To address this problem, a trial-and-error method is applied. Numerical experiments are provided to validate the proposed solution method. Full article
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Article
An Integrated Approach of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making and Grey Theory for Evaluating Urban Public Transportation Systems
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2740; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052740 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
Improving the local urban transport system’s quality is often seen as one of the critical points for the government and the local operator. An amelioration of the system can improve users’ satisfaction and attract new users while simultaneously decreasing traffic congestion and pollution. [...] Read more.
Improving the local urban transport system’s quality is often seen as one of the critical points for the government and the local operator. An amelioration of the system can improve users’ satisfaction and attract new users while simultaneously decreasing traffic congestion and pollution. Efficient methodologies are required to achieve sustainable development regarding complex issues associated with traffic congestion and pollution. In this study, we propose using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) grey values to overcome the limitations of the uncertainty in the classical AHP approach. The presented grey-AHP model assumes an efficient contrivance to facilitate the public transport system’s supply quality evaluation, especially when respondents are non-experts. Finally, we estimate and rank the public transport system’s supply quality criteria by adopting the proposed model for a real-world case study (Amman city, Jordan). The study’s outcome shows the effectiveness and the applicability of the developed approach for enhancing the quality of the public transport system. Full article
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Article
Challenges and Opportunities in Early Stage Planning of Transport Infrastructure Projects: Environmental Aspects in the Strategic Choice of Measures Approach
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031295 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 645
Abstract
The Strategic Choice of Measures (SCM) approach aims to integrate different perspectives and identify measures to adapt new infrastructure projects to their local context at an early stage of Swedish transport planning. SCM is a loosely structured framework for collaboration between actors from, [...] Read more.
The Strategic Choice of Measures (SCM) approach aims to integrate different perspectives and identify measures to adapt new infrastructure projects to their local context at an early stage of Swedish transport planning. SCM is a loosely structured framework for collaboration between actors from, e.g., municipalities and the Swedish Transport Administration, in order to facilitate the coordination of transport planning and land use planning. This paper aims to explore the consideration of environmental aspects in early-stage transport planning by analyzing the SCM approach. An explorative research approach is applied based on literature studies, semi-structured interviews, and a focus group interview. The result shows that in the SCM process, environmental aspects such as noise and air pollution generated by road traffic in urban areas, engage the actors, whereas aspects related to landscape and water were perceived as poorly addressed and received less attention. The consideration of environmental aspects in the SCM process is affected by the local and national authorities’ different interests and the competences involved. To consolidate environmental aspects in early transport planning, these aspects need to be explicitly addressed in the SCM guidelines and the link between the SCM and preceding and following planning stages needs to be strengthened. Full article
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Article
Usage and User Characteristics—Insights from MOIA, Europe’s Largest Ridepooling Service
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020958 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 943
Abstract
New, i.e., shared and digitized, mobility services have been entering urban mobility markets around the globe. Among these new offerings is ridepooling, a mobility solution that bundles requests from passengers with similar routes in real-time and matches them with a vehicle. Ridepooling is [...] Read more.
New, i.e., shared and digitized, mobility services have been entering urban mobility markets around the globe. Among these new offerings is ridepooling, a mobility solution that bundles requests from passengers with similar routes in real-time and matches them with a vehicle. Ridepooling is quite novel in Germany and knowledge about users, changes in travel behavior, and impacts on the urban traffic system is scarce. To address this gap, we conducted an online survey among users and non-users of MOIA, a German ridepooling provider. Over 12,000 respondents completed the survey. The article presents results on ridepooling users’ characteristics and usage patterns. We found that MOIA users cover all age groups and are multimodal travelers—which leads us to assume that ridepooling enriches mobility portfolios and also serves as an alternative to the private car. MOIA is mostly used occasionally and, in particular, during the evening or the night. A specific focus of the article lies on users with mobility impairments as well as how and by whom ridepooling is used on work-related trips. Both topics are particularly relevant in light of changing travel patterns and transforming urban transport systems towards more sustainability. Full article
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Article
The Potential Impacts of Electric Vehicles on Urban Air Quality in Shanghai City
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020496 - 07 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 757
Abstract
The Shanghai government has outlined plans for the new vehicles used for the public transportation, rental, sanitation, postal, and intra-city freight to be completely powered by electricity by 2020. This paper analyzed the characteristics of vehicle emissions in Shanghai in the past five [...] Read more.
The Shanghai government has outlined plans for the new vehicles used for the public transportation, rental, sanitation, postal, and intra-city freight to be completely powered by electricity by 2020. This paper analyzed the characteristics of vehicle emissions in Shanghai in the past five years. The potential reduction in road traffic related emissions due to the promotion and application of electric vehicle in Shanghai was evaluated. The potential reduction was quantified by vehicular emissions. The vehicular emissions inventories are calculated by the COPERT IV model under the different scenarios, of which the results indicate that promoting electric vehicles is the efficient measure to control all road traffic related emissions and improve urban air quality. The results also provided basis and support for making policies to promote and manage electric vehicles. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021

Viewpoint
Reflecting on an Integrated Approach for Transport and Spatial Planning as a Pathway to Sustainable Urbanization
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 10218; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310218 - 07 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
An integrated approach to transport and spatial development has been promoted over the past decades not only in North America and Europe but also in rapidly growing cities in Asia as a means to achieve sustainable urbanization. Some fundamental issues are yet to [...] Read more.
An integrated approach to transport and spatial development has been promoted over the past decades not only in North America and Europe but also in rapidly growing cities in Asia as a means to achieve sustainable urbanization. Some fundamental issues are yet to be discussed. To what extent does land use and transport integration (LUTI) meet its goals including triggering sustainable land use and enhancing environmental quality? What are the key barriers and opportunities to achieving broader social outcomes such as wellbeing of local populations? This paper critically reflects on LUTI planning and practice in rapidly developing cities with focus on ongoing challenges and opportunities to facilitating sustainable urban development. It points out that without establishing institutional harmonization between spatial and transport planning, LUTI policies are hardly implemented, thus rarely resulting in effective and sustainable land use. Moreover, enhancing the social outcomes by an integrated planning approach requires development control that facilitates various actors to embed quality criteria in development around nodes. Balancing development incentives and restrictive measures for development is critical. Finally, to facilitate sustainable outcomes across varied localities in cities, bottom-up and top-down planning approaches need to be reconciled through the strategic and operational phase of transport projects. Full article
Article
A Data-Driven Approach to Trip Generation Modeling for Urban Residents and Non-local Travelers
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7688; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187688 - 17 Sep 2020
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Trip generation modeling is essential in transportation planning activities. Previous modeling methods that depend on traditional data collection methods are inefficient and expensive. This paper proposed a novel data-driven trip generation modeling method for urban residents and non-local travelers utilizing location-based social network [...] Read more.
Trip generation modeling is essential in transportation planning activities. Previous modeling methods that depend on traditional data collection methods are inefficient and expensive. This paper proposed a novel data-driven trip generation modeling method for urban residents and non-local travelers utilizing location-based social network (LBSN) data and cellular phone data and conducted a case study in Nanjing, China. First, the point of interest (POI) data of the LBSN were classified into various categories by the service type, then, four features of each category including the number of users, number of POIs, number of check-ins, and number of photos were aggregated by traffic analysis zones to be used as explanatory variables for the trip generation models. We used a random tree regression method to select the most important features as the model inputs, and the trip models were established based on the ordinary least square model. Then, an exploratory approach was used to test the performance of each combination of the variables with various test methods to identify the best model for residents’ and travelers’ trip generation functions. The results suggest land use compositions have significant impact on trip generations, and the trip generation patterns are different between urban residents and non-local travelers. Full article
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Article
Internet of Vehicle Empowered Mobile Media Scenarios: In-Vehicle Infotainment Solutions for the Mobility as a Service (MaaS)
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7448; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187448 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Recently, the commercial potentials and practical values of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) have been witnessed for sustainable development of smart cities in the field of intelligent transportation. Driven by the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), vehicles gradually become mobile living spaces to satisfy [...] Read more.
Recently, the commercial potentials and practical values of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) have been witnessed for sustainable development of smart cities in the field of intelligent transportation. Driven by the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), vehicles gradually become mobile living spaces to satisfy diverse demands of occupants, where the media functionalities, scenario scopes, and user engagements can be all expended dramatically. In the era of 5G/B5G, the intelligent connected vehicles are considered as super media because of the improved In-Vehicle Infotainment (IVI). In this paper, relying on the advanced communication and intelligent techniques, we investigate the IoV-based vehicle-mounted media scenarios and construct IVI solutions for the MaaS. Firstly, we propose the characteristics of vehicle-mounted media scenarios and present the IVI evolution from the aspects of hearing, vision and multi-sensory media services. Secondly, we point out the main features and limitations of IoV-based IVI in 3G/4G. Finally, exploring the potential of super media, both the linkage display and IVI collaborative modes in vehicle-centric media scenarios are introduced as IVI solutions for the MaaS in 5G-V2X and beyond, which intend to further improve the audio-visual experiences of occupants and observers in urban environments. Full article
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Article
Strong Sustainability in Public Transport Policies: An e-Mobility Bus Fleet Application in Sorrento Peninsula (Italy)
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7033; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177033 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
Sustainability can be defined as the capacity to satisfy current needs without compromising future generations. Sustainable development clashes with the transport sector because of the latter’s high fossil fuels usage, consumption of natural resources and emission of pollutant and greenhouse gases. Electric mobility [...] Read more.
Sustainability can be defined as the capacity to satisfy current needs without compromising future generations. Sustainable development clashes with the transport sector because of the latter’s high fossil fuels usage, consumption of natural resources and emission of pollutant and greenhouse gases. Electric mobility seems to be one of the best options to achieve both the sustainability goals and the mobility needs. This paper critically analysed weaknesses, strengths and application fields of electric mobility, proposing a real case application of an e-mobility bus fleet in Sorrento peninsula (Italy). The aim and the originality of this research was to propose a public transport design methodology based on a “strong sustainability” policy and applied to a real case study. To be precise, the renewing of the “old” bus fleet with a diesel plug-in hybrid one charged by a photovoltaic system was proposed, aiming to both improve environmental sustainability and perform an investment return for a private operator in managing the transport service. The proposed case study is particularly suitable because the peculiar morphology of the Sorrento peninsula in Italy does not allow other types of public transport services (e.g., rail, metro). Furthermore, this area, rich in UNESCO sites, has always been an international tourist destination because of the environment and landscape. Estimation results show that the new e-mobility bus service will be able to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions up to the 23%, with a financial payback period of 10 years for a private investor. Full article
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Article
A Rational Decision-Making Process with Public Engagement for Designing Public Transport Services: A Real Case Application in Italy
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6303; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166303 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
The sustainable design of public transport services is a crucial issue that may affect the economy of local areas and the social inclusion of their inhabitants. Indeed, transport accessibility of households, businesses, and retail activities is one of the main drivers that influence [...] Read more.
The sustainable design of public transport services is a crucial issue that may affect the economy of local areas and the social inclusion of their inhabitants. Indeed, transport accessibility of households, businesses, and retail activities is one of the main drivers that influence location choices and sustainable development and where the public transport services may play a key (positive) role. Furthermore, the economic crisis of the 2009 and the current ones caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has further limited the funds available for public services, including the transport sector. In this critical context, sound design of public transport services assumes great importance, especially in light of financial constraints. Starting from these considerations, the aim of this paper has been to propose an innovative methodology for designing public transport services based on a rational decision-making process with stakeholder engagement, aiming to perform a sustainable development perspective. The proposed methodology combines technical aspects, social and political issues, equity perspectives, and it is aimed in obtaining a design solution that can be accepted by the whole community. The proposed theoretical design methodology has also been applied to a case study in order to verify its applicability to a real context, consisting of the design of the public transport plan of the province of Foggia in southern Italy. Applications results show that the sustainable design scenario is not only the best ones from a technical point of view, but also participated, equitable, and approved by both policymakers and stakeholders. Full article
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Article
A Structural Analysis for the Categorization of the Negative Externalities of Transport and the Hierarchical Organization of Sustainable Mobility’s Strategies
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6011; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156011 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 815
Abstract
Transport systems are capable of contributing to the economic robustness of a geographic area and the well-being of its inhabitants via the supply of the necessary assets for the mobility of people and goods. However, transport projects have the capacity to produce several [...] Read more.
Transport systems are capable of contributing to the economic robustness of a geographic area and the well-being of its inhabitants via the supply of the necessary assets for the mobility of people and goods. However, transport projects have the capacity to produce several negative externalities such as water pollution, air pollution, barrier effects, noise, and ecological impact, which affect the quality of people’s life. Considering these facts, the main purpose of this study is to indicate methodologically how the negative externalities of transport are interlinked, so that to promote sustainable mobility development. This paper reveals via the method of structural analysis, the interrelations between the negative externalities of transport, firstly to organize them hierarchically and secondly to evaluate the potential of sustainable mobility strategies concerning the co-benefits generated by their implementation for society. The results show that the negative externalities of transport are not isolated phenomena; on the contrary, they are interlinked and can be organised hierarchically according to the relationships between them so that certain public policies can be prioritized and the negative impacts of transport can be tackled more effectively. The most critical negative externalities are the invasion of public space for the construction of more roads, along with road accidents, congestion, and local air pollution. On the other hand, the most important group of strategies for sustainable mobility are the ones oriented to urban design, and more specifically to transit-oriented development. Full article
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